The role of point of care thromboelastography (TEG) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in management of Primary postpartum haemorrhage: A meta-analysis and systematic review
Saudi journal of anaesthesia. 2023;17(1):23-32
BACKGROUND The utility of instantaneous evaluation of coagulation during primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is paramount in the context of empirical blood product transfusion-related risk of dilutional and consumptive coagulopathy and circulatory overload. METHODS A profound screening of electronic databases till August 15, 2022 was carried out after being enlisted in PROSPERO (CRD42021275514). Randomized control studies, comparative cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies comparing point-of-care viscoelastic test guided blood product transfusion with empirical transfusion in patients with PPH were included. RESULTS We retrieved five studies, with a total of 1914 parturient with PPH. Patients receiving transfusion based upon point of care viscoelastic tests had lesser risk of having emergency hysterectomy (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95, I(2) = 7%), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) (OR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.50), reduced transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (OR = 0.07, 95% CI 0.04-0.14, I(2) = 89%), platelets (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.91, I(2) = 89%), packed red blood cell transfusion (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.88, I(2) = 89%), and had better cost-effective treatment [Mean difference (MD) = -357.5, 95% CI - 567.75 to -147.25, I(2) = 93%] than patient received empirical transfusion. However, there was no significant difference in the requirement of ICU admissions (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.46-1.29, I(2) = 82%). No mortality was detected across the studies. CONCLUSIONS Point of care viscoelastic assessment guided transfusion in PPH confederates with reduced morbidity. Nevertheless, more studies on the triggering values for transfusion, long-term survival, and cost-benefit in patients with PPH are warranted to establish its utility.
Thromboelastometry-guided treatment algorithm in postpartum haemorrhage: a randomised, controlled pilot trial
British journal of anaesthesia. 2022
BACKGROUND Postpartum haemorrhage causes significant mortality among parturients. Early transfusion of blood products based on clinical judgement and conventional coagulation testing has been adapted to the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage, but rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) may provide clinicians means for a goal-directed therapy to control coagulation. We conducted a parallel design, randomised, controlled trial comparing these two approaches. We hypothesised that a ROTEM-guided protocol would decrease the need for red blood cell transfusion. METHODS We randomised 60 parturients with postpartum haemorrhage of more than 1500 ml to receive either ROTEM-guided or conventional treatment, with 54 patients included in the final analysis. The primary outcome was consumption of blood products, and secondarily we assessed for possible side-effects of managing blood loss such as thromboembolic complications, infections, and transfusion reactions. RESULTS The median (25th-75th percentile) number of RBC units transfused was 2 (1-4) in the ROTEM group and 3 (2-4) in the control group (P=0.399). The median number of OctaplasLG® units given was 0 in both groups (0-0 and 0-2) (P=0.030). The median total estimated blood loss was 2500 ml (2100-3000) in the ROTEM group and 3000 ml (2200-3100) in the control group (P=0.033). No differences were observed in secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ROTEM-guided treatment of postpartum haemorrhage could have a plasma-sparing effect but possibly only a small reduction in total blood loss. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02461251.
Hemostasis in Neonates with Perinatal Hypoxia-Laboratory Approach: A Systematic Review
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2022
Birth asphyxia, with an estimated prevalence of 1 to 6 per 1,000 live births, may lead to multiorgan dysfunction due to impaired oxygen and/or blood supply to various organ systems, including the hemostatic system. Coagulopathy, a common complication of perinatal asphyxia, has been described since the 1960s. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for records on the use of hemostasis tests in the evaluation of coagulation disorders, in neonates who had suffered from perinatal hypoxia or asphyxia. We identified published studies by searching PubMed and Scopus, up until April 2022. The literature search retrieved 37 articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the review. According to the bibliography, thrombocytopenia is commonly associated with perinatal hypoxia/asphyxia. The thrombocytopenia is usually described as mild and platelets return to normal levels by the 10th day of life. Additionally, hypoxic neonates usually present with a hypocoagulable profile, as reflected by the prolongation of standard coagulation tests, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio, findings commonly associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, and by the reduction of the levels of the physiologic inhibition of coagulation system. A few studies thus far using ROTEM/TEG in hypoxic neonates have come to the same conclusion as well; hypoxic newborns seem to be characterized by a hypocoagulable profile compared with healthy neonates. It should be emphasized, however, that standard coagulation tests provide only a rough estimation of the true bleeding or thrombotic risk of hypoxic neonates. On the contrary, viscoelastic methods seem to be more precise in the early detection of hemostasis disorders in the neonatal population. However, until now, there was uncertainty as to the most appropriate coagulation assays for diagnosis and management of coagulation derangement in neonates with perinatal hypoxia indicating the need for further research on this field.
