Role of gene therapy in Fanconi anemia: A systematic and literature review with future directions
Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy. 2021
Gene therapy (GT) has been reported to improve bone marrow function in individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA); however, its clinical application is still in the initial stages. We conducted this systematic review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, to assess the long-term safety and clinical outcomes of GT in FA patients. Electronic searches from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were conducted and full texts of articles meeting our inclusion criteria were reviewed. Three clinical trials were included, with a total of nine patients and mean age of 10.7 ± 5.7 years. All patients had lentiviral-mediated GT. A 1-year follow-up showed stabilization in blood lineages, without any serious adverse effects from GT. A metaregression analysis could not be conducted, as very little long-term follow-up data of patients was observed, and the median survival rate could not be calculated. Thus, we can conclude that GT seems to be a safe procedure in FA; however, further research needs to be conducted on the longitudinal clinical effects of GT in FA, for a better insight into its potential to become a standard form of treatment.
Transfusion management of severe anaemia in African children: a consensus algorithm
British journal of haematology. 2021
The phase III Transfusion and Treatment of severe anaemia in African Children Trial (TRACT) found that conservative management of uncomplicated severe anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) 40-60 g/l] was safe, and that transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia (Hb <60 g/l) had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status (>37·5°C). In 2020 a stakeholder meeting of paediatric and blood transfusion groups from Africa reviewed the results and additional analyses. Among all 3196 children receiving an initial transfusion there was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring. The proposed algorithm should help clinicians safely implement findings from TRACT. Further research should assess its implementation in routine clinical practice.
Children presenting to hospital with both uncomplicated and complicated severe anaemia enrolled in the TRACT trial (n= 3,196).
Large volume of whole blood transfusion: 30 ml/kg, (n= 1,598).
Recommended blood volume transfusion by current WHO guidelines: 20 ml/kg (n= 1,598).
Transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status. There was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring.
Efficacy and Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose Infusion in Reducing Anemia in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Nonmyeloid Malignancies: a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study (IRON CLAD)
American journal of hematology. 2021
PURPOSE Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are effective for chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) but associated with serious adverse events. Safer alternatives would be beneficial in this population. The efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) as monotherapy for CIA was evaluated. METHODS This Phase 3, 18-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized adults with ≥4 weeks of chemotherapy remaining for treatment of nonmyeloid malignancies with CIA to FCM (two 15 mg/kg infusions 7 days apart; maximum dose, 750 mg single/1500 mg total) or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage of patients with decreases in hemoglobin (Hb) ≥0.5 g/dL from weeks 3 to 18; the key secondary efficacy endpoint was change in Hb from baseline to week 18. Inclusion criteria included: (Hb) 8-11 g/dL, ferritin 100-800 ng/mL, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) ≤35%. RESULTS In 244 patients (n=122, both groups), the percent who maintained Hb within 0.5 g/dL of baseline from weeks 3 to 18 was significantly higher with FCM versus placebo (50.8% vs 35.3%; P=0.01). Mean change in Hb from baseline to week 18 was similar between FCM and placebo (1.04 vs 0.87 g/dL) but significantly greater with FCM with baseline Hb ≤9.9 g/dL (1.08 vs 0.42 g/dL; P=0.01). The percent with ≥1 g/dL increase from baseline was significantly higher with FCM versus placebo (71% vs 54%; P=0.01), occurring in a median 43 versus 85 days (P=0.001). Common adverse events in the FCM arm included neutropenia (17%), hypophosphatemia (16%), and fatigue (15%). CONCLUSION FCM monotherapy effectively maintained Hb and was well tolerated in CIA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Long-Term Effectiveness of Oral Ferric Maltol vs Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose for the Treatment of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial
Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2021
BACKGROUND Iron-deficiency anemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease, requiring oral or intravenous iron replacement therapy. Treatment with standard oral irons is limited by poor absorption and gastrointestinal toxicity. Ferric maltol is an oral iron designed for improved absorption and tolerability. METHODS In this open-label, phase 3b trial (EudraCT 2015-002496-26 and NCT02680756), adults with nonseverely active inflammatory bowel disease and iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin, 8.0-11.0/12.0 g/dL [women/men]; ferritin, <30 ng/mL/<100 ng/mL with transferrin saturation <20%) were randomized to oral ferric maltol 30 mg twice daily or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose given according to each center's standard practice. The primary endpoint was a hemoglobin responder rate (≥2 g/dL increase or normalization) at week 12, with a 20% noninferiority limit in the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations. RESULTS For the intent-to-treat (ferric maltol, n = 125/ferric carboxymaltose, n = 125) and per-protocol (n = 78/88) analyses, week 12 responder rates were 67% and 68%, respectively, for ferric maltol vs 84% and 85%, respectively, for ferric carboxymaltose. As the confidence intervals crossed the noninferiority margin, the primary endpoint was not met. Mean hemoglobin increases at weeks 12, 24, and 52 were 2.5 vs 3.0 g/dL, 2.9 vs 2.8 g/dL, and 2.7 vs 2.8 g/dL with ferric maltol vs ferric carboxymaltose. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 59% and 36% of patients, respectively, and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 10% and 3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ferric maltol achieved clinically relevant increases in hemoglobin but did not show noninferiority vs ferric carboxymaltose at week 12. Both treatments had comparable long-term effectiveness for hemoglobin and ferritin over 52 weeks and were well tolerated.
