Intravenous Iron Supplementation for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Anemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(14)
BACKGROUND The pathophysiology of cancer-related anemia is multifactorial, including that of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). The guidelines are not consistent in their approach to the use of intravenous (IV) iron in patients with cancer as part of the clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS All randomized controlled trials that compared IV iron with either no iron or iron taken orally for the treatment of CIA were included. We excluded trials if erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients requiring a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion during the study period. The secondary outcomes included the hematopoietic response (an increase in the Hb level by more than 1 g/dL or an increase above 11 g/dL), the iron parameters and adverse events. For the dichotomous data, risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated and pooled. For the continuous data, the mean differences were calculated. A fixed effect model was used, except in the event of significant heterogeneity between the trials (p < 0.10; I(2) > 40%), in which we used a random effects model. RESULTS A total of 8 trials published between January 1990 and July 2021 that randomized 1015 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 553 patients were randomized to IV iron and were compared with 271 patients randomized to oral iron and 191 to no iron. IV iron decreased the percentage of patients requiring a blood transfusion compared with oral iron (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) with a number needed to treat of 20 (95% CI 11-100). IV iron increased the hematopoietic response (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.01-1.5). There was no difference with respect to the risk of adverse events (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07; 8 trials) or severe adverse events (RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.76-1.57; 8 trials). CONCLUSIONS IV iron resulted in a decrease in the need for RBC transfusions, with no difference in adverse events in patients with CIA. IV iron for the treatment of CIA should be considered in clinical practice.
People with chemotherapy induced anaemia enrolled in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and identified by systematic review (n= 1,015, 8 RCTs).
Intravenous [IV] iron (n= 553).
Oral iron (n= 271), or no iron (n= 191).
IV iron decreased the percentage of patients requiring a blood transfusion compared with oral iron (Risk ratio [RR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.95) with a number needed to treat of 20 (95% CI 11-100). IV iron increased the hematopoietic response (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.01-1.5). There was no difference with respect to the risk of adverse events (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07; 8 trials) or severe adverse events (RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.76-1.57; 8 trials).
A Systematic review on diagnostic methods of red cell membrane disorders in Asia
International journal of laboratory hematology. 2022
Membranopathies are a group of inherited blood disorders where the diagnosis could form a challenge due to phenotype-genotype heterogeneity. In this review, the usage and limitations of diagnostic methods for membranopathies in Asian countries were evaluated. A systematic review was done using articles from PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO from 2000 to 2020. Thirty-six studies conducted in seven Asian countries had used different diagnostic methods to confirm membranopathies. In 58.3% of studies, full blood count (FBC), reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear (PBS) were used in preliminary diagnosis. The combination of the above three with osmotic fragility (OF) test was used in 38.8%. The flowcytometric osmotic fragility (FC-OF) test was used in 27.7% where it showed high sensitivity (92%-100%) and specificity (96%-98%). The eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) assay was used in 68.1% with high sensitivity (95%-100%) and specificity (93%-99.6%). About 36.1% of studies had used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as a further diagnostic method to detect defective proteins. Genetic analysis to identify mutations was done using Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 33.3%, 22.2%, and 13.8% of studies, respectively. The diagnostic yield of NGS ranged from 63% to 100%. Proteomics was used in 5.5% of studies to support the diagnosis of membranopathies. A single method could not diagnose all membranopathies. Next-generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and proteomics will supplement the well-established screening and confirmatory methods, but not replace them in hereditary hemolytic anemia assessment.
