Intravenous iron supplementation after liver surgery: Impact on anemia, iron, and hepcidin levels-a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND Anemia is a recognized risk factor for perioperative related morbidity and mortality and is frequently reported in liver surgeries with an estimated incidence of 32%. We aim to assess the impact of intravenous iron administration in the immediate postoperative period on anemia and iron status as well as to determine the kinetics of hepcidin after liver surgery. METHODS The HepciFer trial, a randomized controlled trial, included 50 patients undergoing liver surgery. In accordance with the randomization process, patients received either ferric carboxymaltose (15 mg/kg, maximum 1 g) or placebo 4 hours after surgery. RESULTS The mean hemoglobin level, 7 days after surgery, did not differ significantly between the intervention and control group (11.1 ± 1.8 g/dL and 10.4 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively) with a mean difference of +0.7 g/dL ([95% confidence interval, -0.3 to +1.7], P = .173). Within patients receiving intravenous iron supplementation, none presented biological signs of functional iron deficiency. Hepcidin levels remained significantly higher during the observation period in the intervention group. Inflammatory biomarkers, red blood cells transfusion rate and hospital duration of stay were similar between groups. CONCLUSION Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose administration did not result in a significant increase of hemoglobin levels 7 days after surgery. However, this study suggests that intravenous iron supplementation in the immediate postoperative settings prevents functional iron deficiency. Intravenous iron supplementation overcame the hepcidin-mediated blockade of iron absorption and should be considered as the preferred route of administration in the postoperative period.
Phase 3 Randomized Study Comparing Vadadustat with Darbepoetin Alfa for Anemia in Japanese Patients with Nondialysis-Dependent CKD
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2021
BACKGROUND Standard care for treating anemia in patients with CKD includes use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, which sometimes involves increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies in patients with anemia and nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) found significantly elevated hemoglobin levels with use of vadadustat, an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, compared with placebo. METHODS In this phase 3, open-label, active-controlled noninferiority trial, we randomized 304 Japanese adults with anemia in NDD-CKD (including erythropoiesis-stimulating agent users and nonusers) to oral vadadustat or subcutaneous darbepoetin alfa for 52 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was average hemoglobin at weeks 20 and 24. Safety data included adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. RESULTS A total of 151 participants received vadadustat and 153 received darbepoetin alfa. Least squares mean of the average hemoglobin at weeks 20 and 24 was 11.66 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 11.49 to 11.84) g/dl for vadadustat and 11.93 (95% CI, 11.76 to 12.10) g/dl for darbepoetin alfa. The 95% CIs for both treatments were within the target hemoglobin range (11.0-13.0 g/dl), and the lower 95% confidence limit for the difference between groups (-0.50 g/dl) was above the predefined noninferiority margin (-0.75 g/dl), demonstrating noninferiority of vadadustat to darbepoetin alfa. Similar proportions of patients in each group reported AEs and serious AEs. The most frequent AEs with vadadustat were nasopharyngitis, diarrhea, and constipation. CONCLUSIONS In Japanese patients with NDD-CKD, vadadustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa, was effective up to week 52 in terms of average hemoglobin, and was generally well tolerated. These results suggest that vadadustat may be a potential treatment for anemia in this patient population.