Treatment of Chronic Aplastic Anemia with Chinese Patent Medicine Pai-Neng-Da Capsule () for Replacing Androgen Partially: A Clinical Multi-Center Study
Chinese journal of integrative medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pai-Neng-Da Capsule (, panaxadiol saponins component, PNDC) in combination with the cyclosporine and androgen for patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA). METHODS A total of 79 CAA patients was randomly divided into 2 groups by a random number table, including PCA group [43 cases, orally PNDC 320 mg/d plus cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 80 mg/d] and CA group [36 cases, orally cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 160 mg/d]. All patients were treated and followed-up for 6 treatment courses over 24 weeks. The complete blood counts, score of Chinese medical (CM) symptoms were assessed and urine routine, electrocardiogram, hepatic and renal function were observed for safety evaluation. Female masculinization rating scale was established according to the actual clinical manifestations to evaluate the accurate degree of masculinization in female CAA patients treated by andriol. RESULTS The effective rates were 88.1% (37/42) in the PCA group and 77.8% (28/36) in the CA group based on the standard for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of hematopathy. There was no significant difference in the white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood between two groups after 6 months treatment. The masculinization score of female patient in the PCA group was significantly lower than the CA group (P<0.05). The mild abdominal distention was observed in 1 cases in the PCA group. In CA group, the abnormalities in the hepatic function developed in 2 cases and the renal disfunction was found in 1 case. CONCLUSION The PNDC possesses certain curative effects in the treatment of CAA without obvious side-effects and can partially replace andriol thereby to reduce the degree of masculinization [Registried at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChicTR1900028153)].
Intravenous iron is non-inferior to oral iron regarding cell growth and iron metabolism in colorectal cancer associated with iron-deficiency anaemia
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):13699
Oral iron promotes intestinal tumourigenesis in animal models. In humans, expression of iron transport proteins are altered in colorectal cancer. This study examined whether the route of iron therapy alters iron transport and tumour growth. Colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with pre-operative iron deficiency anaemia received oral ferrous sulphate (n = 15), or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (n = 15). Paired (normal and tumour tissues) samples were compared for expression of iron loading, iron transporters, proliferation, apoptosis and Wnt signalling using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Iron loading was increased in tumour and distributed to the stroma in intravenous treatment and to the epithelium in oral treatment. Protein and mRNA expression of proliferation and iron transporters were increased in tumours compared to normal tissues but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups. However, intravenous iron treatment reduced ferritin mRNA levels in tumours and replenished body iron stores. Iron distribution to non-epithelial cells in intravenous iron suggests that iron is less bioavailable to tumour cells. Therefore, intravenous iron may be a better option in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to its efficiency in replenishing iron levels while its effect on proliferation and iron metabolism is similar to that of oral iron treatment.
