The Adjunctive Use of Leucocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Endosseous and Furcation Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;15(6)
The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the adjunctive use of leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in periodontal endosseous and furcation defects, as compared without L-PRF. The endosseous defect group was subclassified into: L-PRF/open flap debridement (L-PRF/OFD) versus OFD, L-PRF/osseous graft (L-PRF/OG) versus OG, L-PRF/Emdogain (L-PRF/EMD) versus EMD, and L-PRF/guided tissue regeneration (L-PRF/GTR) versus GTR. The furcation defect group was subclassified into L-PRF/OFD versus OFD, and L-PRF/OG versus OG. Mean difference, 95% confidence intervals and forest plots were calculated for probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic defect depth (DD). Nineteen studies concerning systemically healthy non-smokers were included. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed in two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects that the adjunctive use of L-PRF to OFD or OG was significantly beneficial for PPD reduction, CAL gain and DD reduction, as compared without L-PRF. Furthermore, the data showed that for two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects, the adjunctive use of L-PRF to GTR was significantly beneficial for CAL and DD improvement, whereas adding L-PRF to EMD had no significant effect, and that for class II furcation defects, the addition of L-PRF to OFD was significantly beneficial for PPD, CAL and DD improvement, whereas the addition of L-PRF to OG was significantly clinically beneficial. In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis found that there was significant clinical and radiographic additive effectiveness of L-PRF to OFD and to OG in two- and/or three-wall periodontal endosseous defects of systemically healthy non-smokers, as compared without L-PRF.
The use of advanced platelet-rich fibrin after surgical removal of mandibular third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2022
The objective of this systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in recovery following surgical removal of mandibular third molars with the application of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) in the extraction socket compared with alternative biomaterials or natural wound healing. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus was conducted. Human randomized controlled trials published in English up until December 31, 2020 were included. Outcome measures were pain, facial swelling, trismus, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis, and quality of life; these were evaluated by descriptive statistics and meta-analysis including 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four studies with a low or moderate risk of bias fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A-PRF resulted in significantly lower pain scores when compared with leucocyte platelet-rich fibrin or natural wound healing after 2 days (-16.8, 95% CI -18.9 to -14.7), 3 days (-12.1, 95% CI -13.4 to -10.7), and 7 days (-1.9, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.9). A-PRF seems to have a negligible effect on facial swelling and trismus and some beneficial effect on soft tissue healing. Alveolar osteitis and quality of life were not assessed. The included studies were characterized by considerable heterogeneity and confounding variables. Thus, the level of evidence appears to be inadequate for clinical recommendations according to the focused question.
Sinus Lift Associated with Leucocyte-Platelet-Rich Fibrin (Second Generation) for Bone Gain: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze sinus lifting procedures and to compare the efficiency of this treatment associated with the second generation of platelet-rich fibrin related to its effects on bone gain and to clarify the regenerative efficacy in sinus lift procedure, whether alone or as a coadjutant to other bone graft materials. The PICOT question was, "In clinical studies with patients needing a maxillary sinus lift (P), does the use of PRF either alone (I) or in conjunction with other biomaterials (C) improve the clinical outcome associated with bone gain and density (O), with at least three months of follow-up (T)?" An electronic search was conducted in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, and Scopus databases through a search strategy. A total of 443 articles were obtained from the electronic database search. Sixteen articles met all criteria and were included in this review. Within the limitation of this study and interpreting the results carefully, it was suggested that a higher risk for implant failure after a sinus elevation might be seen in patients with residual bone ≤4 mm, and PRF application was effective, suggesting reducing the time needed for new bone formation.