Eltrombopag Added to Immunosuppression in Severe Aplastic Anemia
The New England journal of medicine. 2022;386(1):11-23
BACKGROUND A single-group, phase 1-2 study indicated that eltrombopag improved the efficacy of standard immunosuppressive therapy that entailed horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) plus cyclosporine in patients with severe aplastic anemia. METHODS In this prospective, investigator-led, open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase 3 trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of horse ATG plus cyclosporine with or without eltrombopag as front-line therapy in previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia. The primary end point was a hematologic complete response at 3 months. RESULTS Patients were assigned to receive immunosuppressive therapy (Group A, 101 patients) or immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag (Group B, 96 patients). The percentage of patients who had a complete response at 3 months was 10% in Group A and 22% in Group B (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 7.8; P = 0.01). At 6 months, the overall response rate (the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response) was 41% in Group A and 68% in Group B. The median times to the first response were 8.8 months (Group A) and 3.0 months (Group B). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. With a median follow-up of 24 months, a karyotypic abnormality that was classified as myelodysplastic syndrome developed in 1 patient (Group A) and 2 patients (Group B); event-free survival was 34% and 46%, respectively. Somatic mutations were detected in 29% (Group A) and 31% (Group Β) of the patients at baseline; these percentages increased to 66% and 55%, respectively, at 6 months, without affecting the hematologic response and 2-year outcome. CONCLUSIONS The addition of eltrombopag to standard immunosuppressive therapy improved the rate, rapidity, and strength of hematologic response among previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia, without additional toxic effects. (Funded by Novartis and others; RACE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02099747; EudraCT number, 2014-000363-40.).
Patients with severe aplastic anaemia (n= 197).
Immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag (n= 96).
Immunosuppressive therapy (n= 101).
The percentage of patients who had a complete response at 3 months was 10% for patients in the immunosuppressive therapy group, and 22% for patients in the immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag group. At 6 months, the overall response rate (the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response) was 41% for those receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and 68% for those receiving immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag. The median times to the first response were 8.8 months (immunosuppressive therapy group) and 3.0 months (immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag group). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in all patients.
The addition of oral iron improves chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents
International journal of cancer. 2022
Although many studies have shown that supplementation with iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) is frequently used for managing chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA), optimal combination therapy using these agents together to ameliorate anemia is not well characterized. To assess the effects of ESA combined with oral or intravenous (IV) iron on relieving CIA, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for articles. Data collected in the articles were meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software with a random-effects model. Our comprehensive search yielded 1666 potentially relevant trials. A total of 41 trials randomizing 4200 patients with CIA fulfilled inclusion criteria, including 34 Chinese articles and 7 English articles. Meta-analysis showed that treatment with both ESA and iron more effectively improved CIA relative to iron supplementation alone, with increased hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and haematopoietic response rate. Subgroup analyses revealed iron administration, both oral and IV iron, improved anemia in ESA-treated cancer patients with CIA. Our analysis demonstrates that iron supplementation combined with ESA more effectively ameliorates CIA relative to iron supplementation alone, without regard to whether IV or oral iron was used. Together, our findings may contribute to the clinical treatment of CIA using iron therapy with or without ESA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Perioperative changes in haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations from preoperative intravenous iron isomaltoside for iron deficiency anaemia in patients with colorectal cancer: A pilot randomised controlled trial
PloS one. 2022;17(6):e0270640
BACKGROUND Patients with colorectal cancer have a high risk of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) due to chronic tumour induced blood loss, a reduced dietary iron intake from poor nutrition or gastrointestinal malabsorption. This pilot, double blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) examined the effect and feasibility of using preoperative iron isomaltoside for treating iron deficiency anaemia. METHODS Forty eligible adults with IDA were randomised to receive either intravenous iron isomaltoside (20 mg.kg-1 up to 1000 mg over 30 minutes) or usual preoperative care (control) three weeks before scheduled colorectal surgery. The primary outcomes were perioperative changes in haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations. RESULTS The recruitment rate was 78% of all eligible referred patients (1.9 patients/month). The haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were higher in the iron isomaltoside group than the control group over the perioperative period (group*time interaction P = 0.042 and P < 0.001 respectively). Mean haemoglobin change from baseline to before surgery was higher in the iron isomaltoside group (7.8, 95% CI: 3.2 to 12.3 g.l-1) than the control group (1.7, 95% CI: -1.9 to 5.3 g.l-1) [mean difference 6.1, 95% CI: 0.3 to 11.8 g.l-1; P = 0.040]. The ferritin change from baseline to before surgery between groups was large in favour of the iron isomaltoside group (mean difference 296.9, 95% CI: 200.6 to 393.2 μg.l-1; P < 0.001]. There were no differences between groups in packed red blood cell transfusions needed, surgical complications, quality of recovery and days (alive and) at home within 30 days after surgery. CONCLUSION Iron isomaltoside therapy was safe and had a minimal effect on perioperative changes in haemoglobin concentration. Given the slow recruitment and new evidence emerging during the conduct of this study, conducting a multi-centre RCT based on the current pilot trial protocol is unlikely to be feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03565354.