Lenalidomide-Epoetin Alfa Versus Lenalidomide Monotherapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Refractory to Recombinant Erythropoietin
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2021;:Jco2001691
PURPOSE Impaired response to erythropoietin underlies ineffective erythropoiesis and anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We investigated whether treatment with lenalidomide (LEN), which augments erythropoietin receptor signaling in vitro, can restore and improve hemoglobin response to epoetin (EPO) alfa in patients with lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS who have anemia that is refractory to or have low probability of benefit from treatment with recombinant erythropoietin. METHODS In a phase III, US intergroup trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive either LEN and EPO alfa or LEN alone following stratification by serum erythropoietin concentration and prior erythropoietin treatment. RESULTS A total of 195 evaluable patients were randomly assigned: 99 patients to the LEN-EPO alfa cohort and 96 to LEN alone. After four cycles of treatment, the primary end point of major erythroid response (MER) was significantly higher (28.3%) with the combination compared with LEN alone (11.5%) (P = .004). Among 136 patients who completed 16 weeks of study treatment, 38.9% and 15.6% achieved MER, respectively (P = .004). Additionally, minor erythroid response was achieved in 18.2% and 20.8% of patients, for an overall erythroid response rate of 46.5% versus 32.3%. Among LEN nonresponders, 38 crossed over to the addition of EPO alfa with 10 patients (26.3%) achieving a MER. Responses to the combined treatment were highly durable with a median MER duration of 23.8 months compared with 13 months with LEN alone. CONCLUSION LEN restores sensitivity to recombinant erythropoietin in growth factor-insensitive, lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS, to yield a significantly higher rate and duration of MER compared with LEN alone (funded by the National Cancer Institute; E2905 ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02048813).
Serum or plasma ferritin concentration as an index of iron deficiency and overload
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;5(5):Cd011817
BACKGROUND Reference standard indices of iron deficiency and iron overload are generally invasive, expensive, and can be unpleasant or occasionally risky. Ferritin is an iron storage protein and its concentration in the plasma or serum reflects iron stores; low ferritin indicates iron deficiency, while elevated ferritin reflects risk of iron overload. However, ferritin is also an acute-phase protein and its levels are elevated in inflammation and infection. The use of ferritin as a diagnostic test of iron deficiency and overload is a common clinical practice. OBJECTIVES To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ferritin concentrations (serum or plasma) for detecting iron deficiency and risk of iron overload in primary and secondary iron-loading syndromes. SEARCH METHODS We searched the following databases (10 June 2020): DARE (Cochrane Library) Issue 2 of 4 2015, HTA (Cochrane Library) Issue 4 of 4 2016, CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) Issue 6 of 12 2020, MEDLINE (OVID) 1946 to 9 June 2020, Embase (OVID) 1947 to week 23 2020, CINAHL (Ebsco) 1982 to June 2020, Web of Science (ISI) SCI, SSCI, CPCI-exp & CPCI-SSH to June 2020, POPLINE 16/8/18, Open Grey (10/6/20), TRoPHI (10/6/20), Bibliomap (10/6/20), IBECS (10/6/20), SCIELO (10/6/20), Global Index Medicus (10/6/20) AIM, IMSEAR, WPRIM, IMEMR, LILACS (10/6/20), PAHO (10/6/20), WHOLIS 10/6/20, IndMED (16/8/18) and Native Health Research Database (10/6/20). We also searched two trials registers and contacted relevant organisations for unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all study designs seeking to evaluate serum or plasma ferritin concentrations measured by any current or previously available quantitative assay as an index of iron status in individuals of any age, sex, clinical and physiological status from any country. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We followed standard Cochrane methods. We designed the data extraction form to record results for ferritin concentration as the index test, and bone marrow iron content for iron deficiency and liver iron content for iron overload as the reference standards. Two other authors further extracted and validated the number of true positive, true negative, false positive, false negative cases, and extracted or derived the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for each threshold presented for iron deficiency and iron overload in included studies. We assessed risk of bias and applicability using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 tool. We used GRADE assessment to enable the quality of evidence and hence strength of evidence for our conclusions. MAIN RESULTS Our search was conducted initially in 2014 and updated in 2017, 2018 and 2020 (10 June). We identified 21,217 records and screened 14,244 records after duplicates were removed. We assessed 316 records in full text. We excluded 190 studies (193 records) with reasons and included 108 studies (111 records) in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. There were 11 studies (12 records) that we screened from the last search update and appeared eligible for a future analysis. We decided to enter these as awaiting classification. We stratified the analysis first by participant clinical status: apparently healthy and non-healthy populations. We then stratified by age and pregnancy status as: infants and children, adolescents, pregnant women, and adults. Iron deficiency We included 72 studies (75 records) involving 6059 participants. Apparently healthy populations Five studies screened for iron deficiency in people without apparent illness. In the general adult population, three studies reported sensitivities of 63% to 100% at the optimum cutoff for ferritin, with corresponding specificities of 92% to 98%, but the ferritin cutoffs varied between studies. One