Platelet-Rich Plasma Has Better Results for Retear Rate, Pain, and Outcome Than Platelet-Rich Fibrin After Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature to ascertain whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improved patient outcomes in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS Two independent reviewers performed the literature search based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, with a third author resolving any discrepancies. RCTs comparing PRP or PRF to a control in rotator cuff repair were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Clinical outcomes were compared using the risk ratio for dichotomous variables and the mean difference for continuous variables. A P-value <0.05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-three RCTs with 1440 patients were included in this review. PRP resulted in significantly decreased rates of retear (15.9% vs 29.0%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Significant results in favor of PRP based on the Constant score (83.9 vs 81.2, respectively; P = 0.0006); the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score (31.1 vs 30.2, respectively; P < 0.00001); the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score (87.3 vs 84.5, respectively; P = 0.04); and the visual analog scale score (1.3 vs 1.6, respectively; P = 0.01) were noted compared to the control. PRF only resulted in an improved Constant score (80.1 vs 80.0, respectively; P = 0.04) compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS The current evidence shows that using PRP in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can improve pain levels and functional outcome scores while reducing the retear rate after surgery. PRF injection, on the other hand, only improves the Constant score.
Risk of thrombocytopenia with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Inhibitors (PDGFR-TKIs) in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of phase II/III randomized controlled trials
Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2021
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to fully investigate the thrombocytopenia of Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Inhibitors (PDGFR-TKIs) in cancer patients. Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) treated with PDGFR-TKIs till January 2021. The relevant RCTs in cancer patients treated with PDGFR-TKIs were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. Nineteen RCTs and 3962 patients were included. Our study suggests that PDGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risks of all-grade (RR, 5.72; 95%CI, 4.32-7.59;p<0.00001; I(2) = 32%) and high-grade (RR, 5.65; 95%CI, 3.28- 9.75; p<0.00001; I(2) = 0%) thrombocytopenia in cancer patients. Sunitinib tend to be associated with the highest risk of thrombocytopenia among the included PDGFR-TKIs. The RR of high-grade thrombocytopenia varies significantly according to treatment line and median age. The available data suggested that the use of PDGFR-TKIs were associated with a significantly increased risk of thrombocytopenia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Statistical Fragility of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Rotator Cuff Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The American journal of sports medicine. 2021;:363546521989976
BACKGROUND The practice of evidence-based medicine relies on objective data to guide clinical decision-making with specific statistical thresholds conveying study significance. PURPOSE To determine the utility of applying the fragility index (FI) and the fragility quotient (FQ) analysis to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the utilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in rotator cuff repairs (RCRs). STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS RCTs pertaining to the utilization of PRP in surgical RCRs published in 13 peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2020 were evaluated. The FI was determined by manipulating each reported outcome event until a reversal of significance was appreciated. The associated FQ was determined by dividing the FI by the sample size. RESULTS Of the 9746 studies screened, 19 RCTs were ultimately included for analysis. The overall FI incorporating all 19 RCTs was only 4, suggesting that the reversal of only 4 events is required to change study significance. The associated FQ was determined as 0.092. Of the 43 outcome events reporting lost to follow-up data, 13 (30.2%) represented lost to follow-up >4. CONCLUSION Our analysis suggests that RCTs evaluating PRP for surgical RCRs may lack statistical stability with only a few outcome events required to alter trial significance. Therefore, we recommend the reporting of an FI and an FQ in conjunction with P value analysis to carefully interpret the integrity of statistical stability in future comparative trials. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinical decisions are often informed by statistically significant results. Thus, a true understanding of the robustness of the statistical findings informing clinical decision-making is of critical importance.
A narrative review of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in reproductive medicine
Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics. 2021
PURPOSE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become a novel treatment in various aspects of medicine including orthopedics, cardiothoracic surgery, plastic surgery, dermatology, dentistry, and diabetic wound healing. PRP is now starting to become an area of interest in reproductive medicine more specifically focusing on infertility. Poor ovarian reserve, menopause, premature ovarian failure, and thin endometrium have been the main areas of research. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the effects of autologous PRP in reproductive medicine providing a summation of the current studies and assessing the need for additional research. METHODS A literature search is performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL Plus to identify studies focusing on the use of PRP therapy in reproductive medicine. Articles were divided into 3 categories: PRP in thin lining, PRP in poor ovarian reserve, and PRP in recurrent implantation failure. RESULTS In women with thin endometrium, the literature shows an increase in endometrial thickness and increase in chemical and clinical pregnancy rates following autologous PRP therapy. In women with poor ovarian reserve, autologous intraovarian PRP therapy increased anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), with a trend toward increasing clinical and live birth rates. This trend was also noted in women with recurrent implantation failure. CONCLUSIONS Limited literature shows promise in increasing endometrial thickness, increasing AMH, and decreasing FSH levels, as well as increasing chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. The lack of standardization of PRP preparation along with the lack of large randomized controlled trials needs to be addressed in future studies. Until definitive large RCTs are available, PRP use should be considered experimental.
