Correcting Anemia and Native Vitamin D Supplementation in Kidney Transplant Recipients (CANDLE-KIT): a Multicenter, 2×2 Factorial, Open-label, Randomized Clinical Trial
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2021
Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are associated with allograft failure, and hence, are potential therapeutic targets among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We conducted a multicenter, two-by-two factorial, open-label, randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of anemia correction and vitamin D supplementation on 2-year change in eGFR among KTRs (CANDLE-KIT). We enrolled 153 patients with anemia and >1-year history of transplantation across 23 facilities in Japan, and randomly assigned them to either a high or low hemoglobin target (>12.5 vs. <10.5 g/dL) and to either cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day or control. This trial was terminated early based on the planned interim intention-to-treat analyses (α=0.034). Among 125 patients who completed the study, 2-year decline in eGFR was smaller in the high vs. low hemoglobin group (i.e., -1.6±4.5 vs. -4.0±6.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; P=0.021), but did not differ between the cholecalciferol and control groups. These findings were supported by the fully-adjusted mixed effects model evaluating the rate of eGFR decline among all 153 participants. There were no significant between-group differences in all-cause death or the renal composite outcome in either arm. In conclusion, aggressive anemia correction showed a potential to preserve allograft kidney function.
Ferric Citrate Dosing in Iron Deficiency Anemia in Nondialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease
American journal of nephrology. 2021;:1-10
INTRODUCTION Ferric citrate (FC) is indicated as an oral iron replacement for iron deficiency anemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. The recommended starting dose is one 1-g tablet three times daily (TID). This study investigated long-term efficacy and safety of different FC dosing regimens for treating anemia in nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). METHODS In this phase 4, randomized, open-label, multicenter study, patients with anemia with NDD-CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, ≥20 mL/min and <60 mL/min) were randomized 1:1 to one FC tablet (1-g equivalent to 210 mg ferric iron) TID (3 g/day) or 2 tablets twice daily (BID; 4 g/day). At week 12, dosage was increased to 2 tablets TID (6 g/day) or 3 tablets BID (6 g/day) in patients whose hemoglobin (Hb) levels increased <0.5 g/dL or were <10 g/dL. Primary endpoint was mean change in Hb from baseline to week 24. RESULTS Of 484 patients screened, 206 were randomized and 205 received FC. Mean (standard deviation) changes from baseline in Hb at week 24 were 0.77 (0.84) g/dL with FC TID 3 g/day and 0.70 (0.98) g/dL with FC BID 4 g/day. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS FC administered BID and TID for 48 weeks was safe and effective for treating anemia in this population, supporting potentially increased dosing flexibility.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis: a phase 3, randomised, open-label, active-controlled study (DOLOMITES)
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2021
BACKGROUND Roxadustat, an orally administered hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, is being evaluated for treatment of anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS This randomised, open-label, active-controlled phase 3 study compared roxadustat versus darbepoetin alfa (DA) in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients with anaemia for ≤104 weeks. Doses were titrated to correct and maintain haemoglobin within 10.0-12.0 g/dL. The primary endpoint was haemoglobin response in the full analysis set (FAS), defined as haemoglobin ≥11.0 g/dL and haemoglobin change from baseline (CFB) ≥1.0 g/dL in patients with baseline haemoglobin >8.0 g/dL or CFB ≥2.0 g/dL in patients with baseline haemoglobin ≤8.0 g/dL during the first 24 weeks of treatment without rescue therapy (noninferiority margin, -15%). Key secondary endpoints included change in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), time to first intravenous iron use, change in mean arterial pressure (MAP), and time to hypertension occurrence. Adverse events were assessed. RESULTS Of 616 randomised patients (roxadustat, 323; DA, 293), 424 completed treatment (roxadustat, 215; DA, 209). Haemoglobin response with roxadustat was noninferior to DA (roxadustat: 256/286, 89.5% vs. DA: 213/273, 78.0%, difference 11.51%, 95% confidence interval, 5.66-17.36%). Roxadustat maintained haemoglobin for up to 2 years. Roxadustat was noninferior to DA for change in MAP and time to occurrence of hypertension and superior for change in LDL and time to first intravenous iron use. Safety profiles were comparable between groups. Findings suggest that there was no difference between groups regarding the composite endpoints major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MACE + (MACE: 0.81 [0.52, 1.25], P = 0.339; MACE+: 0.90 [0.61, 1.32], P = 0.583). CONCLUSION Roxadustat is a viable option to treat anaemia in NDD CKD patients maintaining haemoglobin levels for up to 104 weeks.