study in healthy children reported a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 77%. One study in pregnant women reported a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 100%. Overall confidence in these estimates was very low because of potential bias, indirectness, and sparse and heterogenous evidence. No studies screened for iron overload in apparently healthy people. People presenting for medical care There were 63 studies among adults presenting for medical care (5042 participants). For a sample of 1000 subjects with a 35% prevalence of iron deficiency (of the included studies in this category) and supposing a 85% specificity, there would be 315 iron-deficient subjects correctly classified as having iron deficiency and 35 iron-deficient subjects incorrectly classified as not having iron deficiency, leading to a 90% sensitivity. Thresholds proposed by the authors of the included studies ranged between 12 to 200 µg/L. The estimated diagnostic odds ratio was 50. Among non-healthy adults using a fixed threshold of 30 μg/L (nine studies, 512 participants, low-certainty evidence), the pooled estimate for sensitivity was 79% with a 95% confidence interval of (58%, 91%) and specificity of 98%, with a 95% confidence interval of (91%, 100%). The estimated diagnostic odds ratio was 140, a relatively highly informative test. Iron overload We included 36 studies (36 records) involving 1927 participants. All studies concerned non-healthy populations. There were no studies targeting either infants, children, or pregnant women. Among all populations (one threshold for males and females; 36 studies, 1927 participants, very low-certainty evidence): for a sample of 1000 subjects with a 42% prevalence of iron overload (of the included studies in this category) and supposing a 65% specificity, there would be 332 iron-overloaded subjects correctly classified as having iron overload and 85 iron-overloaded subjects incorrectly classified as not having iron overload, leading to a 80% sensitivity. The estimated diagnostic odds ratio was 8. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS At a threshold of 30 micrograms/L, there is low-certainty evidence that blood ferritin concentration is reasonably sensitive and a very specific test for iron deficiency in people presenting for medical care. There is very low certainty that high concentrations of ferritin provide a sensitive test for iron overload in people where this condition is suspected. There is insufficient evidence to know whether ferritin concentration performs similarly when screening asymptomatic people for iron deficiency or overload.
Metabolomics-Based Clinical Efficacy of Compound Shenlu Granule, a Chinese Patent Medicine, in the Supportive Management of Aplastic Anemia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:6655848
OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy and mechanism of compound Shenlu granule (SLG) treatment in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). METHODS A total of 89 AA patients were randomly divided into an SLG supportive group (group A, n = 44) and a control group (group B, n = 45) while continuing Western medical management. After 6 months, hemograms, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, and overall clinical efficacy rate were assessed. Serum metabolomics characteristics were observed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after SLG intervention. RESULTS The levels of red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and platelet (PLT) were increased in both groups after treatment for 6 months (P < 0.05), and in group A, the elevation of PLT became much more significant (P < 0.01). The TCM syndrome score was lower in group A than in group B after treatment (P < 0.05). Metabolomics data showed a significant difference in the patients using SLG after 6 months, and 14 biomarkers were identified. CONCLUSION SLG supportive treatment showed positive results in patients with AA, and metabolomics data indicated that SLG influenced aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and glycerophospholipid metabolism to gradually return to normal.
Treatment of Fanconi Anemia-Associated Head and Neck Cancer: Opportunities to Improve Outcomes
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2021
Fanconi anemia, the most frequent genetic cause of bone marrow failure, is characterized by an extreme predilection towards multiple malignancies, including a greater than 500-fold incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) relative to the general population. Fanconi anemia-associated HNSCC and esophageal SCC (FA-HNSCC) often present at advanced stages with poor survival. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for FA-HNSCC, and there is often great reluctance to administer systemic agents and/or radiation therapy (RT) to these patients given their susceptibility to DNA damage. The paucity of FA-HNSCC case reports limits evidence-based management, and such cases have not been analyzed collectively in detail. We present a systematic review of FA-HNSCC treatments reported from 1966 to 2020, defining a cohort of 119 FA-HNSCC patients including 16 esophageal SCCs (131 total primary tumors), who were treated with surgery, RT, systemic therapy (including cytotoxic agents, EGFR inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors), or a combination of modalities. We summarize the clinical responses and regimen-associated toxicities by treatment modality. The collective evidence suggests that when possible, surgical resection with curative intent should remain the primary treatment modality for FA-HNSCC. Radiation can be administered with acceptable toxicity in the majority of cases, including patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation (SCT). While there is little justification for cytotoxic chemotherapy, EGFR inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be both safe and effective. Immunotherapy may also be considered. Most oncologists have little personal experience with FA-HNSCC. This review is intended as a comprehensive resource for clinicians.