Disease-modifying treatments for primary autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;3:Cd012493
BACKGROUND Primary autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is an autoantibody mediated condition characterised by a variable disease course. A myriad of immunomodulatory agents have been employed but there is a paucity of evidence to support their use or compare their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of various disease-modifying treatment modalities in people with AHIHA. SEARCH METHODS We searched MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to 2021), Embase (Ovid) (1974 to 2021), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1982 to 2021), and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL). Clinical trial registries and relevant conference proceedings were also reviewed. Records were included as of 7 March 2021. We did not impose any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory treatments against no treatment, placebo, or another immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory treatment, for people of all age with idiopathic AIHA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The prioritised pre-defined outcomes included complete haematological response at 12 months, frequency of adverse events at two, six and 12 months, partial haematological response at 12 months, overall survival at six and 12 months, relapse-free survival (RFS) at six and 12 months, red blood cel (RBC) transfusion requirement after treatment at 12 months, and quality of life (QOL) as measured by validated instruments at 12 months. Based on data availability, we were only able to perform meta-analysis on frequency of complete haematological response. MAIN RESULTS Two trials were included, enrolling a total of 104 adult participants (96 randomised) with warm AIHA in the setting of tertiary referral centres, both comparing the effectiveness between rituximab (375 mg/m(2) weekly for four weeks, or 1000 mg for two doses two weeks apart) plus glucocorticoid (prednisolone 1.5 or 1mg/kg/day with taper) and glucocorticoid monotherapy. The average age of participants in the two trials were 67 and 71, respectively. One of the included studies had good methodological quality with low risk of bias, whereas the other study had high risk of performance and detection bias due to lack of blinding. Compared with glucocorticoid alone, adding rituximab may result in a large increase of complete response at 12 months (n = 96, risk ratio (RR) 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34 to 3.40, GRADE low-certainty evidence). Rates of adverse effects at prespecified time-points were not reported. Limited data on partial haematological response were reported. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of adding rituximab to glucocorticoids on partial haematological response at 12 months (n = 32; study = 1; RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 68.57; GRADE very low-certainty evidence). RBC transfusion need at 12 months was reported in one study, with four participants (mean number of packed red cell units 4.0 ± 2.82) from the rituximab group and five participants from the placebo (corticosteroid only) (mean number of packed red cell units 5.6 ± 4.15) group requiring transfusion, indicating very uncertain evidence about the effect of adding rituximab to glucocorticoids (n = 32, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.26 to 2.45, GRADE very low-certainty evidence). The other study did not report transfusion requirement at prespecified time points but reported no difference in transfusion requirement between the two groups when comparing responders from enrolment to end of response or to the end of study follow-up (34 units versus 30 units, median [range]: 0 [1 to 6] versus 0 [1 to 5], P = 0·81). Overall survival and RFS rates at prespecified time-points were not explicitly reported in either study. Data on QOL were not available. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Available literature on the effectiveness of immunomodulatory therapy for primary AIHA is restricted to comparison between rituximab plus glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid alone, in patients with newly diagnosed warm AIHA, calling for need for additional studies. The current result suggests that combinatory therapy with rituximab and glucocorticoid may increase the rate of complete haematological response over glucocorticoid monotherapy.
Primary autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) patients (2 studies, n= 104).
Rituximab plus glucocorticoid.
Compared with glucocorticoid alone, adding rituximab may result in a large increase of complete response at 12 months. Rates of adverse effects at pre-specified time-points were not reported. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of adding rituximab to glucocorticoids on partial haematological response at 12 months. Red blood cell transfusion need at 12 months was reported in one study. The other study did not report transfusion requirement at pre-specified time points but reported no difference in transfusion requirement between the two groups.
