Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin to enhance dental implant stability: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Guan S, Xiao T, Bai J, Ning C, Zhang X, Yang L, Li X
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin application on implant stability. STUDY DESIGN Five databases, namely, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wiley, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, were searched for reports published up to November 20, 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCT), including parallel RCTs and split-mouth RCTs, with at least 10 patients/sites were considered for inclusion. RESULTS After screening based on the inclusion criteria, ten RCTs were included. Low heterogeneity was observed in study characteristics, outcome variables, and estimation scales (I(2) = 27.2%, P = 0.19). The qualitative and meta-analysis results showed that PRF increased the effect of implant stabilizers after implant surgery. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that PRF can increase implant stability after implant surgery. PRF may also have a role in accelerating bone healing and tends to promote new bone formation at the implant site.
Does the Choice of Preparation Protocol for Platelet-Rich Fibrin Have Consequences for Healing and Alveolar Ridge Preservation After Tooth Extraction? A Meta-Analysis
Al-Badran A, Bierbaum S, Wolf-Brandstetter C
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2023
PURPOSE Multiple preparation protocols for platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) are in use today, and clinical results are often heterogeneous. This study analyzes the impact of the chosen PRF preparation protocol on 1) wound healing and 2) alveolar ridge preservation. METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis, eligible studies were identified in PubMed and Cochrane databases. Included were randomized controlled and controlled clinical trials with healthy patients treated with PRF after atraumatic tooth extraction compared to untreated socket(s), reporting at least one of the following outcome variables: pain, swelling, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis risk, horizontal and vertical bone loss, socket fill, and new bone formation. Main predictor variable was relative centrifugal force (RCF) comparing high RCF (high PRF), intermediate RCF (standard [S-PRF]), low RCF (advanced PRF), and various RCF settings (concentrated growth factor preparation [CGF]). The type of centrifugation tubes (silica-coated plastic and glass) was a secondary predictor. Weighted or standardized mean differences, risk ratio and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Forty studies published between 2012 and 2022 were selected. The pooled effects of all outcomes were significant against untreated sockets. Within the subgroups high PRF or advanced PRF had the lowest efficacy for many outcome parameters. Pain reduction (in visual analog scale units) was highest for S-PRF (-1.18 [-1.48, -0.88], P < .00001) and CGF (-1.03 [-1.16, -0.90], P < .001). The relative risk of alveolar osteitis (0.09 [0.01, 0.69], P < .02) and soft tissue healing (standardized mean difference = 2.55 [2.06, 3.03], P < .001) were best for CGF. No subgroup differences were found for bone-related outcomes. No meaningful analysis of the tube material effect was possible. CONCLUSION This study confirms that PRF is associated with reduced postoperative complications but indicates that preparation protocol influences clinical outcomes. S-PRF and CGF protocols appear to be superior for several outcome parameters.
Effect of adjuvant autologous platelet concentrates on secondary repair of alveolar clefts: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Siddiqui HP, Sennimalai K, Bhatt K, Samrit VD, Duggal R
Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. 2023
OBJECTIVE To review the existing evidence on the adjuvant use of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) with iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in the reconstruction of the secondary alveolar cleft. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically until November 2022. Clinical trials comparing the three-dimensional radiological outcomes of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) with ICBG and APCs to those with ICBG alone and the radiological outcomes assessed 6 months after surgery were included. Two authors performed the study selection and the assessment of the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model to determine the risk ratio (RR) for developing wound dehiscence and the mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the percentage of newly formed bone. RESULTS Nine studies (seven RCT and two CCT) were included with a low to high risk of bias. At the 6-month follow-up, the study group revealed insignificant results regarding the percentage of newly formed bone (MD = 6.49; 95% CI: -0.97, 13.94; p = .09; χ(2) = 0.01; I(2) = 71%). In addition, the overall risk of developing wound dehiscence was lower in the study group (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.78; p = .01; χ(2) = 0.67; I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the adjuvant use of APCs with ICBG on enhanced bone regeneration following secondary alveolar bone grafting. However, combining ICBG and APCs might be beneficial in reducing the risk of developing wound dehiscence.
