Guideline development for prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease: reduction of indications for irradiated blood components after prestorage leukodepletion of blood components
British journal of haematology. 2021
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare, commonly fatal complication of transfusion preventable by irradiation of blood units. The revision of the Dutch transfusion guideline addressed the question whether irradiation is still necessary if blood components are prestorage leukodepleted. We searched for published cases of TA-GVHD following transfusion of prestorage leukodepleted blood and through contacting haemovigilance systems. Six presumed cases were found, dating from 1998 to 2013. Four out of six patients had received one or more non-irradiated units despite recognised indications for irradiated blood components. In the countries providing information, over 50 million prestorage leukodepleted, non-irradiated, non-pathogen-reduced cellular components were transfused in a 10-year period. Potential benefits of lifting indications for irradiation were considered. These include reduced irradiation costs (€ 1.5 million annually in the Netherlands) and less donor exposure for neonates. Findings were presented in an invitational expert meeting. Recommendations linked to human leukocyte antigen similarity between donor and recipient or intra-uterine transfusion were left unchanged. Indications linked to long-lasting deep T-cell suppression were defined with durations of 6 or 12 months after end of treatment (e.g. autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation). Need for continued alertness to TA-GVHD and haemovigilance reporting of erroneous non-irradiated transfusions was emphasised.
Transfusion transmitted babesiosis: A systematic review of reported cases
Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;:102843
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmitted babesiosis (TTB) has a high mortality rate but may go unrecognized, particularly in non-endemic areas. We therefore conducted a systematic review to better characterize clinical aspects of TTB. METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL databases, from which 25 eligible articles describing 60 TTB patients met criteria for data extraction. RESULTS Symptom evaluation was provided for 25 implicated donors: 18/25 (72%) were asymptomatic while 7/25 (28%) had mild flu-like symptoms but were asymptomatic at time of donation. It was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Where reported, species included B. microti - 54/60 (90%), B. duncani - 3/60 (5%), and B. divergens-like MO-1 - 1/60 (2%). Most TTB patients (44/60, 73%) resided in endemic states, while most TTB deaths 6/9 (67%) occurred in non-endemic states. Severity of hemolysis was proportional to degree of parasitemia. Mortality in our series was 9/60 (15%); most deaths occurred at extremes of the age spectrum: 6/9 non-survivors were aged >55 years, 2/9 were <1 year, only 1/9 was 2-54 years. Number of comorbidities was higher among non-survivors (median = 4) compared to survivors (median = 1). CONCLUSIONS All implicated donors (for which symptoms data were reported) resulting in TTB infections were asymptomatic at the time of donation, and it was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Mortality of TTB appeared highest among those with more comorbidities and in non-endemic states. Heightened awareness of this diagnosis is key in its recognition.
A systematic review of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic areas
Malaria Journal. 2018;17((1)):36.
BACKGROUND Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is an accidental Plasmodium infection caused by whole blood or a blood component transfusion from a malaria infected donor to a recipient. Infected blood transfusions directly release malaria parasites in the recipient's bloodstream triggering the development of high risk complications, and potentially leading to a fatal outcome especially in individuals with no previous exposure to malaria or in immuno-compromised patients. A systematic review was conducted on TTM case reports in non-endemic areas to describe the epidemiological characteristics of blood donors and recipients. METHODS Relevant articles were retrieved from Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, and LILACS. From each selected study the following data were extracted: study area, gender and age of blood donor and recipient, blood component associated with TTM, Plasmodium species, malaria diagnostic method employed, blood donor screening method, incubation period between the infected transfusion and the onset of clinical symptoms in the recipient, time elapsed between the clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of malaria, infection outcome, country of origin of the blood donor and time of the last potential malaria exposure. RESULTS Plasmodium species were detected in 100 TTM case reports with a different frequency: 45% Plasmodium falciparum, 30% Plasmodium malariae, 16% Plasmodium vivax, 4% Plasmodium ovale, 2% Plasmodium knowlesi, 1% mixed infection P. falciparum/P. malariae. The majority of fatal outcomes (11/45) was caused by P. falciparum whilst the other fatalities occurred in individuals infected by P. malariae (2/30) and P. ovale (1/4). However, non P. falciparum fatalities were not attributed directly to malaria. The incubation time for all Plasmodium species TTM case reports was longer than what expected in natural infections. This difference was statistically significant for P. malariae (p = 0.006). A longer incubation time in the recipient together with a chronic infection at low parasite density of the donor makes P. malariae a subtle but not negligible risk for blood safety aside from P. falciparum. CONCLUSIONS TTM risk needs to be taken into account in order to enhance the safety of the blood supply chain from donors to recipients by means of appropriate diagnostic tools.
Evidence-based strategies to reduce intravenous immunoglobulin-induced headaches
Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2015;49((6)):715-26.
OBJECTIVE To review the literature evaluating pharmacotherapeutic and nonpharmacotherapeutic options available to reduce migraines or headaches associated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. DATA SOURCES A search of MEDLINE (1946 to February 2015) and other secondary resources was performed using the terms immunoglobulin, immune globulin, intravenous immunoglobulins, migraine, and headache. Other relevant articles referenced from the MEDLINE search were also utilized. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION Data sources were limited to English language clinical trials and case studies. In all, 6 clinical studies and 2 case reports met the criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS Headaches or migraines are common adverse effects associated with the administration of IVIG. We evaluated 6 clinical studies and 2 case reports discussing this adverse event in patients treated with IVIG. Strategies used were hydration, switching to an alternate IVIG product, decreased infusion rates, or treating with oral analgesics, opioids, propranolol, sumatriptan, or dihydroergotamines before, during, or after the IVIG infusion. Overall, the majority of patients experienced improvement in headache symptoms, suggesting benefit, after using the various strategies discussed. However, the evidence is limited to case reports and clinical studies with small sample sizes that do not directly measure cause and effect of headache resolution and therapy given in those treated with IVIG. CONCLUSIONS An individualized treatment plan consisting of a pharmacotherapy or nonpharmacotherapy strategy used in the literature should be recommended after careful consideration of the patient's condition, specific IVIG product used, history of migraine, and previously failed and successful therapies.Copyright © The Author(s) 2015.