Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Application on Non-Infectious Complications after Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(16)
Due to the frequent development of non-infectious complications after surgical removal of the third lower impacted tooth, many techniques are used to reduce their severity. Among them is the technique of applying platelet-rich fibrin to the post-extraction alveolus. The study included 90 consecutively enrolled patients. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to two groups: patients with and without platelet-rich fibrin introduced into the postoperative alveolus. Pain, swelling, trismus, and temperature were evaluated after the procedure. Pain intensity was significantly higher in the control group than in the study group at 6 h, 1, and 3 days after surgery. PRF application did not significantly affect the intensity of swelling. Body temperature was significantly higher in the control group than the study group on day two after surgery. The trismus was significantly higher in the control group than in the study group at one, two, and seven days after surgery. Application of the PRF allows for a faster and less traumatic treatment process. It will enable for speedier recovery and return to active life and professional duties.
Autologous Platelet Concentrate of 2(nd) and 3(rd) generations efficacy in the surgical treatment of gingival recession: an overview of systematic reviews
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2021;25(6):463-479
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet concentrate (APC)/platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) of second and third generations has increased use in periodontics to optimize wound healing. Few systematic reviews (SRs) have reported improved clinical outcomes, while other studies reported significantly better results for the connective tissue graft (CTG). There is still unclear clinical evidence about APC/PRF use to treat gingival recession (GR) defects. Then, the purpose of this SR was to evaluate the use of APC/PRF membranes (2(nd) and 3(rd) generations) in root coverage (RC) procedures and assess its efficacy as a substitute biomaterial. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Google Scholar, BookSC databases, and gray literature. The search strategy, without date restriction up to April 2020, included keywords as "platelet-rich fibrin," "autologous platelet concentrates," "blood," "systematic review," "periodontics," "surgery," "tissue," "gingiva," "gingival recession," "connective tissue," "graft," and "root coverage." The methodological quality was evaluated through the AMSTAR2, and a population, index test, comparator, outcome strategy was used to assess specific clinical parameters such as recession depth, clinical attachment levels, and RC outcomes. RESULTS Nine SRs were included. Only three articles described the technique of APC/PRF production. Three studies reported unfavorable outcomes using APC, while six reported favorable results and postoperative discomfort reduction. Articles included in this SRs that provided information about APC/PRF membranes (n = 13) showed no significant difference between APC/PRF and the control group for the parameters analyzed. CONCLUSIONS This implies that APC/PRF may be considered a feasible substitute biomaterial for treating GR defects, although the CTG still provides superior outcomes. Further long-term and controlled studies are needed to verify this finding.
The effects of platelet-rich fibrin on post-surgical complications following removal of impacted wisdom teeth: A pilot study
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2021;16(4):521-528
OBJECTIVES Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a fibrin matrix composed of cells, cytokines, and growth factors, which may be liberated from blood at specific times and act as a resorbable membrane. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of PRF for bone healing in oral and maxillofacial implant surgery. Our study assesses the impact of PRF on postoperative complications following the extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. METHODS Twenty patients were recruited in this blind controlled randomised clinical trial, i.e. ten patients in the study group and ten patients in the control group. The patients were aged between 18 and 40 years. Surgical removal of impacted teeth #38 and #48 was performed in all the patients. The study group underwent dentoalveolar surgery with the use of PRF, while the control group underwent surgery without PRF. RESULTS All patients in the study group reported significantly less postoperative pain (p = 0.02) and excellent soft tissue healing during the follow-up period (p = 0.021). In contrast, only 80% of patients in the control group exhibited sufficient soft tissue healing. The difference in postoperative swelling between the two groups was not statistically significant. Additionally, 69% of patients in the study group reported comfortable night sleep during the first 24 h after the operation compared to 31% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION Based on the outcomes of our study, implanting PRF into surgical extraction sites can be helpful in reducing postoperative pain and improving soft tissue healing. The use of PRF in extraction sockets is simple and biologically safe. The beneficial effects of PRF support its possible application in the field of dental surgery.