Regenerative Potential of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in Socket Preservation in Comparison with Conventional Treatment Modalities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) has shown great potential in osteogenesis; however, some studies still question utilizing it as a grafting material. Thus, the aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of PRF when used in socket and ridge preservation procedures. METHODS Electronic searches through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane, Science Citation Index Expanded databases and manual searches of unpublished data, academic theses, and journals were conducted up until July 2021. The outcomes were to assess the ability of PRF as a graft material to preserve bone width, height, and density after tooth extraction. RESULTS Twelve studies were included in the review, using PRF showed significant results in all three outcomes when compared to no grafting at all, however when compared to other commonly used grafting materials it showed a lesser effect. On the other hand, most studies included reported mixing PRF with a graft material showed the best result. The meta-analysis also revealed the significant results in using PRF on the three outcomes. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of the studies included proved the beneficial effect of PRF in socket preservation surgeries alone or in combination with other graft materials, but further individual multi-centre randomized controlled studies with appropriate sample size are still needed to further confirm our findings.
Effect of Platelet Concentrates on Marginal Bone Loss of Immediate Implant Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;14(16)
BACKGROUND To evaluate marginal bone loss (MBL) in immediate implant procedures (IIP) placed in conjunction with platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to IIP without PCs. METHODS A search was performed in four databases. Clinical trials evaluating MBL of IIP placed with and without PCs were included. The random effects model was conducted for meta-analysis. RESULTS Eight clinical trials that evaluated MBL in millimeters were included. A total of 148 patients and 232 immediate implants were evaluated. The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction on MBL of IIP placed with PCs when compared to the non-PCs group at 6 months (p < 0.00001) and 12 months (p < 0.00001) follow-ups. No statistically significant differences were observed on MBL of IIP when compared PCs + bone graft group vs. only bone grafting at 6 months (p = 0.51), and a significant higher MBL of IIP placed with PCs + bone graft when compared to only bone grafting at 12 months was found (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS MBL of IIP at 6 and 12 months follow-ups is lower when PCs are applied in comparison to not placing PCs, which may lead to more predictable implant treatments in the medium term. However, MBL seems not to diminish when PCs + bone graft are applied when compared to only bone grafting.
Potential of Lyophilized Platelet Concentrates for Craniofacial Tissue Regenerative Therapies
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;26(3)
OBJECTIVE The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low elastic modulus and strength, and limited storage capability. These issues restrict their broader application. This review focuses on the lyophilization of PCs (LPCs) and how this processing approach affects their biological and mechanical properties for application as a bioactive scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted from 1946 until 2019 using a combination of search terms relating to this topic. RESULTS Ten manuscripts were identified as being relevant. The use of LPCs was mostly studied in in vitro and in vivo craniofacial bone regeneration models. Notably, one clinical study reported the utility of LPCs for guided bone regeneration prior to dental implant placement. CONCLUSIONS Lyophilization can enhance the inherent characteristics of PCs and extends shelf-life, enable their use in emergency surgery, and improve storage and transportation capabilities. In light of this, further preclinical studies and clinical trials are required, as LPCs offer a potential approach for clinical application in craniofacial tissue regeneration.
Effect of leukocyte and platelet rich fibrin (L-PRF) on stability of dental implants. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery. 2021
The aim of this study was to assess the impact, if any, of L-PRF application in an implant bed prior to implant placement, focusing on stability by means of implant stability quotient (ISQ) values. The literature was searched in a systematic way by means of the main databases and hand searching of the most relevant journals. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to determine the eligible studies included in this review. Only randomised controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) were included. A total of four RCTs were included for data extraction. The risk of bias was deemed moderate to unclear. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of L-PRF, on implant stability, immediately post-insertion in three studies, after one week from the implant placement in three studies and after four weeks for all the included studies. The fixed effects model has shown Hedges g statistic for the one week varying from 0.380 to 1.401 with a pooled figure of 0.764 (95% CI 0.443 to 1.085) and for four weeks varying between 0.74 and 1.1 with a combined effect of 0.888 (95% CI 0.598 to 1.177). The results for both intervals were in favour of the use of L-PRF while the statistical difference immediately post-insertion was not statistically significant. The present systematic review, though acknowledging its limitations, suggests that L-PRF has a positive effect on secondary implant stability and that needs to be correlated to the clinical practice to measure the actual clinical effect by means of reducing treatment times.
Efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin in promoting the healing of extraction sockets: a systematic review
International journal of implant dentistry. 2021;7(1):117
PURPOSE To address the focused question: in patients with freshly extracted teeth, what is the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the prevention of pain and the regeneration of soft tissue and bone compared to the respective control without PRF treatment? METHODS After an electronic data search in PubMed database, the Web of Knowledge of Thomson Reuters and hand search in the relevant journals, a total of 20 randomized and/or controlled studies were included. RESULTS 66.6% of the studies showed that PRF significantly reduced the postoperative pain, especially in the first 1-3 days after tooth extraction. Soft tissue healing was significantly improved in the group of PRF compared to the spontaneous wound healing after 1 week (75% of the evaluated studies). Dimensional bone loss was significantly lower in the PRF group compared to the spontaneous wound healing after 8-15 weeks but not after 6 months. Socket fill was in 85% of the studies significantly higher in the PRF group compared to the spontaneous wound healing. CONCLUSIONS Based on the analyzed studies, PRF is most effective in the early healing period of 2-3 months after tooth extraction. A longer healing period may not provide any benefits. The currently available data do not allow any statement regarding the long-term implant success in sockets treated with PRF or its combination with biomaterials. Due to the heterogeneity of the evaluated data no meta-analysis was performed.
Does Platelet-Rich Fibrin Prevent Hemorrhagic Complications After Dental Extractions in Patients Using Oral Anticoagulant Therapy?
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2021
PURPOSE The number of anticoagulated patients requiring dental extractions and other minor dentoalveolar surgical procedures has increased significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) prevents hemorrhagic complications after dental extractions in patients being treated with oral anticoagulants. METHODS A 2-phase PROSPERO-registered systematic review of published within-subject controlled trials (CRD42020186678) was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Searches were conducted through Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, Central Cochrane, Scopus, DOSS, and Google Scholar, until May 2020. The predictor variable was the study group (PRF vs use/non-use of other hemostatic agents). The main outcome of interest was the risk of bleeding after tooth extraction and the covariates were postoperative complications. Data analysis included synthesis of results, risk of bias (RoB) evaluation, meta-analysis (random effects; I²-based heterogeneity; 95% confidence), and certainty of evidence assessment. RESULTS From a total of 216 articles, 3 articles (low-moderate RoB) were included for evaluation in this systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 130 patients were involved. The outcomes of the meta-analysis showed that the use of PRF in extraction wounds did not reduce the risk of bleeding after extraction in anticoagulated patients (P= .330; I² = 99%). Furthermore, the use of PRF did not improve pain scores (P = .470; I² = 96%) or the risk of postoperative alveolitis (P = .4300; I² = 38%) in anticoagulated patients. The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to low. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that PRF does not prevent hemorrhagic complications after tooth extraction in patients using oral anticoagulant therapy.
Stability of biomaterials used in adjunct to coronally advanced flap: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Clinical and experimental dental research. 2021
AIM: The objective of this network meta-analysis was to rank different biomaterials used in adjunct to coronally advanced flap (CAF), based on their performance in root-coverage for Miller's Class I and II gingival recessions. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic database search was carried out in PUBMED, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE to identify the eligible articles and compiled into the citation manager to remove the duplicates. The primary outcome was keratinized gingival tissue width (KGW) and percentage of root coverage (%RC). The treatment effect of different biomaterials was estimated using predictive interval plots and ranked based on biomaterials performance, using multidimensional scale ranking. RESULTS CAF + connective tissue graft (CTG), CAF + platelet concentrate matrix (PCM) and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) ranked at the top positions in performance in improving KGW. The highest ranked materials in improving percentage of root coverage in gingival recession were CAF + collagen matrix (CM) + gingival fibroblasts (GF), CAF + ADM + platelet rich plasma (PRP) and CAF + ADM, as compared to CAF alone. CONCLUSION CTG, ADM, platelet concentrates, and CM + GFs, when used in adjunct to CAF, showed improved stability over ≥12 months of follow-up, better percentage of root coverage, and improved keratinized gingival width.