Ferric Carboxymaltose and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Treatment Reduces the Rate of Blood Transfusion in Refractory Anemia
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(16)
Background: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used to treat refractory anemia (RA). Guidelines suggest iron supplementation for unresponsive patients, regardless of iron deficiency. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) on the reduction of red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) rate in transfusion-dependent RA patients. Methods: This was a prospective quasi-randomized study, wherein patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (A) ESAs alone, (B) ferric gluconate (FG) and ESAs, and (C) FCM and ESAs. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels, as well as the number of RBCTs at 4 and 28 weeks were compared. Economic evaluation was also performed. Results: A total of 113 RA patients were enrolled. In total, 43 were treated with intravenous FG and ESAs, 38 with FCM and ESAs, and 32 with ESAs alone. At both follow-ups, erythropoietic response was increased in those receiving iron as compared with those with ESAs alone (p = 0.001), regardless of the type of iron. At one month, ferritin levels were higher in the FCM and ESA groups (p = 0.001). RBCTs were lower in both iron groups. The less costly treatment strategy was FCM, followed by FG, and lastly ESAs. Conclusions: Addition of iron to ESAs in RA reduced RBCT requirement and improved hemoglobin values.
Randomized trial of sucrosomial iron supplementation in patients with chemotherapy-related anemia treated with ESA
Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2022
BACKGROUND Iron supplementation improves the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents' (ESAs) response in chemotherapy-related anemia. The primary aim of our study is to assess the efficacy of sucrosomial iron, a new oral iron formulation, in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia treated with ESAs. The secondary objectives included the efficacy into two subgroups of patients (iron replete and functional iron deficiency) between the two study arms, safety and the effect on transfusion need. METHODS In this randomized, multicentre, open-label, phase III clinical trial, 60 cancer patients were enrolled. Each patient was randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 12 weeks of oral sucrosomial iron at the dose of 30 mg daily in combination with ESAs or no supplementation to ESA treatment. The endpoint considered for efficacy was the proportion of patients achieving complete hematological response at 12 weeks (increase in Hb > 2 g/dL from baseline, without RBC transfusions in the previous 28 days or achieving Hb ≥ 12 g/dL). RESULTS There was a statistically significant association between oral sucrosomial iron supplementation in combination with ESAs and the achievement of a complete hematological response. This response was achieved within 12 weeks by 31% of patients in the control group and by 52% of patients supplemented with oral sucrosomial iron. A trend of greater response in sucrosomial iron arm was found in both subgroups. No difference was observed about safety and transfusion need. CONCLUSIONS Sucrosomial iron is well tolerated and its combination with ESAs improves the hematological response in cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION This study has been reviewed by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy (28/04/2015; prot. N. 20,150,002,059), and by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the other Italian oncological centers involved in this study.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron with different frequencies for renal anaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with renal anaemia. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from their inception until 17 September 2021, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron at different frequencies. The observed efficacy indicators included transfer saturation (TSAT), serum ferritin (SF) and haemoglobin (HGB). Outcomes of interest included allergies, infections, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Of the 751 eligible studies, 7 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The RCTs showed that there were no significant differences between the low-frequency high-dose group (1-2 doses, >200 mg/dose) and the high-frequency low-dose group (4-5 doses, ≤200 mg/dose) in the increase in TSAT (WMD = 1.90; 95% CI = -2.04 to 5.84; I(2) = 0%), SF (WMD = 15.70; 95% CI = -32.20 to 70.61; I(2) = 0%) and HGB (WMD = -0.00; 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.42; I(2) = 0%). There was also no significant difference in the occurrence of outcome events, including allergies (RR = 1.84; 95% CI = 0.95 to 3.57; I(2) = 45%), infections (RR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.20-1.86; I(2) = 0%), cardiovascular events (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.67-1.15; I(2) = 48%) and all-cause mortality (RR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40-1.35; I(2) = 0%). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Frequencies of intravenous iron supplementation with similar doses share similar safety and efficacy in patients with renal anaemia. However, a single dose or two doses of intravenous iron are more cost-effective and patient friendly. These findings may provide evidence for the clinical application of intravenous iron supplementation for patients with renal anaemia.
Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Children: Report of a Case Series from Greece and Review of the Literature
Paediatric drugs. 2022
BACKGROUND Parenteral iron is generally considered safe in adults, and severe adverse events are extremely rare. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a third-generation parenteral iron product, is not licensed for pediatric use. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to present our data on the safety of FCM in children with iron deficiency (ID) and/or iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to investigate through a systematic literature review articles reporting on the safety of FCM use in children with ID/IDA. PATIENTS AND METHODS Safety data regarding children treated with FCM for ID/IDA from four pediatric departments in Greece over a 26-month period are presented. Additionally, a literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar on December 4, 2021 for articles reporting on the use of FCM in children with ID/IDA. Review articles, guidelines, case reports/case series, and reports on the use of FCM for conditions other than ID/IDA were excluded. Identified articles were screened for all reported adverse events (AE) that were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 5.0. RESULTS In our cohort, 37 children with ID/IDA received 41 FCM infusions. All infusions were tolerated well. In addition, 11 articles reporting 1231 infusions of FCM in 866 children were identified in the literature. Among them, 52 (6%) children developed AE that were graded as mild or moderate (grades I-III). CONCLUSIONS Our patient cohort and this literature review provide further evidence for the good safety profile of FCM in children, although well-designed prospective clinical trials with appropriate safety endpoints are still required.
Role of Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in the Treatment of Anemia: a Literature Review
Clinical laboratory. 2021;67(4)
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are exogenous erythropoietin medications that are used to stimulate the bone marrow red blood cells' production for the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease, some anticancer drugs, myelodysplastic syndrome, and others. Currently, there are different erythropoiesis stimulating agents accessible in the market. The objective of this narrative literature review is to summarize the role of some erythropoiesis stimulating agents in the treatment of anemia. METHODS The following method was used to prepare this narrative literature review. The comprehensive computerized search of literatures was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane library, Google scholar, and Science direct. Keywords such as recombinant human erythropoietin, epoetin, darbepoetin, continuous erythropoietin receptor agonist, pegzyrepoetin alfa, erythropoiesis stimulating agents in combination with anemia/anaemia were used. The pertinent original and review full articles which are written in the English language were included in this narrative review. RESULTS From the discussions of the literature, erythropoiesis stimulating agents that are produced by different biosimilar manufacturers have different clinical characteristics and stabilities as a result of their chemical modifications. The chemical modifications of erythropoiesis stimulating agents like glycosylation and polyethylene glycosylation determine the half-life, affinity to erythropoietin receptor, and immune response of the agents. Erythro-poiesis stimulating agents are categorized as short-acting and long-acting agents due to their chemical structures that influence the clinical efficacy and safety of the agents. CONCLUSIONS The effectiveness of the agents is different in different patients depending on the individual characteristics and etiologies of anemia. The agents not only have the benefits but also, they have the risks for the patients. Hence, the risks and benefits of erythropoiesis stimulating agents must be given special consideration in the managements of anemia to get maximum efficacy for anemic patients. The treatment is dependent on hemoglobin levels of individual patients. The physician must follow the patients during and after therapy using erythropoiesis stimulating agents.