Effects of platelet-rich fibrin combined with guided bone regeneration in the reconstruction of peri-implantitis bone defect
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):8397-8402
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combined with guided bone regeneration (GBR) in the reconstruction of peri-implantitis bone defect. METHODS This prospective study included 80 patients with peri-implantitis who underwent implant restoration in the Department of Stomatology in our hospital. The eligible patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 40 cases in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with flap curettage combined with GBR, while those in the observation group received a mixture of PRF and bone powder implanted with GBR and covered with PRF biofilm. The differences of pain 24 hours after surgery, bleeding at 7 days after surgery, and the degree of bone defect between the two groups at 60 days after surgery were compared. At 60 days and 120 days after surgery, separately, the regenerated bone density of patients in the two groups was measured, analyzed and compared. The degree of regenerated bone defect in transverse and longitudinal directions after 60 days was compared between the two reconstruction procedures. RESULTS The pain at 24 hours after surgery and the bleeding at 7 days after surgery in the observation group were milder than those in the control group (P<0.001). There was significant difference in the degrees of bone defect at 60 days after surgery (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the regenerated bone density of the observation group was significantly higher both at 60 days and 120 days after surgery (P<0.001). CONCLUSION The combination of PRF and GBR technology has an obvious effect in repairing bone defects in patients with peri-implantitis, and can reduce the pain of patients during the repair process.
Stability of biomaterials used in adjunct to coronally advanced flap: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Clinical and experimental dental research. 2021
AIM: The objective of this network meta-analysis was to rank different biomaterials used in adjunct to coronally advanced flap (CAF), based on their performance in root-coverage for Miller's Class I and II gingival recessions. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic database search was carried out in PUBMED, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE to identify the eligible articles and compiled into the citation manager to remove the duplicates. The primary outcome was keratinized gingival tissue width (KGW) and percentage of root coverage (%RC). The treatment effect of different biomaterials was estimated using predictive interval plots and ranked based on biomaterials performance, using multidimensional scale ranking. RESULTS CAF + connective tissue graft (CTG), CAF + platelet concentrate matrix (PCM) and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) ranked at the top positions in performance in improving KGW. The highest ranked materials in improving percentage of root coverage in gingival recession were CAF + collagen matrix (CM) + gingival fibroblasts (GF), CAF + ADM + platelet rich plasma (PRP) and CAF + ADM, as compared to CAF alone. CONCLUSION CTG, ADM, platelet concentrates, and CM + GFs, when used in adjunct to CAF, showed improved stability over ≥12 months of follow-up, better percentage of root coverage, and improved keratinized gingival width.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.
Comparative evaluation of vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access with platelet-rich fibrin and connective tissue graft in the management of multiple gingival recession defects: A randomized clinical study
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2021;25(3):228-236
BACKGROUND The etiology of gingival recession is often multifactorial. Wide array of surgical techniques are available to manage gingival recession. The aim of the present study was to compare, minimally invasive approach (vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access [VISTA]), in combination with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and connective tissue graft (CTG) in the management of multiple recession defects in maxillary anterior region. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 32 sites from 10 systemically healthy controls were allocated randomly to VISTA with PRF (VISTA + PRF) and VISTA with CTG (VISTA + CTG). Plaque index, gingival index, Probing probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), and percentage of root coverage (%RC) were calculated at 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS Results showed significant improvement in mean PPD, RAL, RD, RW, and KTW. %RC in VISTA + PRF and VISTA + CTG was 83.25% ± 25.02% and 86.43% ± 22.79%, respectively, at 6 months. There were no significant differences in the parameters between the VISTA + PRF and VISTA + CTG groups. CONCLUSION VISTA is a minimally invasive surgical approach, which can be combined with CTG or PRF in the management of Miller's Class I and Class II recession defects, with predictable outcomes. There were significant improvements in the clinical parameters from baseline to 6 months in both the groups. To match with the CTG, which is the gold standard procedure, PRF can be used as an alternative for treating multiple recession defects.