A multicentre prospective double blinded randomised controlled trial of intravenous iron (ferric Derisomaltose (FDI)) in Iron deficient but not anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease on functional status
BMC nephrology. 2021;22(1):115
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Intravenous (IV) iron in heart failure leads to improvement in exercise capacity and improvement in quality-of-life measurements; however, data in patients with CKD are lacking. METHODS The Iron and the Heart Study was a prospective double blinded randomised study in non-anaemic CKD stages 3b-5 patients with ID which investigated whether 1000 mg of IV iron (ferric derisomaltose (FDI)) could improve exercise capacity in comparison to placebo measured at 1 and 3 months post infusion. Secondary objectives included effects on haematinic profiles and haemoglobin, safety analysis and quality of life questionnaires (QoL). RESULTS We randomly assigned 54 patients mean (SD) age for FDI (n = 26) 61.6 (10.1) years vs placebo (n = 28; 57.8 (12.9) years) and mean eGFR (33.2 (9.3) vs. 29.1 (9.6) ml/min/1.73m(2)) at baseline, respectively. Adjusting for baseline measurements, six-minute walk test (6MWT) showed no statistically significant difference between arms at 1 month (p = 0.736), or 3 months (p = 0.741). There were non-significant increases in 6MWT from baseline to 1 and 3 months in the FDI arm. Haemoglobin (Hb) at 1 and 3 months remained stable. There were statistically significant increases in ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TSAT) at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001). There was a modest numerical improvement in QoL parameters. There were no adverse events attributable to IV iron. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated a short-term beneficial effect of FDI on exercise capacity, but it was not significant despite improvements in parameters of iron status, maintenance of Hb concentration, and numerical increases in functional capacity and quality of life scores. A larger study will be required to confirm if intravenous iron is beneficial in iron deficient non-anaemic non-dialysis CKD patients without heart failure to improve the 6MWT. TRIAL REGISTRATION European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) No: 2014-004133-16 REC no: 14/YH/1209 Date First Registered: 2015-02-17 and date of end of trail 2015-05-23 Sponsor ref R1766 and Protocol No: IHI 141.
Impact of treating iron deficiency, diagnosed according to hepcidin quantification, on outcomes after a prolonged ICU stay compared to standard care: a multicenter, randomized, single-blinded trial
Critical care (London, England). 2021;25(1):62
BACKGROUND Anemia is a significant problem in patients on ICU. Its commonest cause, iron deficiency (ID), is difficult to diagnose in the context of inflammation. Hepcidin is a new marker of ID. We aimed to assess whether hepcidin levels would accurately guide treatment of ID in critically ill anemic patients after a prolonged ICU stay and affect the post-ICU outcomes. METHODS In a controlled, single-blinded, multicenter study, anemic (WHO definition) critically ill patients with an ICU stay ≥ 5 days were randomized when discharge was expected to either intervention by hepcidin treatment protocol or control. In the intervention arm, patients were treated with intravenous iron (1 g of ferric carboxymaltose) when hepcidin was < 20 μg/l and with intravenous iron and erythropoietin for 20 ≤ hepcidin < 41 μg/l. Control patients were treated according to standard care (hepcidin quantification remained blinded). Primary endpoint was the number of days spent in hospital 90 days after ICU discharge (post-ICU LOS). Secondary endpoints were day 15 anemia, day 30 fatigue, day 90 mortality and 1-year survival. RESULTS Of 405 randomized patients, 399 were analyzed (201 in intervention and 198 in control arm). A total of 220 patients (55%) had ID at discharge (i.e., a hepcidin < 41 μg/l). Primary endpoint was not different (medians (IQR) post-ICU LOS 33(13;90) vs. 33(11;90) days for intervention and control, respectively, median difference - 1(- 3;1) days, p = 0.78). D90 mortality was significantly lower in intervention arm (16(8%) vs 33(16.6%) deaths, absolute risk difference - 8.7 (- 15.1 to - 2.3)%, p = 0.008, OR 95% IC, 0.46, 0.22-0.94, p = 0.035), and one-year survival was improved (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION Treatment of ID diagnosed according to hepcidin levels did not reduce the post-ICU LOS, but was associated with a significant reduction in D90 mortality and with improved 1-year survival in critically ill patients about to be discharged after a prolonged stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION www.clinicaltrial.gov NCT02276690 (October 28, 2014; retrospectively registered).
Critically ill patients with a prolonged ICU stay (n= 399).
Intravenous iron (1 g of ferric carboxymaltose) when hepcidin was < 20 μg/l and with intravenous iron and erythropoietin for 20 ≤ hepcidin < 41 μg/l, (n= 201).
Standard care (n= 198).
A total of 220 patients (55%) had iron deficiency at discharge (i.e., a hepcidin < 41 μg/l). The number of days spent in hospital 90 days after ICU discharge was not different (medians: 33 vs. 33) days for intervention and control, respectively. Day 90 mortality was significantly lower in intervention arm (16 (8%) vs. 33 (16.6%) deaths, and one-year survival was improved.
