Comparison of Hematocrit Change in Preterm Neonates with Birth Weight Based Versus Formula Based Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion: A Randomized Control Trial
Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2021;:1-7
Conventionally the packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion volume given to neonates is 10 ml/kg to 20 ml/kg. The weight-based formulae underestimate the volume of PRBC required to achieve a target hematocrit (Hct) in preterm neonates. The study was done to compare the rise in Hct after transfusing PRBC volume calculated either based on body weight or using formula considering Hct of blood bag and Hct of preterm neonates. This prospective study included a total of 68 preterm neonates requiring transfusion for the first time having ≤ 34 weeks of gestational age. Neonates were randomized using block randomization, to receive 15 ml/kg of PRBC transfusion (group A) or transfusion based on the formula (group B). The primary outcome of interest was post-transfusion rise in hematocrit. The secondary outcome was the effect of transfusion on neonatal morbidities in terms of retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death. Baseline variables (birth weight, gestation age, APGAR score and score of neonatal acute physiology) pre-transfusion hemodynamics and hematocrit of the bag were comparable in both groups. The mean volume of PRBC in group A was 18.8 ± 4.9 ml, whereas in group B it was 29.6 ± 7.3 ml, p = 0.0001. Group B transfusions had a statistically significant change in 24 h post-transfusion hematocrit. Secondary outcomes were comparable in two groups. Post transfusion rise in Hct of the patient in group B was significant as compared to group A. The study needed huge sample size to establish a difference in the number of re-transfusions required across two groups. The trial was registered under the clinical trial registry of India (CTRI/2018/01/011,063). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01420-1.
Advanced platelet-rich fibrin plus and osseous bone graft for socket preservation and ridge augmentation - A randomized control clinical trial
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2021;11(2):225-233
OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical and radiographic effectiveness of A PRF Plus as an adjuctive material to osseous bone graft in socket preservation and ridge augmentation. METHODS Twenty patients with need to preserve extraction socket in non-molar sites planning for further prosthetic rehabilitation were divided into two groups. Test Group (Group A) was treated with A PRF Plus membrane and Sybograf plus ™ (70% HA and 30 %β TCP) bone graft. The Control Group (Group B) was treated with Sybograf plus ™ (70% HA and 30% βTCP) bone graft. Both groups had same socket preservation surgical technique. RESULTS Both Group A and Group B showed significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters. Mean socket length, Vertical Resorption reduction in Group A was 1.48 whereas in Group B was 1.67 which is statistically significant. (p ≤ 0.05). Changes in Horizontal width reduction at 1,3, and 5 mm depth of the socket for both groups were not statistically significant. The Gain in socket fill for Group A and B 6 months postoperatively was 1185.30HU ± 473.21 and 966.60 HU ± 273.27 respectively. But intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. (p = 0.17). There were no significant statistical differences in postoperative pain in Group A and Group B as subjects experienced moderate amount of pain. The assessment of post-operative swelling showed that only 30% subjects in Group A reported with swelling. Whereas 80% subjects in Group B complained of post-operative swelling. CONCLUSION The results of the present study proved utilisation of A PRF Plus as a promising adjunct to conventional regenerative therapy for socket preservation.
Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Using Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) and Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) in Treatment of Periodontal Intra-Bony Defects - A Randomized Controlled Trial
Saudi journal of biological sciences. 2021;28(1):870-878
The study aims to assess the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) biomaterial, while using it separately or in combination with nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) for treating intra-bony defects (IBDs) using radiographic evaluation (DBS-Win software). Sixty patients with IBD (one site/patient) and chronic periodontitis were recruited randomly to test either autologous PRF platelet concentrate, nano-HA bone graft, a combination of PRF platelet concentrate and nano-HA, or alone conventional open flap debridement (OFD). Recordings of clinical parameters including probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were obtained at baseline and 6 months, post-operatively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare four groups; whereas, multiple comparisons were done through Tukey's post hoc test. The results showed that CAL at baseline changed from 6.67 ± 1.23 to 4.5 ± 1.42 in group I, 6.6 ± 2.51 to 4.9 ± 1.48 in group II, 5.2 ± 2.17 to 3.1 ± 1.27 in group III, and 4.7 ± 2.22 to 3.7 ± 2.35 in group IV after 6 months. The most significant increase in bone density and fill was observed for IBD depth in group III that was recorded as 62.82 ± 24.6 and 2.31 ± 0.75 mm, respectively. VEGF concentrations were significantly increased at 3, 7, and 14 days in all groups. The use of PRF with nano-HA was successful regenerative periodontal therapy to manage periodontal IBDs, unlike using PRF alone. Increase in VEGF concentrations in all group confirmed its role in angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the early stages of bone defect healing.
