Plasma trial: Pilot randomized clinical trial to determine safety and efficacy of plasma transfusions
BACKGROUND Plasma is frequently administered to patients with prolonged INR prior to invasive procedures. However, there is limited evidence evaluating efficacy and safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a pilot trial in hospitalized patients with INR between 1.5 and 2.5 undergoing procedures conducted outside the operating room. We excluded patients undergoing procedures proximal to the central nervous system, platelet counts <40,000/μl, or congenital or acquired coagulation disorders unresponsive to plasma. We randomly allocated patients stratified by hospital and history of cirrhosis to receive plasma transfusion (10-15 cc/kg) or no transfusion. The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin concentration within 2 days of procedure. RESULTS We enrolled 57 patients, mean age 56.0, 34 (59.6%) with cirrhosis, and mean INR 1.92 (SD = 0.27). In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm (p < .01). The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure hemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm (p = .29). Adverse outcomes were uncommon. DISCUSSION We found no differences in change in hemoglobin concentration in those treated with plasma compared to no treatment. The change in INR was small and corrected to less than 1.5 in minority of patients. Large trials are required to establish if plasma is safe and efficacious.
Patients with cirrhosis (n= 57).
Plasma transfusion (n= 27).
No transfusion (n= 30).
In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm. The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure haemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm. Adverse outcomes were uncommon.
Artificial Dermis and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for Treatment of Refractory Wounds: A Clinical Study
The international journal of lower extremity wounds. 2021;:15347346211050710
Refractory wounds present a complex and serious clinical dilemma in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, there are currently no standard guidelines for the treatment of refractory wounds. Artificial dermis (AD) has achieved some satisfactory results, but also has some limitations. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), as a cell-therapy material, was a valuable and safe treatment dressing for chronic non-healing wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of artificial dermis (AD) with and without autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in patients with refractory wounds. Sixteen patients with refractory wounds were randomly allocated to autologous PRP therapy combined with artificial dermis (PRP + AD [N = 8]) or an artificial dermis program only (AD [N = 8]). We compared the efficacies of the two methods in terms of times to wound healing, infection control, and AD vascularization, as well as hospitalization days and eventual clinical outcomes.13 patients achieved complete healing, including seven (87.5%) in the PRP + AD group and six (75.0%) in the AD group (P > .05). The times to wound healing, infection control, and AD vascularization, and hospitalization time after transfer were significantly shorter in the PRP + AD group compared with the AD group (P < .05). In conclusion, the combination of AD and PRP promoted refractory wound healing and shortened waiting times compared with simple dermal grafts.
Objective assessment of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) potentiality in the treatment of Chronic leg Ulcer: RCT on 80 patients with Venous ulcer
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021;20(10):3257-3263
BACKGROUND Chronic venous leg ulcer reduces the patients' activities and their overall quality of life. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was previously investigated as promising less invasive management for leg ulcers. THIS STUDY AIMS To re-assess the efficacy and safety of PRP in the management of chronic leg ulcers due to venous factors. PATIENTS/METHODS RCT enrolled 80 patients who clinically presented with chronic venous leg ulcers. Forty patients were allocated randomly for the treatment with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Intradermal and subdermal injection of PRP by 27guage syringe weekly, in all edges and in the granular floor of the ulcer for 4-6 sessions. Another 40 patients managed by conventional treatment by compression and dressing for the same period were allocated as Group B. Objective assessment achieved by the percentage of reduction of the size of the ulcer area, rate of healing, incidence of recurrence, and if side effects have been reported. RESULTS PRP therapy showed better results and high p value significance when compared to conventional therapy. CONCLUSION This study shows that PRP is effective and significant in promoting the wound healing process in chronic leg venous ulcers. PRP is simple, safe, and has a short learning curve technique.
Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection vs Sham Injection on Tendon Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Platelet-rich plasma injections are used as a treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, but evidence for this treatment is limited. OBJECTIVE In adults with midportion Achilles tendinopathy, to assess the effects of a single platelet-rich plasma injection, compared with sham injection, on the outcome of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score (a single composite measure of Achilles tendinopathy severity). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A participant-blinded, multicenter randomized clinical trial that included 240 people from 24 sites assigned to either a platelet-rich plasma injection or a sham injection between April 2016 and February 2020. Final follow-up was July 2020. Participants were older than 18 years with midportion Achilles tendon pain for more than 3 months as confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. INTERVENTIONS A single intratendinous platelet-rich plasma injection (n = 121) or a single sham injection (insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle not entering the tendon) (n = 119). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the VISA-A score, measured 6 months after treatment allocation. The VISA-A score contains 8 questions that cover 3 domains of pain, function, and activity, analyzed as a composite score (range, 0 [worst symptoms] to 100 [no symptoms]; minimal clinically important difference in score, 12 points). The primary analysis was adjusted for laterality, age, sex, and baseline VISA-A score. RESULTS Among 240 patients assigned to a platelet-rich plasma or sham injection (mean age, 52 years; 138 [58%] women), 221 (92%) completed the trial. At 6-month follow-up, mean VISA-A score values in the plasma-rich plasma group vs the sham injection group were 54.4 vs 53.4 (adjusted mean difference, -2.7 [95% CI, -8.8 to 3.3]). The most common adverse events compared between patients in the platelet-rich plasma group vs the sham group were injection site discomfort (97 vs 73 patients), swelling (56 vs 52 patients) and bruising (48 vs 49 patients). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, treatment with a single injection of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma, compared with insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle, did not reduce Achilles tendon dysfunction at 6 months. These findings do not support the use of this treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN13254422.
