Postoperative bleeding in essential thrombocytosis patients with colorectal cancer: Case report and literature review
International journal of surgery case reports. 2021;86:106374
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased platelet count and a high risk of bleeding or thrombotic events due to platelet dysfunction. Patients with ET are treated according to their risk of complications with cytoreductive or anti-aggregant treatment. Neither guidelines for oncologic patients nor perioperative management of patients with ET have been determined. CASE PRESENTATION A 41-year-old female patient with ET who had alternating constipation and diarrhea was referred after a screening colonoscopy diagnosing a locally advanced rectosigmoid junction colon adenocarcinoma with liver metastases. Systemic preoperative chemotherapy was indicated. The patient underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection plus volume-preserving right lobectomy of the liver. Postoperative bleeding of the internal iliac artery (IIA) associated with hematoma at the lower pelvic cavity was diagnosed and treated by interventional radiology; the patient was discharged without other complications 16 days after surgery. CLINICAL DISCUSSION ET has been related to the development of hematologic complications or second non-hematologic malignancies. A systematic review was conducted to seek guidance for the management of such patients in the perioperative period. Special perioperative care must be taken, and complications management should avoid further hemorrhages or cloth formation. CONCLUSION Under oncologic and hematological guidance, minimally invasive surgery and non-invasive management of complications are advised in the lack of published perioperative management guidelines of ET patients with colorectal cancer.