Clinical and Radiographic Analysis of Novabone Putty with Platelet-Rich Fibrin in the Treatment of Periodontal Intrabony Defects: A Randomized Control Trial
Contemporary clinical dentistry. 2021;12(2):150-156
BACKGROUND Periodontal regeneration remains one of the crucial issues in the field of periodontology. Periodontal intrabony defects could be treated by surgical intervention through various alloplastic bone graft substitutes. The Food and Drug Administration approved, Novabone putty is one of the recently marketed bone graft substitutes, which has been used in the present study. This study also incorporates the placement of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in combination with Novabone putty. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty patients were included in the study and were allocated to either Group A or Group B through randomization. Group A included the placement of Novabone putty in the periodontal intrabony defects, whereas Group B included the placement of Novabone putty along with PRF. Statistical analysis of plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, relative attachment level, and intraoral periapical radiographs was performed. RESULTS Statistical more significant difference (P < 0.05) in probing pocket depth, and relative attachment level was observed in Group B (Novabone putty and PRF) in comparison to Group A (Novabone putty). CONCLUSION Evaluation of efficacy of Novabone putty along with PRF produced more favorable results in relative attachment level gain and more reduction in probing pocket depth when compared to Novabone putty alone.
The Pancreatic changes affecting glucose homeostasis in transfusion dependent β- thalassemia (TDT): a short review
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2021;92(3):e2021232
BACKGROUND The natural history of the glycometabolic state in transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) patients is characterized by a deterioration of glucose tolerance over time. AIMS This review depicts our current knowledges on the complex and multifacet pathophysiologic mechanisms implicated in the development of alteration of glucose homeostasis in patients with TDT. SEARCH STRATEGY A systematic search was done on December 2020 including Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Scholar for papers published in the last 20 years. Moreover, we checked the reference lists of the relevant articles and previously performed reviews for additional pertinent studies. The personal experience on the care of patients with thalassemias is also reported. CONCLUSION A regular packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfusion program, optimization of chelation therapy, and prevention and treatment of liver infections are critical to achieve adequate glucometabolic control in TDT patients. Many exciting opportunities remain for further research and therapeutic development.
A comparative evaluation of Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin (A-PRF) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of Traumatized Immature Non-vital permanent anterior teeth: A Prospective clinical study
Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry. 2021;13(5):e463-e472
BACKGROUND Regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) is a promising treatment alternative for traumatized immature non-vital teeth. Advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) contains significantly more growth factors than Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and has not been evaluated as a scaffold in RET. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare A-PRF and PRF as scaffolds in the RET concerning periapical healing, and root development of traumatized immature non-vital teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, RET was performed on 30 traumatized immature non-vital maxillary incisors in 28 patients aged between 8-27 years. Minimal mechanical debridement and irrigation with 1.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was performed. Canals were disinfected using modified triple antibiotic paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and cefaclor. Based on the type of scaffold, teeth were randomly assigned into A-PRF (n=15) and PRF groups (n=15). Periapical healing, apical response and quantitative root dimensions (length and thickness) were analyzed radiographically after 12 months follow-up. RESULTS Nineteen patients with 21 teeth (A-PRF n=11, PRF n=10) completed the follow-up and 9 patients were excluded. Clinically, patients in both the groups were asymptomatic. The survival rates for A-PRF and PRF were 78.5% and 77.5%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between A-PRF and PRF regarding periapical healing and type of apical response (p& 0.05). The difference in the pre-operative and follow-up root thickness and root length in both A-PRF and PRF groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Based on short-term results of 13 months, both A-PRF and PRF can be used as scaffold in regenerative endodontic treatment of traumatized immature non-vital teeth. A-PRF could be recommended in such cases since it yielded more root dentin thickness which is crucial for reinforcing immature teeth. Key words:Regenerative endodontic treatment, dental trauma, Non-vital teeth, immature teeth, platelet-rich fibrin, advanced platelet-rich fibrin.