Does the use of platelet-rich plasma in sinus augmentation improve the survival of dental implants? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sivakumar I, Arunachalam S, Mahmoud Buzayan M, Sharan J
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2023;13(1):57-66
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma is considered an effective modality to promote bone regeneration, improve hard and soft tissue healing in surgical procedures including sinus augmentation. However, the survival of dental implants in sinus augmented sites with platelet-rich plasma has shown equivocal results in recent studies. PURPOSE In this systematic review, data on dental implants' survival in sinus augmentation sites with platelet-rich plasma were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomized controlled trials on the topic with a minimum mean follow-up of 6 months with no language restriction were considered. Other study designs on the topic were excluded. Accordingly, relevant articles were searched in Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane databases, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus up to April 2021. Using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, the listed studies' risk of bias was evaluated. From the included studies, the pertinent information was taken and pooled for qualitative and quantitative analysis using R software 4.1.1. RESULTS Six randomized controlled trials involving 188 patients who underwent sinus augmentation with and without platelet-rich plasma, and 781 implants were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Four hundred and eleven implants were placed in the intervention group (with platelet-rich plasma) and 370 implants were placed in the control group (without platelet-rich plasma). The pooled estimate (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.91; I(2) = 0%) indicated that there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups. The test for subgroup differences showed no statistically significant differences between the subgroups (p = 0.45) with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION The bias associated with selective reporting of outcome data was considered as some concern for bias. This systematic review revealed that the effect of platelet-rich plasma is uncertain on the survival of dental implants.
Network meta-analysis of platelet-rich fibrin in periodontal intrabony defects
Ye L, Mashrah MA, Ge L, Fang Y, Guo X, Ge Q, Wang L
Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology. 2023
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin alone or in combination with different biomaterials for the treatment of periodontal intra-bony defect. METHODS Up to April 2022, Cochrane library, Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for randomized clinical trials. The outcomes of interest were probing pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment level gain, bone gain, and bone defect depth reduction. Bayesian network meta-analysis with 95% credible intervals was calculated. RESULTS Thirty-eight studies with 1,157 participants were included. Platelet-rich fibrin alone or platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials showed a statistically significant difference when compared with open flap debridement (P<0.05, low to high certainty evidence). Neither biomaterials alone nor platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials showed a statistically insignificant difference when compared to platelet-rich fibrin alone (P>0.05, very low to high certainty evidence). Platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials showed insignificant differences as compared to biomaterials alone (P>0.05, very low to high certainty evidence). Allograft +collagen membrane ranked the best in probing pocket depth reduction while platelet-rich fibrin +hydroxyapatite ranked the best in bone gain. CONCLUSION It seems that 1) Platelet-rich fibrin with/without biomaterials were more effective than open flap debridement. 2) Platelet-rich fibrin alone provides a comparable effect to biomaterials alone and platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials. 3)Platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials provide a comparable effect to biomaterials alone. Although allograft +collagen membrane and platelet-rich fibrin +hydroxyapatite ranked the best in terms of probing pocket depth reduction and bone gain respectively, the difference between different regenerative therapies remains insignificant, and therefore, further studies are still needed to confirm these results.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Lowers Retear Rates and Improves Short-Term Postoperative Functional Outcome Scores: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Ahmad Z, Ang S, Rushton N, Harvey A, Akhtar K, Dawson-Bowling S, Noorani A
Arthroscopy, sports medicine, and rehabilitation. 2022;4(2):e823-e833
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears. We will (1) conduct a systematic review of the current meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma available in the literature, (2) evaluate the quality of these meta-analyses using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) methodology, (3) identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears, and develop guidance to improve future studies in this area. METHODS We carried out a systematic review of previous meta-analyses published on the clinical outcomes of PRP used in the treatment of rotator cuff tears. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases, using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "rotator cuff" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human meta-analysis studies involving the repair of the rotator cuff tendon surgically in the English language. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcomes. Following this, a meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS Thirteen meta-analyses met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All were considered of similar quality with Oxman-Guyatt index of 9 and PRISMA score of more than 24. A total of 1,800 patients with an average follow up of 12 to 36 months. The use of PRP for arthroscopic rotator cuff tear, when compared with controls, leads to a lower number of retears, improved short-term postoperative scores, and functional outcome. The following postoperative scores were reported: Constant: 12, Simple Shoulder Test: 10, ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons): 9, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) 11, SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation) 1, VAS (visual analog scale): 6, and Retears: 13. Subgroup analysis showed that leukocyte content and gel application make no difference in the effectiveness of PRP. VAS score subgroup analysis showed short-term pain relief. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PRP is effective in reducing retears after rotator cuff repair and improving functional outcome scores and reducing short-term pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level III, systematic review of Level I-III studies.