Eye tracking metrics and leader's behavioral performance during a post-partum hemorrhage high-fidelity simulated scenario
Advances in simulation (London, England). 2021;6(1):4
BACKGROUND The use of eye tracking in the simulated setting can help improve our understanding of what sources of information clinicians are using as they deliver routine patient care. The aim of this simulation study was to observe the differences, if any, between the eye tracking patterns of leaders who performed best in a simulated postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) high-fidelity scenario, in comparison with those who performed worst. METHODS Forty anesthesia trainees from the University of Catania Medical School were divided into eight teams, to enact four times the same scenario of a patient with postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery. Trainees who were assigned the leader's role wore the eye tracking glasses during the scenario, and their behavioral skills were evaluated by two observers, who reviewed the video recordings of the scenarios using a standardized checklist. The leader's eye tracking metrics, extracted from 27 selected areas of interest (AOI), were recorded by a Tobii Pro Glasses 50 Hz wearable wireless eye tracker. Team performance was evaluated using a PPH checklist. After completion of the study, the leaders were divided into two groups, based on the scores they had received (High-Performance Leader group, HPL, and Low-Performance Leader group, LPL). RESULTS In the HPL group, the duration and number of fixations were greater, and the distribution of gaze was uniformly distributed among the various members of the team as compared with the LPL group (with the exception of the participant who performed the role of the obstetrician). The HPL group also looked both at the patient's face and established eye contact with their team members more often and for longer (P < .05). The team performance (PPH checklist) score was greater in the HPL group (P < .001). The LPL group had more and/or longer fixations of technical areas of interest (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the leaders who perform the best distribute their gaze across all members of their team and establish direct eye contact. They also look longer at the patient's face and dwell less on areas that are more relevant to technical skills. In addition, the teams led by these best performing leaders fulfilled their clinical task better. The information provided by the eye behaviors of "better-performing physicians" may lay the foundation for the future development of both the assessment process and the educational tools used in simulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical.Trial.Gov ID n. NCT04395963 .
[Application of goal-oriented fluid replacement therapy in volume management of postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean section]
Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue. 2021;33(3):305-310
OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of fluid therapy on volume and coagulation function in patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean section of placenta accreta under the guidance of inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) and inferior vena cava collapse index (IVC-CI). METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in 60 pregnant women with severe postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ≥ 1 000 mL) who were hospitalized for delivery or referred for delivery in the Peking University Third Hospital from December 2018 to July 2019. The patients were divided into routine fluid replacement group and goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group (goal-oriented fluid replacement therapy was given) according to the different ways of fluid replacement. The hemodynamics, blood gas analysis, coagulation function, total fluid replacement, urine volume, prognosis, intraoperative vasoactive drugs utilization rate and postoperative adverse events were recorded before skin incision, after the fetus delivered, postpartum hemorrhage and at the end of operation, and the differences of these indices between the two groups were compared. RESULTS (1) Hemodynamics: the heart rate (HR) of the two groups were reached the peak during postpartum hemorrhage, but there was no significant difference in HR at each time point between the two groups. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was decreased at first and then increased in both groups, and reached the trough at postpartum hemorrhage, but the MAP in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly higher than that in the routine fluid replacement group [mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 75.6±10.7 vs. 69.2±8.9, P < 0.05]. In the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group, the central venous pressure (CVP) was increased slightly after the fetus delivered and then stabilized, while in the routine fluid replacement group, the CVP was increased at first and then decreased, and reached the peak in postpartum hemorrhage. During postpartum hemorrhage, CVP in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly lower than that in the routine fluid replacement group [cmH(2)O (1 cmH(2)O = 0.098 kPa): 9.5±3.9 vs. 11.4±3.4, P < 0.05]. (2) Arterial blood gas: partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) in arterial blood at the end of operation in both groups were higher than those in postpartum hemorrhage. There was no significant difference in PaO(2) at the end of operation between