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Trauma Induced Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of acute medicine. 2021;11(3):81-89
BACKGROUND Optimal management for trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a clinical conundrum. In conjunction with the transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), additional administration of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was proposed to bring about further coagulative benefit. However, investigations evaluating the efficacy as well as corresponding side effects were scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to systematically review current literature and to perform a meta-analysis comparing FFP+PCC with FFP alone. METHODS Web search followed by manual interrogation was performed to identify relevant literatures fulfilling the following criteria, subjects as TIC patients taking no baseline anticoagulants, without underlying coagulative disorders, and reported clinical consequences. Those comparing FFP alone with PCC alone were excluded. Comprehensive Meta-analysis software was utilized, and statistical results were delineated with odd ratio (OR), mean difference (MD), and 95% confidence interval (CI). I(2) was calculated to determine heterogeneity. The primary endpoint was set as all-cause mortality, while the secondary endpoint consisted of international normalized ratio (INR) correction, transfusion of blood product, and thrombosis rate. RESULTS One hundred and sixty-four articles were included for preliminary evaluation, 3 of which were qualified for meta-analysis. A total of 840 subjects were pooled for assessment. Minimal heterogeneity was present in the comparisons (I(2) < 25%). In the PCC + FFP cohort, reduced mortality rate was observed (OR: 0.631; 95% CI: 0.450-0.884, p = 0.007) after pooling. Meanwhile, INR correction time was shorter under PCC + FFP (MD: -608.300 mins, p < 0.001), whilst the rate showed no difference (p = 0.230). The PCC + FFP group is less likely to mandate transfusion of packed red blood cells (p < 0.001) and plasma (p < 0.001), but not platelet (p = 0.615). The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.460). CONCLUSIONS Compared with FFP only, PCC + FFP demonstrated better survival rate, favorable clinical recovery and no elevation of thromboembolism events after TIC.
Patients with trauma induced coagulopathy (3 studies, n= 840).
Prothrombin complex concentrate and fresh-frozen plasma (PCC + FFP).
Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP).
In the PCC + FFP cohort, reduced mortality rate was observed (OR: 0.631) after pooling. Meanwhile, international normalized ratio correction time was shorter under PCC + FFP (MD: -608.300 mins), whilst the rate showed no difference. The PCC + FFP group was less likely to mandate transfusion of packed red blood cells and plasma, but not platelet. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was comparable in the two groups.
Platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae: What do we know about processed autologous blood contents for treating skin stretchmarks?-A systematic review
International wound journal. 2021
Striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, particularly associated with female sex, pregnancy, obesity, and/or hormonal change, are linear bands of benign dermal lesions. Although not posing any health risk, aesthetically unpleasing stretch marks can cause significant psychological distress among those affected. In abundance of therapeutic approaches, some literature sources proclaim platelet-rich plasma to be a promising treatment modality for striae distensae. We aimed to shed some light on the current literature evidence of platelet-rich plasma for treating stretch marks and performed an English literature analysis with two independent reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guidelines searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases in June 2019. Of the 12 found studies, 6 matched inclusion criteria. With no control groups in two, just two other reports used intraindividual comparisons, and all but one publication performed histopathological assessments. All studies observed clinical and subjective improvements without using validated scores or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The main findings were that multiple treatments with platelet-rich plasma demonstrated increased epidermal thickness, rete ridges formation, and collagen/elastin formation, while decreasing the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The current literature evidence supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae is poor. We propose in this review an outline for a study protocol with intraindividual control groups, standardised scores, validated PROMs, and participant incentives to enhance the scientific power in future clinical trials.