Platelet-rich plasma use in meniscus repair treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies
Li Z, Weng X
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2022;17(1):446
BACKGROUND There is conflicting clinical evidence whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies could translate to an increased meniscus healing rate and improved functional outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the failure rate and patient-reported functional outcomes in meniscus repair augmented with and without PRP. METHODS We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies that compared the clinical efficacy of meniscus repair performed with PRP versus without PRP. The primary outcome was the meniscus repair failure rate, while the secondary outcomes were knee-specific patient-reported outcomes, including the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee scale, visual analog scale, Tegner activity level score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying the studies according to the PRP preparation technique to investigate the potential sources of heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS Our meta-analysis included nine studies (two RCTs and seven non-RCTs) with 1164 participants. The failure rate in the PRP group was significantly lower than that in the non-PRP group [odds ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.96), P = 0.03]. Furthermore, the PRP group was associated with a statistically significant improvement in the visual analog scale for pain [Mean difference (MD): - 0.76, 95% CI (- 1.32, - 0.21), P = 0.007] and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-symptom [MD: 8.02, 95% CI (2.99, 13.05), P = 0.002] compared with the non-PRP group. However, neither the IKDC score nor the Lysholm knee scale showed any differences between the two groups. In addition, the results of subgroup analyses favored PRP over platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) regarding the IKDC score. CONCLUSIONS Although meniscus repairs augmented with PRP led to significantly lower failure rates and better postoperative pain control compared with those of the non-PRP group, there is insufficient RCT evidence to support PRP augmentation of meniscus repair improving functional outcomes. Moreover, PRP could be recommended in meniscus repair augmentation compared with PRFM. PRFM was shown to have no benefit in improving functional outcomes.
Are platelet concentrate scaffolds superior to traditional blood clot scaffolds in regeneration therapy of necrotic immature permanent teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Tang Q, Jin H, Lin S, Ma L, Tian T, Qin X
BMC oral health. 2022;22(1):589
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of platelet concentrates in promoting root development of necrotic immature permanent teeth is unclear. The present study evaluated whether the platelet concentrate protocol was superior to the traditional blood clot protocol in regeneration therapy. METHODS We searched Electronic databases, such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials and EMBASE. Randomized controlled trial studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included, in which platelet-rich concentrates were tested for periapical healing and root development, with the blood clot treatment protocol as the control group. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were considered. Selected articles were assessed for risk of bias. Pooled risk ratios (risk ratio, RR) were calculated for clinical success, responses to cold and electric pulp tests, periapical lesions, apex closure, root lengthening, and thickening of the dentin walls. Subgroup meta-analysis were conducted according to the type of platelet concentrate used. RESULTS Of the 1272 screened studies, 13 randomized controlled studies, 2 case-control studies and 1 cohort study were selected, in which 465 immature necrotic permanent teeth, particularly incisors and premolars, were treated. Of these 465 teeth, 457 (98.2%) in both the control and experimental groups remained clinically asymptomatic for the entire study duration, whereas eight (1.8%) showed signs and symptoms of failure, including spontaneous pain, sensitivity to percussion or reinfection. Compared with control teeth, teeth treated with PRP achieved better apical healing than BC group (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26, P = 0.03), and teeth treated with platelet concentrates showed improved apical closure (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25, P = 0.69), root lengthening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.74-1.39, P = 0.93), and thickening of the dentin walls (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.95-1.93, P = 0.09), although these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Platelet concentrates can be used as successful scaffolds for regenerative endodontic treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth, and PRP as a scaffold may achieve better periapical healing of teeth with periapical inflammation, although they did not differ significantly from conventional blood clot scaffolds in development of the root.