the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group and routine fluid replacement group (mmHg: 189.3±100.5 vs. 240.2±126.3, P > 0.05). The PaCO(2) in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly lower than that in the routine fluid replacement group (mmHg: 34.6±4.6 vs. 36.8±4.1, P < 0.05). The lactic acid (Lac) at the end of operation of the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly lower than that of the routine fluid replacement group (mmol/L: 2.2±0.6 vs. 2.6±1.1, P < 0.05). (3) Liquid intake and output volume: the total infusion volume, crystal fluid infusion volume and suspended red blood cell infusion volume in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group were significantly less than those in the routine fluid replacement group [total infusion volume (mL): 3 385.9±1 144.1 vs. 4 448.3±1 194.4, crystal infusion volume (mL): 2 635.6±789.7 vs. 3 160.0±860.3, suspended red blood cell input volume (mL): 695.6±366.2 vs. 911.1±284.7, all P < 0.05], and the utilization rate of vasoactive drugs in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was decreased significantly during operation [13.3% (4/30) vs. 60.0% (18/30), P < 0.05]. The amount of bleeding in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was also significantly less than that in the routine fluid replacement group (mL: 1 451.7±373.8 vs. 1 725.9±372.8, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in urine volume between the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group and the routine fluid replacement group (mL: 369.0±262.7 vs. 485.0±286.8, P > 0.05). (4) Coagulation function: at the end of operation, the prothrombin time (PT) in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly shorter than that in the routine fluid replacement group (s: 10.9±0.6 vs. 11.2±0.6), and the fibrinogen (Fib) in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly higher than that in the routine fluid replacement group (g/L: 3.7±0.5 vs. 2.9±0.8), and the differences were statistically significant (both P < 0.05). (5) Prognostic index: compared with the routine fluid replacement group, the proportion of patients transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) at the end of operation in the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group was significantly lower [16.7% (5/30) vs. 66.7% (20/30), P < 0.05], and ICU length-of-stay was significantly shorter [hours: 0 (0, 24) vs. 24 (0, 24), P < 0.05], but there was no significant difference in the incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute renal injury (AKI) or hysterectomy between the goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group and the routine fluid replacement group [the incidence of DIC: 0% (0/30) vs. 6.7% (2/30), the incidence of AKI: 0% (0/30) vs. 3.3% (1/30), the hysterectomy rate: 10.0% (3/30) vs. 26.7% (8/30), all P > 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS Fluid resuscitation guided by IVC-CI can effectively reduce the volume of blood and fluid transfusion and blood loss in patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage and improve their blood coagulation function.
The use of viscoelastic hemostatic tests in pregnancy and puerperium: review of the current evidence - communication from the Women's Health SSC of the ISTH
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis : Jth. 2019;17(7):1184-1189
227-POS : Thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) in pregnancy: A systematic review
Pregnancy Hypertension. 2015;5((1):):114-5.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the current position of thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in clinical obstetric practice. METHODS A search of the literature was performed on the following databases PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews. All articles published after 1990 until February 2013 and written in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Dutch concerning human pregnancies were eligible for inclusion. Eligible papers were subdivided in normal and complicated pregnancy outcomes and processed. RESULTS 287 articles were found, of which 60 are included in the review. All studies with TEG/ROTEM performed in uncomplicated pregnancies, found significant changes towards a hypercoagulable state, especially in the third trimester. Hypercoagulability was found to persist till at least 3 weeks postpartum. In postpartum hemorrhage FIBTEM-ROTEM correlated well with the measured fibrinogen levels. Although, in severe preeclampsia with low platelets (<100.000/mm(3)) or in HELLP-syndrome changes in TEG/ROTEM associated with hypocoagulability are described, most studies were not able to show any significant differences between healthy pregnant women and women with mild preeclampsia. Miscarriage is associated with hypercoagulable changes in TEG/ROTEM compared to healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women. 26 case reports concerning women with specific coagulation disorders were identified and TEG/ROTEM was used for guiding therapeutic decision making. CONCLUSIONS In individual women with coagulation disorders TEG/ROTEM can be useful to provide complementary information for "decision-making" and "therapy-guidance". The use of TEG(®) or ROTEM(®)-analysis in the general obstetric practice, is at this time not recommended. Further research with standardized processing of data is most promising for bedside monitoring and of postpartum hemorrhage. DISCLOSURES A.C. Bolte: None. F.J. Hermans: None. L.E. Van Rheenen-Flach: None.Copyright 2014.