Assessment of recurrent anal fistulas treatment with platelet-rich plasma
Arquivos de gastroenterologia. 2021
BACKGROUND Surgical treatment of recurrent anal fistulas can lead to numerous complications, including fecal incontinence. Therefore, sphincter preserving techniques are gaining more popularity. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy in the patients with recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas. METHODS A cohort of 18 patients with anal fistulas was enrolled into a preliminary and prospective trial. They were divided into two groups consisting of eight and ten patients respectively. PRP was injected locally in all patients, however in the group II it was applied after 7 days drainage of fistulas with polyurethane foam or negative pressure wound therapy. On average, three doses of PRP were administered, but with the opportunity to double the number of applications if it was clinically justified. The patients were evaluated in an out-patient department after fortnight and then in 1, 6, and 12 months following the last PRP application. RESULTS Anal fistulas were closed in 4 (50%) patients from the group I and in 7 (70%) patients form the group II. Although, the difference between both groups was not statistically significant, PRP therapy should be preceded with fistulous tract drainage in all patients. Summarizing, that successful result was achieved in 11 (60%) patients from the entire group of 18 participants. CONCLUSION The rate of recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas closure reaching 60%, after topical treatment with PRP, exceeds the results of other sphincter-saving methods of treatment. Therefore, it might become a novel method of anal fistulas therapy.
Prolonged Blood Storage and Risk of Posttransfusion Acute Kidney Injury
BACKGROUND Erythrocyte transfusions are independently associated with acute kidney injury. Kidney injury may be consequent to the progressive hematologic changes that develop during storage. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that prolonged erythrocyte storage increases posttransfusion acute kidney injury. METHODS The Informing Fresh versus Old Red Cell Management (INFORM) trial randomized 31,497 patients to receive either the freshest or oldest available matching erythrocyte units and showed comparable mortality with both. This a priori substudy compared the incidence of posttransfusion acute kidney injury in the randomized groups. Acute kidney injury was defined by the creatinine component of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. RESULTS The 14,461 patients included in this substudy received 40,077 erythrocyte units. For patients who received more than one unit, the mean age of the blood units was used as the exposure. The median of the mean age of blood units transfused per patient was 11 days [interquartile range, 8, 15] in the freshest available blood group and 23 days [interquartile range, 17, 30] in the oldest available blood group. In the primary analysis, posttransfusion acute kidney injury was observed in 688 of 4,777 (14.4%) patients given the freshest available blood and 1,487 of 9,684 (15.4%) patients given the oldest available blood, with an estimated relative risk (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02; P = 0.132). The secondary analysis treated blood age as a continuous variable (defined as duration of storage in days), with an estimated relative risk (95% CI) of 1.00 (0.96 to 1.04; P = 0.978) for a 10-day increase in the mean age of erythrocyte units. CONCLUSIONS In a population of patients without severely impaired baseline renal function receiving fewer than 10 erythrocyte units, duration of blood storage had no effect on the incidence of posttransfusion acute kidney injury.
Hospitalized patients enrolled across four countries in the Informing Fresh versus Old Red Cell Management (INFORM) trial (n= 14,461).
Transfusion with freshest available erythrocyte units (n= 4,777).
Transfusion with oldest available erythrocyte units (n= 9,684).
The median of the mean age of blood units transfused per patient was 11 days in the freshest available blood group and 23 days in the oldest available blood group. In the primary analysis, post-transfusion acute kidney injury was observed in 688 of 4,777 (14.4%) patients given the freshest available blood and 1,487 of 9,684 (15.4%) patients given the oldest available blood, with an estimated relative risk of 0.94.