Platelet-rich plasma versus steroids injections for greater trochanter pain syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
British medical bulletin. 2021
INTRODUCTION Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is characterized by a persistent and debilitating pain around the greater trochanter. GTPS can be caused by a combination of gluteus medius or minimus tendinopathy, snapping hip or trochanteric bursitis. SOURCE OF DATA Recent published literatures identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. AREAS OF AGREEMENT Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and corticosteroids (CCS) injections are useful options to manage symptoms of GTPS. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY Whether PRP leads to superior outcomes compared to CCS injections is unclear. GROWING POINTS A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing PRP versus CCS in the management of GTPS was conducted. AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH PRP injections are more effective than CCS at approximately 2 years follow-up.
Platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae: What do we know about processed autologous blood contents for treating skin stretchmarks?-A systematic review
International wound journal. 2021
Striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, particularly associated with female sex, pregnancy, obesity, and/or hormonal change, are linear bands of benign dermal lesions. Although not posing any health risk, aesthetically unpleasing stretch marks can cause significant psychological distress among those affected. In abundance of therapeutic approaches, some literature sources proclaim platelet-rich plasma to be a promising treatment modality for striae distensae. We aimed to shed some light on the current literature evidence of platelet-rich plasma for treating stretch marks and performed an English literature analysis with two independent reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guidelines searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases in June 2019. Of the 12 found studies, 6 matched inclusion criteria. With no control groups in two, just two other reports used intraindividual comparisons, and all but one publication performed histopathological assessments. All studies observed clinical and subjective improvements without using validated scores or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The main findings were that multiple treatments with platelet-rich plasma demonstrated increased epidermal thickness, rete ridges formation, and collagen/elastin formation, while decreasing the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The current literature evidence supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae is poor. We propose in this review an outline for a study protocol with intraindividual control groups, standardised scores, validated PROMs, and participant incentives to enhance the scientific power in future clinical trials.
Prolonged Blood Storage and Risk of Posttransfusion Acute Kidney Injury
BACKGROUND Erythrocyte transfusions are independently associated with acute kidney injury. Kidney injury may be consequent to the progressive hematologic changes that develop during storage. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that prolonged erythrocyte storage increases posttransfusion acute kidney injury. METHODS The Informing Fresh versus Old Red Cell Management (INFORM) trial randomized 31,497 patients to receive either the freshest or oldest available matching erythrocyte units and showed comparable mortality with both. This a priori substudy compared the incidence of posttransfusion acute kidney injury in the randomized groups. Acute kidney injury was defined by the creatinine component of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. RESULTS The 14,461 patients included in this substudy received 40,077 erythrocyte units. For patients who received more than one unit, the mean age of the blood units was used as the exposure. The median of the mean age of blood units transfused per patient was 11 days [interquartile range, 8, 15] in the freshest available blood group and 23 days [interquartile range, 17, 30] in the oldest available blood group. In the primary analysis, posttransfusion acute kidney injury was observed in 688 of 4,777 (14.4%) patients given the freshest available blood and 1,487 of 9,684 (15.4%) patients given the oldest available blood, with an estimated relative risk (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02; P = 0.132). The secondary analysis treated blood age as a continuous variable (defined as duration of storage in days), with an estimated relative risk (95% CI) of 1.00 (0.96 to 1.04; P = 0.978) for a 10-day increase in the mean age of erythrocyte units. CONCLUSIONS In a population of patients without severely impaired baseline renal function receiving fewer than 10 erythrocyte units, duration of blood storage had no effect on the incidence of posttransfusion acute kidney injury.
Hospitalized patients enrolled across four countries in the Informing Fresh versus Old Red Cell Management (INFORM) trial (n= 14,461).
Transfusion with freshest available erythrocyte units (n= 4,777).
Transfusion with oldest available erythrocyte units (n= 9,684).
The median of the mean age of blood units transfused per patient was 11 days in the freshest available blood group and 23 days in the oldest available blood group. In the primary analysis, post-transfusion acute kidney injury was observed in 688 of 4,777 (14.4%) patients given the freshest available blood and 1,487 of 9,684 (15.4%) patients given the oldest available blood, with an estimated relative risk of 0.94.