Evaluation of pentoxifylline and ferrous sulfate for treatment of lower limb venous ulcers
Jornal vascular brasileiro. 2021;20:e2020167
BACKGROUND Venous ulcers (VU) are the most advanced stage of chronic venous disease (CVD) of the lower limbs. They are frequently associated with episodes of hemorrhage that can provoke chronic anemia (CA), delaying healing. There are no studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of CA among patients with VU of the lower limbs and few studies have analyzed use of pentoxifylline to treat VU of the lower limbs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of CA in patients with lower limb VU and responses to treatment with ferrous sulfate (SF) compared with a combination of SF plus pentoxifylline as adjuvant treatment for VU of the lower limbs. METHODS A total of 67 patients with lower limb VU were recruited from a Lymphedema and Angiodysplasia Clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas, Recife, PE, Brazil. After initial clinical and laboratory assessments, patients diagnosed with CA were randomized into one of two groups: a control group, given SF (900 mg/day oral route), or a study group, treated with SF (900 mg/day oral route) and pentoxifylline (1,200 mg/day). All were reassessed after 90 days. RESULTS Twenty-seven patients (40%) had CA. After treatment, increases were observed in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, iron kinetics had improved, and both depth and area of VU had reduced in both groups, without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of anemia was detected in the study population. The combination of SF and pentoxifylline was not more effective than SF alone for adjuvant treatment of VU of the lower limbs.
Ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure: a multinational cost-effectiveness analysis utilising AFFIRM-AHF
European journal of heart failure. 2021
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure (HF). In AFFIRM-AHF, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of hospitalisations for HF (HHF) and improved quality of life vs. placebo in iron-deficient patients with a recent episode of acute HF. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of FCM compared with placebo in iron-deficient patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, stabilised after an episode of acute HF, using data from the AFFIRM-AHF trial from Italian, UK, US and Swiss payer perspectives. METHODS AND RESULTS A lifetime Markov model was built to characterise outcomes in patients according to the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Health states were defined using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). Subsequent HHF were incorporated using a negative binomial regression model with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporated via parametric survival analysis. Direct healthcare costs (2020 GBP/USD/EUR/CHF) and utility values were sourced from published literature and AFFIRM-AHF. Modelled outcomes indicated that treatment with FCM was dominant (cost saving with additional health gains) in the UK, USA and Switzerland, and highly cost-effective in Italy [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) EUR 1269 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Results were driven by reduced costs for HHF events combined with QALY gains of 0.43-0.44, attributable to increased time in higher KCCQ states (representing better functional outcomes). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses demonstrated data robustness, with the ICER remaining dominant or highly cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios, including increasing treatment costs and various patient subgroups, despite a moderate increase in costs for de novo HF and smaller QALY gains for ischaemic aetiology. CONCLUSION Ferric carboxymaltose is estimated to be a highly cost-effective treatment across countries (Italy, UK, USA and Switzerland) representing different healthcare systems.
Iron Replacement and Redox Balance in Non-Anemic and Mildly Anemic Iron Deficiency COPD Patients: Insights from a Clinical Trial
In COPD patients, non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID) is a common systemic manifestation. We hypothesized that in COPD patients with NAID, iron therapy may improve systemic oxidative stress. The FACE (Ferinject assessment in patients with COPD and iron deficiency to improve exercise tolerance) study was a single-blind, unicentric, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial (trial registry: 2016-001238-89). Sixty-six patients were enrolled (randomization 2:1): iron arm, n = 44 and placebo arm, n = 22, with similar clinical characteristics. Serum levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, MDA-protein adducts, and reactive carbonyls, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and iron metabolism biomarkers were quantified in both groups. In the iron-treated patients compared to placebo, MDA-protein adducts and 3-nitrotyrosine serum levels significantly declined, while those of GSH increased and iron metabolism parameters significantly improved. Hepcidin was associated with iron status parameters. This randomized clinical trial evidenced that iron replacement elicited a decline in serum oxidative stress markers along with an improvement in GSH levels in patients with stable severe COPD. Hepcidin may be a surrogate biomarker of iron status and metabolism in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. These findings have potential clinical implications in the management of patients with severe COPD.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
The Effect of Iron Supplementation on FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review and Time-Response Meta-Analysis
Biological trace element research. 2021;199(12):4516-4524
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene is found to be responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and is highly expressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated the efficacy of different iron treatments on FGF23 levels in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients with IDA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of iron treatment versus placebo in CKD patients up to May 2020. We investigated the efficacy of iron treatment on the levels of FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) in CKD patients. We estimated weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Nine studies with 11 arms were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, iron treatment showed a significant reduction in FGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 60.56 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 92.17, - 28.95). Compared to placebo, subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy (WMD: - 6.98 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 10.66, - 3.31) was more effective than intravenous (IV) iron therapy (WMD: 4.90 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 12.03, 21.83) on FGF23 levels. There was no significant change in cFGF23 levels between iron treatment and control group (WMD: - 64.72 Ru/ml, 95% CI: - 147.69, 18.25). Subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy resulted in a significant reduction in cFGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 150.48 RU/ml, 95% CI: - 151.31, - 149.65). In conclusion, iron treatment was associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 levels in CKD patients.