Platelet-rich plasma versus steroids injections for greater trochanter pain syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
British medical bulletin. 2021
INTRODUCTION Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is characterized by a persistent and debilitating pain around the greater trochanter. GTPS can be caused by a combination of gluteus medius or minimus tendinopathy, snapping hip or trochanteric bursitis. SOURCE OF DATA Recent published literatures identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. AREAS OF AGREEMENT Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and corticosteroids (CCS) injections are useful options to manage symptoms of GTPS. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY Whether PRP leads to superior outcomes compared to CCS injections is unclear. GROWING POINTS A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing PRP versus CCS in the management of GTPS was conducted. AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH PRP injections are more effective than CCS at approximately 2 years follow-up.
Effect of leukocyte and platelet rich fibrin (L-PRF) on stability of dental implants. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery. 2021
The aim of this study was to assess the impact, if any, of L-PRF application in an implant bed prior to implant placement, focusing on stability by means of implant stability quotient (ISQ) values. The literature was searched in a systematic way by means of the main databases and hand searching of the most relevant journals. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to determine the eligible studies included in this review. Only randomised controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) were included. A total of four RCTs were included for data extraction. The risk of bias was deemed moderate to unclear. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of L-PRF, on implant stability, immediately post-insertion in three studies, after one week from the implant placement in three studies and after four weeks for all the included studies. The fixed effects model has shown Hedges g statistic for the one week varying from 0.380 to 1.401 with a pooled figure of 0.764 (95% CI 0.443 to 1.085) and for four weeks varying between 0.74 and 1.1 with a combined effect of 0.888 (95% CI 0.598 to 1.177). The results for both intervals were in favour of the use of L-PRF while the statistical difference immediately post-insertion was not statistically significant. The present systematic review, though acknowledging its limitations, suggests that L-PRF has a positive effect on secondary implant stability and that needs to be correlated to the clinical practice to measure the actual clinical effect by means of reducing treatment times.
Transfusion Guidelines in Adult Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review and Critical Summary of Currently Available Evidence
The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2021
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Red blood cell transfusion can be associated with complications in medical and surgical patients. Acute anemia in ambulatory patients undergoing surgery can also impede wound healing and independent self-care. Current transfusion threshold guidelines are still based on evidence derived from critically-ill intensive care unit medical patients and may not apply to spine surgery candidates. PURPOSE We aimed to provide the reader with a synthesis of the best available evidence to recommend transfusion trigger thresholds and guidelines in adult patients undergoing spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING This is a systematic review. OUTCOME MEASURES Physiological measure: Blood transfusion thresholds and associated posttransfusion complications (morbidity, mortality, length of stay, infections, etc…) of the published articles. PATIENT SAMPLE Adult spine surgery patients. METHODS A systematic review of the literature using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science electronic databases was made according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Focus was set on papers discussing thresholds for blood transfusion in adult surgical spine patients, as well as complications associated with transfusion after acute surgical blood loss in the operating room or postoperative period. Publications discussing pediatric cases, blood type analyses, blood loss prevention strategies and protocols, systematic reviews and letters to the editor were excluded. RESULTS A total of 22 articles fitting our search criteria were reviewed. Patients who received blood transfusion in these studies were older, of female gender, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds from these studies showed that a pre-operative hemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds (Level B Class III). Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Blood transfusion thresholds in surgical patients may be specialty-specific and different than those used for critically-ill medical patients. For adult spine surgery patients, red blood cell transfusion should be avoided if Hb numbers remain > 9 and 8 g/dL in the intraoperative and direct post-operative periods, respectively.
Adult spine surgery patients (22 studies).
Systematic review of studies on recommended thresholds for blood transfusion, and its associated complications.
Patients who received blood transfusion in the studies reviewed were older, female, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds showed that a pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds. Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality.