Efficacy of Local Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcer in Spinal Cord Injury Patients
BACKGROUND Pressure ulcer is one of the common complications occurring in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found useful in the treatment of pressure ulcers in few studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of PRP in pressure ulcer healing in comparison to hydrogel dressing in SCI patients. METHODS In this randomized interventional study, 52 patients of SCI having pressure ulcers of grade III/IV were randomized into two groups of 26 each. In group A patients, hydrogel dressing was done while freshly prepared PRP was used in patients of group B. Pressure ulcers were evaluated at baseline and after three weeks and six weeks in terms of ulcer surface area, volume, Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score, histopathology, and ulcer healing parameters. Data were collected and quantitative variables were compared using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney test between the two groups and qualitative variables were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. There was a significant improvement in ulcers in terms of surface area, volume, and PUSH score in both the groups but it was comparable (p-value >0.05). There was a significant improvement in the PRP group as compared to the other group in terms of epithelization, granulation, and neovascularization at three and six-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that PRP is a possible and better alternative to conventional dressing methods for the treatment of pressure ulcers.
Effect of Autologous Expanded Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma in Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy (With Gap >3 mm): Preliminary Outcomes After 6 Months of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Prospective Study
The American journal of sports medicine. 2021;:363546521998725
BACKGROUND Patellar tendinopathy is common. The success of traditional management, including isometric or eccentric exercises combined with shockwave therapy and even surgery, is limited. Therefore, it is important to determine whether biological treatments such as ultrasound-guided intratendinous and peritendinous injections of autologous expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (Lp-PRP) improve clinical outcomes in athletic patients with patellar tendinopathy. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, 2-arm parallel group, active controlled, phase 1/2 single-center clinical study was performed in patients who had proximal patellar tendinopathy with a lesion >3 mm. A total of 20 participants (age 18-48 years) with pain for >4 months (mean, 23.6 months) and unresponsive to nonoperative treatments were randomized into 2 groups. Of these, 10 participants were treated with BM-MSC (20 × 10(6) cells) and 10 with Lp-PRP. Both groups performed the same postintervention rehabilitation protocol. Outcomes included the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for pain (VISA-P), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog scale [VAS]), muscle function by dynamometry, tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity by ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal, ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) echo type changes, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted mapping changes. Participants were followed longitudinally for 6 months. RESULTS The average VAS scores improved in both groups at all time points, and there was a significant reduction in pain during sporting activities (P < .05). In both groups, the average mean VISA-P scores at 6 months were significantly increased compared with baseline (66 BM-MSC group and 72.90 Lp-PRP group), with no significant differences in VAS or VISA-P scores between the groups. There were statistically significant greater improvements in tendon structure on 2-dimensional ultrasound and UTC in the BM-MSC group compared with the Lp-PRP group at 6 months. Similarly, the BM-MSC group demonstrated significant evidence of restoration of tendon structure on MRI compared with the Lp-PRP group at 6 months. Only the participants in the BM-MSC group showed evidence of normalization of tendon structure, with statistically significant differences between the groups on T2-weighted, fat-saturated sagittal and coronal scans and hypersignal in T2-weighted on spin-echo T2-weighted coronal MRI scan. Both treatments were safe, and no significant adverse events were reported in either group. CONCLUSION Treatment with BM-MSC or Lp-PRP in combination with rehabilitation in chronic patellar tendinopathy is effective in reducing pain and improving activity levels in active participants. Participants who received BM-MSC treatment demonstrated greater improvement in tendon structure compared with those who received Lp-PRP. REGISTRATION 2016-001262-28 (EudraCT identifier); NCT03454737 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). A systematic review
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(6):2662-2673
OBJECTIVE Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe drug-related side effect mostly seen in the maxillofacial region of patients under current or previous treatment with antiresorptive and/or angiogenic agents. There is a wide range of treatment options explained in literature for the management of this condition, from conservative treatments to surgical procedures of various levels of invasiveness, which are sometimes supplemented with adjunctive therapies. The present systematic review aimed at evaluating the treatment options of MRONJ in terms of successful outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched. The search was limited to clinical studies involving human subjects with at least 3 cases. There was no other limitation for language, publication date, and study design for the articles to be included. A hand search of the bibliographies of identified articles was also performed. The evaluation criterion was an improvement in the healing of the treated site after treatment procedures. RESULTS After evaluation of the full text of the articles, 118 articles were selected for evaluation (15 platelet concentrates, 4 teriparatide, 10 laser therapy, 3 hyperbaric oxygen, 2 ozone applications, 9 conservative protocols, and 75 surgical interventions articles). The evaluated articles reported positive improvements in healing/staging of the osteonecrosis sites. CONCLUSIONS Due to the low evidence level and the limited sample size of the studies included, the results of this review must be cautiously interpreted. However, they can be suggestive for evaluating the possible benefits of these treatment options in MRONJ management. Further prospective comparative studies with a large sample size are urgently needed to confirm the results.