The Effect of Iron Supplementation on FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review and Time-Response Meta-Analysis
Biological trace element research. 2021
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene is found to be responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and is highly expressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated the efficacy of different iron treatments on FGF23 levels in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients with IDA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of iron treatment versus placebo in CKD patients up to May 2020. We investigated the efficacy of iron treatment on the levels of FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) in CKD patients. We estimated weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Nine studies with 11 arms were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, iron treatment showed a significant reduction in FGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 60.56 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 92.17, - 28.95). Compared to placebo, subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy (WMD: - 6.98 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 10.66, - 3.31) was more effective than intravenous (IV) iron therapy (WMD: 4.90 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 12.03, 21.83) on FGF23 levels. There was no significant change in cFGF23 levels between iron treatment and control group (WMD: - 64.72 Ru/ml, 95% CI: - 147.69, 18.25). Subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy resulted in a significant reduction in cFGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 150.48 RU/ml, 95% CI: - 151.31, - 149.65). In conclusion, iron treatment was associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 levels in CKD patients.
Interventions for treating iron deficiency anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;1:Cd013529
BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel disease affects approximately seven million people globally. Iron deficiency anaemia can occur as a common systemic manifestation, with a prevalence of up to 90%, which can significantly affect quality of life, both during periods of active disease or in remission. It is important that iron deficiency anaemia is treated effectively and not be assumed to be a normal finding of inflammatory bowel disease. The various routes of iron administration, doses and preparations present varying advantages and disadvantages, and a significant proportion of people experience adverse effects with current therapies. Currently, no consensus has been reached amongst physicians as to which treatment path is most beneficial. OBJECTIVES The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventions for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in people with inflammatory bowel disease. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two other databases on 21st November 2019. We also contacted experts in the field and searched references of trials for any additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of iron administration interventions compared to other iron administration interventions or placebo in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease. We considered both adults and children, with studies reporting outcomes of clinical, endoscopic, histologic or surgical remission as defined by study authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently conducted data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment of included studies. We expressed dichotomous and continuous outcomes as risk ratios and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE methodology. MAIN RESULTS We included 11 studies (1670 randomised participants) that met the inclusion criteria. The studies compared intravenous iron sucrose vs oral iron sulphate (2 studies); oral iron sulphate vs oral iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (1 study); oral iron fumarate vs intravenous iron sucrose (1 study); intravenous ferric carboxymaltose vs intravenous iron sucrose (1 study); erythropoietin injection + intravenous iron sucrose vs intravenous iron sucrose + injection placebo (1 study); oral ferric maltol vs oral placebo (1 study); oral ferric maltol vs intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (1 study); intravenous ferric carboxymaltose vs oral iron sulphate (1 study); intravenous iron isomaltoside vs oral iron sulphate (1 study); erythropoietin injection vs oral placebo (1 study). All studies compared participants with CD and UC together, as well as considering a range of disease activity states. The primary outcome of number of responders, when defined, was stated to be an increase in haemoglobin of 20 g/L in all but two studies in which an increase in 10g/L was used. In one study comparing intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and intravenous iron sucrose, moderate-certainty evidence was found that intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was probably superior to intravenous iron sucrose, although there were responders in both groups (150/244 versus 118/239, RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.46, number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) = 9). In one