The Pancreatic changes affecting glucose homeostasis in transfusion dependent β- thalassemia (TDT): a short review
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2021;92(3):e2021232
BACKGROUND The natural history of the glycometabolic state in transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) patients is characterized by a deterioration of glucose tolerance over time. AIMS This review depicts our current knowledges on the complex and multifacet pathophysiologic mechanisms implicated in the development of alteration of glucose homeostasis in patients with TDT. SEARCH STRATEGY A systematic search was done on December 2020 including Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Scholar for papers published in the last 20 years. Moreover, we checked the reference lists of the relevant articles and previously performed reviews for additional pertinent studies. The personal experience on the care of patients with thalassemias is also reported. CONCLUSION A regular packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfusion program, optimization of chelation therapy, and prevention and treatment of liver infections are critical to achieve adequate glucometabolic control in TDT patients. Many exciting opportunities remain for further research and therapeutic development.
Platelet to erythrocyte transfusion ratio and mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusion during major hemorrhage is important and often embedded in massive transfusion protocols. However, the optimal ratio of platelets to erythrocytes (platelet rich plasma (PLT) :RBC ratio) remains unclear. We hypothesized that high PLT:RBC ratios, as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios, are associated with improved survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. METHODS Four databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane) were systematically screened for literature published up to January 21, 2021 to determine the effect of PLT:RBC ratio on the primary outcome measure mortality at 1-6 and 24 hours and at 28-30 days. Studies comparing various PLT:RBC ratios were included in meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay and in-hospital length of stay and total blood component use. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42020165648. RESULTS The search identified a total of 8903 records. After removing duplicates second screening of title, abstract and full text a total of 59 articles were included in the analysis. Of these articles 12 were included in meta-analysis. Mortality at 1-6, 24-hours and 28-30 days was significantly lower for high PLT:RBC ratios as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios. CONCLUSIONS Higher PLT:RBC ratios are associated with significantly lower 1-6 hours, 24 hours, 28-30 days mortality as compared to lower PLT:RBC ratios. The optimal PLT:RBC ratio for massive transfusion in trauma patients is approximately 1:1. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, therapeutic level III.
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Trauma Induced Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of acute medicine. 2021;11(3):81-89
BACKGROUND Optimal management for trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a clinical conundrum. In conjunction with the transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), additional administration of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was proposed to bring about further coagulative benefit. However, investigations evaluating the efficacy as well as corresponding side effects were scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to systematically review current literature and to perform a meta-analysis comparing FFP+PCC with FFP alone. METHODS Web search followed by manual interrogation was performed to identify relevant literatures fulfilling the following criteria, subjects as TIC patients taking no baseline anticoagulants, without underlying coagulative disorders, and reported clinical consequences. Those comparing FFP alone with PCC alone were excluded. Comprehensive Meta-analysis software was utilized, and statistical results were delineated with odd ratio (OR), mean difference (MD), and 95% confidence interval (CI). I(2) was calculated to determine heterogeneity. The primary endpoint was set as all-cause mortality, while the secondary endpoint consisted of international normalized ratio (INR) correction, transfusion of blood product, and thrombosis rate. RESULTS One hundred and sixty-four articles were included for preliminary evaluation, 3 of which were qualified for meta-analysis. A total of 840 subjects were pooled for assessment. Minimal heterogeneity was present in the comparisons (I(2) < 25%). In the PCC + FFP cohort, reduced mortality rate was observed (OR: 0.631; 95% CI: 0.450-0.884, p = 0.007) after pooling. Meanwhile, INR correction time was shorter under PCC + FFP (MD: -608.300 mins, p < 0.001), whilst the rate showed no difference (p = 0.230). The PCC + FFP group is less likely to mandate transfusion of packed red blood cells (p < 0.001) and plasma (p < 0.001), but not platelet (p = 0.615). The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.460). CONCLUSIONS Compared with FFP only, PCC + FFP demonstrated better survival rate, favorable clinical recovery and no elevation of thromboembolism events after TIC.
Patients with trauma induced coagulopathy (3 studies, n= 840).
Prothrombin complex concentrate and fresh-frozen plasma (PCC + FFP).
Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP).
In the PCC + FFP cohort, reduced mortality rate was observed (OR: 0.631) after pooling. Meanwhile, international normalized ratio correction time was shorter under PCC + FFP (MD: -608.300 mins), whilst the rate showed no difference. The PCC + FFP group was less likely to mandate transfusion of packed red blood cells and plasma, but not platelet. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was comparable in the two groups.