Blood adiponectin concentration at birth in small for gestational age neonates: A meta-analysis
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2019;13(1):183-188
AIMS: Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with increased rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Adiponectin secreted from adipose tissue is implicated in the etiology of death and illness during infancy. SGA is also a likely risk factor for the development of metabolic and clinical complications in adulthood. The present study was performed to determine whether SGA neonates and healthy controls show differences in blood adiponectin concentration at birth. METHODS Databases were searched to identify English-language studies providing the numbers of SGA neonates, the numbers of healthy controls, and the means and standard deviations (SDs) of blood adiponectin concentrations at birth in both groups. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the standardized mean differences (SMDs) in blood adiponectin concentration between SGA neonates and healthy controls. RESULTS The results summarized from five good quality (i.e., NOS score≥5) studies involving 253 neonates showed that blood adiponectin concentration was significantly lower in SGA neonates than in healthy controls (P=0.016), and the effect was moderate (i.e., SMD=0.4-0.7). CONCLUSIONS Synthetic evidence indicated that blood adiponectin concentration at birth is lower in SGA neonates than in healthy controls.
Effect of withholding feeds on transfusion related acute gut injury in preterm infants - a pilot randomized controlled trial
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. 2019;:1-161
BACKGROUND Several retrospective studies have reported an increase in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) during the 48 hours following red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Whether withholding enteral feeding during transfusion decreases the risk of transfusion-associated acute gut injury (TRAGI) in preterm infants is unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In this pilot study, 112 preterm infants with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and/or birth weight ≤ 1500 grams were randomly assigned to withholding (NPO) or continuance of feeding (FED) during RBC transfusion. Primary outcome measure was development of NEC (stage ≥ 2) within 72 hours of a transfusion and the change in abdominal circumference. RESULTS One hundred fifty-four transfusion episodes (74 NPO and 80 FED) were analyzed. Demographic characteristics were found to be similar in both groups. There was no difference in rates of NEC (0 versus 3.4%; p = 0.49) between the NPO and FED groups. The incidence of feeding intolerance was higher in the FED group however it was statistically insignificant (1.9 versus 6.8%, p = 0.36). Abdominal circumference remained similar in both groups in all three consecutive days following transfusion (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION This pilot study does not support withholding feedings during transfusion but is not adequately powered to test the hypothesis that NPO decreases NEC rates. Adequately powered well designed multicenter trials are still required.
Packed red cells versus whole blood transfusion for severe paediatric anaemia, pregnancy-related anaemia and obstetric bleeding: an analysis of clinical practice guidelines from sub-Saharan Africa and evidence underpinning recommendations
Tropical Medicine & International Health : Tm & Ih. 2018;24((1):):11-22.
OBJECTIVE Blood component transfusion is increasingly promoted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but is resource-intensive so whole blood is often used. We examined SSA recommendations about whole blood and packed red cell transfusions for pregnancy-related bleeding or anaemia, and paediatric anaemia, and evaluated the evidence underpinning these recommendations. METHOD Relevant SSA guidelines were identified using five electronic databases, websites for SSA Ministries of Health, blood transfusion services and WHO. To facilitate comparisons, indications for transfusing packed red cells or whole blood within these guidelines and reasons given for these recommendations were recorded on a pre-designed matrix. The AGREE II tool was used to appraise guidelines that gave a reason for recommending either packed red cells or whole blood. We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Global Health, Cochrane library and NHSBT Transfusion Evidence Library, using PRISMA guidelines, for clinical studies comparing whole blood with packed red cells or combined blood components in obstetric bleeding or anaemia, or paediatric anaemia. Characteristics and findings of included studies were extracted in a standardised format and narratively summarised. RESULTS 32 English language guidelines from 15 SSA countries mentioned packed red cell or whole blood use for our conditions of interest. Only seven guidelines justified their recommendation for using packed red cells or whole blood. No recommendations or justifications had supporting citations to research evidence. 33 full-text papers, from 11,234 citations, were reviewed but only one study met our inclusion criteria. This was a single-centre study in post-partum haemorrhage. CONCLUSION Evidence comparing whole blood and packed red cell transfusion for common paediatric and maternal indications is virtually absent in SSA. Therefore, it is unclear whether policies promoting red cells over whole blood transfusion are clinically appropriate. Building a relevant evidence base will help develop effective policies promoting the most appropriate use of blood in African settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.