study comparing oral ferric maltol to placebo, there was low-certainty evidence of superiority of the iron (36/64 versus 0/64, RR 73.00, 95% CI 4.58 to 1164.36). There were no other direct comparisons that found any difference in the primary outcomes, although certainty was low and very low for all outcomes, due to imprecision from sparse data and risk of bias varying between moderate and high risk. The reporting of secondary outcomes was inconsistent. The most common was the occurrence of serious adverse events or those requiring withdrawal of therapy. In no comparisons was there a difference seen between any of the intervention agents being studied, although the certainty was very low for all comparisons made, due to risk of bias and significant imprecision due to the low numbers of events. Time to remission, histological and biochemical outcomes were sparsely reported in the studies. None of the other secondary outcomes were reported in any of the studies. An analysis of all intravenous iron preparations to all oral iron preparations showed that intravenous administration may lead to more responders (368/554 versus 205/373, RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.31, NNTB = 11, low-certainty due to risk of bias and inconsistency). Withdrawals due to adverse events may be greater in oral iron preparations vs intravenous (15/554 versus 31/373, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.74, low-certainty due to risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose probably leads to more people having resolution of IDA (iron deficiency anaemia) than intravenous iron sucrose. Oral ferric maltol may lead to more people having resolution of IDA than placebo. We are unable to draw conclusions on which of the other treatments is most effective in IDA with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) due to low numbers of studies in each comparison area and clinical heterogeneity within the studies. Therefore, there are no other conclusions regarding the treatments that can be made and certainty of all findings are low or very low. Overall, intravenous iron delivery probably leads to greater response in patients compared with oral iron, with a NNTB (number needed to treat) of 11. Whilst no serious adverse events were specifically elicited with any of the treatments studied, the numbers of reported events were low and the certainty of these findings very low for all comparisons, so no conclusions can be drawn. There may be more withdrawals due to such events when oral is compared with intravenous iron delivery. Other outcomes were poorly reported and once again no conclusions can be made as to the impact of IDA on any of these outcomes. Given the widespread use of many of these treatments in practice and the only guideline that exists recommending the use of intravenous iron in favour of oral iron, research to investigate this key issue is clearly needed. Considering the current ongoing trials identified in this review, these are more focussed on the impact in specific patient groups (young people) or on other symptoms (such as fatigue). Therefore, there is a need for studies to be performed to fill this evidence gap.
Lenalidomide-Epoetin Alfa Versus Lenalidomide Monotherapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Refractory to Recombinant Erythropoietin
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2021;:Jco2001691
PURPOSE Impaired response to erythropoietin underlies ineffective erythropoiesis and anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We investigated whether treatment with lenalidomide (LEN), which augments erythropoietin receptor signaling in vitro, can restore and improve hemoglobin response to epoetin (EPO) alfa in patients with lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS who have anemia that is refractory to or have low probability of benefit from treatment with recombinant erythropoietin. METHODS In a phase III, US intergroup trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive either LEN and EPO alfa or LEN alone following stratification by serum erythropoietin concentration and prior erythropoietin treatment. RESULTS A total of 195 evaluable patients were randomly assigned: 99 patients to the LEN-EPO alfa cohort and 96 to LEN alone. After four cycles of treatment, the primary end point of major erythroid response (MER) was significantly higher (28.3%) with the combination compared with LEN alone (11.5%) (P = .004). Among 136 patients who completed 16 weeks of study treatment, 38.9% and 15.6% achieved MER, respectively (P = .004). Additionally, minor erythroid response was achieved in 18.2% and 20.8% of patients, for an overall erythroid response rate of 46.5% versus 32.3%. Among LEN nonresponders, 38 crossed over to the addition of EPO alfa with 10 patients (26.3%) achieving a MER. Responses to the combined treatment were highly durable with a median MER duration of 23.8 months compared with 13 months with LEN alone. CONCLUSION LEN restores sensitivity to recombinant erythropoietin in growth factor-insensitive, lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS, to yield a significantly higher rate and duration of MER compared with LEN alone (funded by the National Cancer Institute; E2905 ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02048813).
