Viscoelastic Testing in the Clinical Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2022
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are both debilitating and life-threatening incidents calling for immediate action and treatment. This review focuses on the applicability of viscoelastic testing (rotational thromboelastometry or thromboelastography [TEG]) in the management of SAH and ICH. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. Studies including patients with SAH or ICH, in which viscoelastic testing was performed, were identified. In total, 24 studies were included for analysis, and further subdivided into studies on SAH patients investigated prior to stenting or coiling (n = 12), ICH patients (n = 8) and studies testing patients undergoing stenting or coiling, or ischemic stroke patients undergoing thrombolysis or thrombectomy and developing ICH as a complication (n = 5). SAH patients had increased clot firmness, and this was associated with a higher degree of early brain injury and higher Hunt-Hess score. SAH patients with delayed cerebral ischemia had higher clot firmness than patients not developing delayed cerebral ischemia. ICH patients showed accelerated clot formation and increased clot firmness in comparison to healthy controls. Patients with hematoma expansion had longer clot initiation and lower platelet aggregation than patients with no hematoma expansion. During stent procedures for SAH, adjustment of antiplatelet therapy according to TEG platelet mapping did not change prevalence of major bleeding, thromboembolic events, or functional outcome. Viscoelastic testing prior to thrombolysis showed conflicting results in predicting ICH as complication. In conclusion, viscoelastic testing suggests hypercoagulation following SAH and ICH. Further investigation of the predictive value of increased clot firmness in SAH seems relevant. In ICH, the prediction of hematoma expansion and ICH as a complication to thrombolysis might be clinically relevant.
Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review on Additional Knowledge from Dynamic Assays and Potential Treatment Targets
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2021
Mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is augmented by rebleeding and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). A range of assays evaluating the dynamic process of blood coagulation, from activation of clotting factors to fibrinolysis, has emerged and a comprehensive review of hemostasis and fibrinolysis following aSAH may reveal targets of treatment. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature assessing coagulation and fibrinolysis following aSAH, but prior to treatment. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched on November 18, 2020, without time boundaries. In total, 45 original studies were eventually incorporated into this systematic review, divided into studies presenting data only from conventional or quantitative assays (n = 22) and studies employing dynamic assays (n = 23). Data from conventional or quantitative assays indicated increased platelet activation, whereas dynamic assays detected platelet dysfunction possibly related to an increased risk of rebleeding. Secondary hemostasis was activated in conventional, quantitative, and dynamic assays and this was related to poor neurological outcome and mortality. Studies systematically investigating fibrinolysis were sparse. Measurements from conventional or quantitative assays, as well as dynamic fibrinolysis assays, revealed conflicting results with normal or increased lysis and changes were not associated with outcome. In conclusion, dynamic assays were able to detect reduced platelet function, not revealed by conventional or quantitative assays. Activation of secondary hemostasis was found in both dynamic and nondynamic assays, while changes in fibrinolysis were not convincingly demonstrable in either dynamic or conventional or quantitative assays. Hence, from a mechanistic point of view, desmopressin to prevent rebleeding and heparin to prevent DCI may hold potential as therapeutic options. As changes in fibrinolysis were not convincingly demonstrated and not related to outcome, the use of tranexamic acid prior to aneurysm closure is not supported by this review.