Do platelet concentrates accelerate orthodontic tooth movement? a systematic review
Herrero-Llorente S, Salgado-Peralvo AO, Schols Jgjh
Journal of periodontal & implant science. 2022
PURPOSE Surgical techniques in orthodontics have received widespread attention in recent years. Meanwhile, biomaterials with high molecular content have been introduced, such as platelet concentrates (PCs), which may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and reduce periodontal damage. The present systematic review aimed to answer the following PICO question: "In patients in whom orthodontic surgical techniques are performed (P), what is the effectiveness of using PCs over the surgical site (I) when compared to not placing PCs (C) to achieve faster tooth movement (O)?" METHODS A search was performed in 6 databases. The criteria employed were those described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses declaration. The present review included studies with a control group that provided information about the influence of PCs on the rate of OTM. RESULTS The electronic search identified 10 studies that met the established criteria. CONCLUSIONS The included studies were very diverse, making it difficult to draw convincing conclusions. However, a tendency was observed for OTM to be accelerated when PCs were used as an adjuvant for canine distalization after premolar extraction when distalization was started in the same session. Likewise, studies seem to indicate an association between PC injection and the amount of canine retraction. However, it is not possible to affirm that the use of PCs in corticotomy shortens the overall treatment time, as this question has not been studied adequately. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021278542.
Effectiveness of platelet-rich concentrates on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mheissen S, Daraqel B, Alzoubi EE, Khan H
European journal of orthodontics. 2022
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet-rich concentrates (PRCs) are recently used as a local biological substance in orthodontics to accelerate the rate of tooth movement. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of PRCs on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). SEARCH METHODS Unrestricted search of five electronic databases supplemented by the manual and gray literature search were undertaken in March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PRCs on the rate of OTM with their side effect were included in this systematic review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data items were extracted by two authors using a pre-piloted extraction form. Similar outcomes within a comparable time frame were synthesized in a meta-analysis. RESULTS Fourteen studies were deemed eligible for inclusion and seven RCTs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Canine retraction rate was higher in the side of PRCs injection than the control side by 0.28 mm/month (95% CI: 0.16-0.40, I2 = 95.6 per cent, P < 0.001, 345 patients) in the first 4 months after PRCs injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the PRCs side and the control side regarding molar anchorage loss (MAL) (MD = 0.03 mm, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.24, I2 = 46.3 per cent, P = 0.78, 44 patients), canine rotation (MD = -0.19o, 95% CI: -1.95 to 1.57, I2 = 45.4 per cent, P = 0.96, 48 patients), or en-masse retraction. Likewise, there was no difference between both groups in terms of the duration of de-crowding. The mandibular canine retraction was statistically higher on the PRCs side than on the control side by 0.17 mm/month (P < 0.001, one trial). Regarding root resorption, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control sides within the follow-up time. Mild pain scores were reported by the patients in the first 24 hours after injections. CONCLUSIONS Low-level evidence indicates that the effect of PRCs on OTM is minor and clinically insignificant. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the inherent limitations in the included RCTs. REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42022300026).