Daprodustat for the Treatment of Anemia in Patients Not Undergoing Dialysis
The New England journal of medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Daprodustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are not undergoing dialysis, the efficacy and safety of daprodustat, as compared with the conventional erythropoiesis-stimulating agent darbepoetin alfa, are unknown. METHODS In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial with blinded adjudication of cardiovascular outcomes, we compared daprodustat with darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD who were not undergoing dialysis. The primary outcomes were the mean change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 and the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). RESULTS Overall, 3872 patients were randomly assigned to receive daprodustat or darbepoetin alfa. The mean (±SD) baseline hemoglobin levels were similar in the two groups. The mean (±SE) change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 was 0.74±0.02 g per deciliter in the daprodustat group and 0.66±0.02 g per deciliter in the darbepoetin alfa group (difference, 0.08 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.13), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. During a median follow-up of 1.9 years, a first MACE occurred in 378 of 1937 patients (19.5%) in the daprodustat group and in 371 of 1935 patients (19.2%) in the darbepoetin alfa group (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.19), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.25. The percentages of patients with adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with CKD and anemia who were not undergoing dialysis, daprodustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa with respect to the change in the hemoglobin level from baseline and with respect to cardiovascular outcomes. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ASCEND-ND ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02876835.).
Daprodustat for the Treatment of Anemia in Patients Undergoing Dialysis
The New England journal of medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and its derivatives for the treatment of anemia has been linked to a possibly increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other adverse events. Several trials have suggested that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) are as effective as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in increasing hemoglobin levels. METHODS In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned patients with CKD who were undergoing dialysis and who had a hemoglobin level of 8.0 to 11.5 g per deciliter to receive an oral HIF-PHI (daprodustat) or an injectable ESA (epoetin alfa if they were receiving hemodialysis or darbepoetin alfa if they were receiving peritoneal dialysis). The two primary outcomes were the mean change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g per deciliter) and the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), with a noninferiority margin of 1.25. RESULTS A total of 2964 patients underwent randomization. The mean (±SD) baseline hemoglobin level was 10.4±1.0 g per deciliter overall. The mean (±SE) change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 was 0.28±0.02 g per deciliter in the daprodustat group and 0.10±0.02 g per deciliter in the ESA group (difference, 0.18 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.24), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, a major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 374 of 1487 patients (25.2%) in the daprodustat group and in 394 of 1477 (26.7%) in the ESA group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.07), which also met the prespecified noninferiority margin for daprodustat. The percentages of patients with other adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with CKD undergoing dialysis, daprodustat was noninferior to ESAs regarding the change in the hemoglobin level from baseline and cardiovascular outcomes. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ASCEND-D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02879305.).
Patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis (n= 2,964).
Daprodustat (n= 1,487).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), (n= 1,477).
The mean (±SE) change in the haemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 was 0.28±0.02 g per decilitre in the daprodustat group and 0.10±0.02 g per decilitre in the ESA group (difference, 0.18 g per decilitre, which met the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -0.75 g per decilitre). During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, a major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 374 of 1487 patients (25.2%) in the daprodustat group and in 394 of 1477 (26.7%) in the ESA group, which also met the pre-specified non-inferiority margin for daprodustat. The percentages of patients with other adverse events were similar in the two groups.