Advanced platelet-rich fibrin plus and osseous bone graft for socket preservation and ridge augmentation - A randomized control clinical trial
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2021;11(2):225-233
OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical and radiographic effectiveness of A PRF Plus as an adjuctive material to osseous bone graft in socket preservation and ridge augmentation. METHODS Twenty patients with need to preserve extraction socket in non-molar sites planning for further prosthetic rehabilitation were divided into two groups. Test Group (Group A) was treated with A PRF Plus membrane and Sybograf plus ™ (70% HA and 30 %β TCP) bone graft. The Control Group (Group B) was treated with Sybograf plus ™ (70% HA and 30% βTCP) bone graft. Both groups had same socket preservation surgical technique. RESULTS Both Group A and Group B showed significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters. Mean socket length, Vertical Resorption reduction in Group A was 1.48 whereas in Group B was 1.67 which is statistically significant. (p ≤ 0.05). Changes in Horizontal width reduction at 1,3, and 5 mm depth of the socket for both groups were not statistically significant. The Gain in socket fill for Group A and B 6 months postoperatively was 1185.30HU ± 473.21 and 966.60 HU ± 273.27 respectively. But intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. (p = 0.17). There were no significant statistical differences in postoperative pain in Group A and Group B as subjects experienced moderate amount of pain. The assessment of post-operative swelling showed that only 30% subjects in Group A reported with swelling. Whereas 80% subjects in Group B complained of post-operative swelling. CONCLUSION The results of the present study proved utilisation of A PRF Plus as a promising adjunct to conventional regenerative therapy for socket preservation.
Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Using Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) and Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) in Treatment of Periodontal Intra-Bony Defects - A Randomized Controlled Trial
Saudi journal of biological sciences. 2021;28(1):870-878
The study aims to assess the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) biomaterial, while using it separately or in combination with nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) for treating intra-bony defects (IBDs) using radiographic evaluation (DBS-Win software). Sixty patients with IBD (one site/patient) and chronic periodontitis were recruited randomly to test either autologous PRF platelet concentrate, nano-HA bone graft, a combination of PRF platelet concentrate and nano-HA, or alone conventional open flap debridement (OFD). Recordings of clinical parameters including probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were obtained at baseline and 6 months, post-operatively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare four groups; whereas, multiple comparisons were done through Tukey's post hoc test. The results showed that CAL at baseline changed from 6.67 ± 1.23 to 4.5 ± 1.42 in group I, 6.6 ± 2.51 to 4.9 ± 1.48 in group II, 5.2 ± 2.17 to 3.1 ± 1.27 in group III, and 4.7 ± 2.22 to 3.7 ± 2.35 in group IV after 6 months. The most significant increase in bone density and fill was observed for IBD depth in group III that was recorded as 62.82 ± 24.6 and 2.31 ± 0.75 mm, respectively. VEGF concentrations were significantly increased at 3, 7, and 14 days in all groups. The use of PRF with nano-HA was successful regenerative periodontal therapy to manage periodontal IBDs, unlike using PRF alone. Increase in VEGF concentrations in all group confirmed its role in angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the early stages of bone defect healing.
The clinical implications of platelet-rich fibrin on periodontal regeneration: A systematic review
The Saudi dental journal. 2021;33(2):55-62
OBJECTIVES Platelet concentrates have been shown to enhance periodontal regeneration when used as a treatment on their own or in conjunction with bone grafting materials. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), both alone and in combination with other conventionally used materials, on periodontal regeneration in clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic electronic search was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science. Specifically, we searched for English language articles published between 2009 and 2019 that conducted in-human studies and included a summary of the results. Our primary search yielded 220 articles, and of these, 110 were clinical studies. Forty-four articles were then selected for a full reading. RESULTS Twenty-six randomized control trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Despite the differences between the reviewed studies, most revealed the ability of PRF to promote periodontal wound healing. The positive effects of PRF were observed in clinical criteria, such as reductions in pocket probing depth (PD) and increases in clinical attachment level (CAL), as well as in the degree of defect bone fill, which was determined either radiographically or by surgical re-entry. CONCLUSIONS Additional studies are needed to compare the clinical outcomes of various PRF application procedures and establish standardized protocols for treating periodontal disease with PRF.