Role of preoperative intravenous iron therapy to correct anemia before major surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic reviews. 2021;10(1):36
BACKGROUND Preoperative anemia is a common comorbidity that often necessitates allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). As there is a risk associated with blood transfusions, preoperative intravenous iron (IV) has been proposed to increase the hemoglobin to reduce perioperative transfusion; however, randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating this efficacy for IV iron are small, limited, and inconclusive. Consequently, a meta-analysis that pools these studies may provide new and clinically useful information. METHODS/DESIGN Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews; Cochrane-controlled trial registry; Scopus; registries of health technology assessment and clinical trials; Web of Science; ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; Clinicaltrials.gov; and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) were searched. Also, we screened all the retrieved reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA Titles and abstracts were screened for relevance (i.e., relevant, irrelevant, or potentially relevant). Then, we screened full texts of those citations identified as potentially applicable. RESULTS Our search found 3195 citations and ten RCTs (1039 participants) that met our inclusion criteria. Preoperative IV iron supplementation significantly decreases ABT by 16% (risk ratio (RR): 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.99, p = 0.04). In addition, preoperatively, hemoglobin levels increased after receiving IV iron (mean difference [MD] between the study groups: 7.15 g/L, 95% CI: 2.26, 12.04 g/L, p = 0.004) and at follow-up > 4 weeks postoperatively (MD: 6.46 g/L, 95% CI: 3.10, 9.81, p = 0.0002). Iron injection was not associated with increased incidence of non-serious or serious adverse effects across groups (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.65, p = 0.52) and (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.44, 2.10, p = 0.92) respectively. CONCLUSIONS With moderate certainty, due to the high risk of bias in some studies in one or two domains, we found intravenous iron supplementation is associated with a significant decrease in the blood transfusions rate, and modest hemoglobin concentrations rise when injected pre-surgery compared with placebo or oral iron supplementation. However, further full-scale randomized controlled trials with robust methodology are required. In particular, the safety, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of different intravenous iron preparations require further evaluation.
Effects of timing of umbilical cord clamping on preventing early infancy anemia in low-risk Japanese term infants with planned breastfeeding: a randomized controlled trial
Maternal health, neonatology and perinatology. 2021;7(1):5
BACKGROUND Japanese infants have relatively higher risk of anemia and neonatal jaundice. This study aimed to assess the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on the incidence of anemia during early infancy in low-risk Japanese term infants with planned exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months. This study also aimed to explore the effects of DCC on neonatal jaundice. METHODS We conducted an open-label, parallel-arm, multicenter randomized controlled trial of DCC (clamping the cord after more than a minute or pulsation stops) vs. early cord clamping (ECC; clamping the cord within 15 s) at one birth center and two clinics in Japan. Low-risk pregnant women planning to have a vaginal birth and to exclusively breastfeed and term singleton infants delivered in cephalic presentation were included in this study. The primary outcome was spectrophotometric estimation of hemoglobin at 4 months. Secondary outcomes were anemia incidence at 4 months, four outcomes related to neonatal jaundice, hematocrit levels, and related outcomes. RESULTS Overall, 150 pregnant women were recruited. Participants (N = 138) were randomly allocated to two groups (DCC n = 68, ECC n = 70). There were no significant differences between the two groups in spectrophotometric estimation of hemoglobin at 4 months: mean difference = 0.1 g/dL, 95% confidence interval - 0.14, 0.35, DCC 12.4 g/dL, ECC 12.3 g/dL. Only the hematocrit levels on days 3 to 5 were significantly higher in the DCC group than in the ECC group: DCC 57.0%, ECC 52.6%, mean difference = 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.61, 6.20. There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes, including outcomes related to neonatal jaundice. CONCLUSION Among low-risk Japanese term infants with planned exclusive breastfeeding, DCC showed no significant effects on spectrophotometric hemoglobin levels at 4 months compared with ECC. We observed significantly higher hematocrit levels on days 3 to 5 in infants who underwent DCC, while these levels were within the normal range. Jaundice outcomes remained similar to those of infants who underwent ECC. Although a larger sample size is required to assess the effects of cord clamping on neonatal jaundice, DCC may prevent anemia in newborn infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION UMIN-CTR; UMIN000022573, 06/01/2016 - retrospectively registered, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000023056.