Heart Failure Hospitalization in Adults Receiving Hemodialysis and the Effect of Intravenous Iron Therapy
JACC. Heart failure. 2021
OBJECTIVES The study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients. BACKGROUND Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat. METHODS The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial. RESULTS Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event. CONCLUSION Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).
Haemodialysis patients enrolled in the PIVOTAL trial (n= 2,141).
Intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen (n= 1,093).
Low-dose regimen administered reactively (n= 1,048).
A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group. There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group. Most patients presented with pulmonary oedema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
The Effect of Iron Supplementation on FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review and Time-Response Meta-Analysis
Biological trace element research. 2021
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene is found to be responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and is highly expressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated the efficacy of different iron treatments on FGF23 levels in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients with IDA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of iron treatment versus placebo in CKD patients up to May 2020. We investigated the efficacy of iron treatment on the levels of FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) in CKD patients. We estimated weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Nine studies with 11 arms were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, iron treatment showed a significant reduction in FGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 60.56 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 92.17, - 28.95). Compared to placebo, subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy (WMD: - 6.98 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 10.66, - 3.31) was more effective than intravenous (IV) iron therapy (WMD: 4.90 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 12.03, 21.83) on FGF23 levels. There was no significant change in cFGF23 levels between iron treatment and control group (WMD: - 64.72 Ru/ml, 95% CI: - 147.69, 18.25). Subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy resulted in a significant reduction in cFGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 150.48 RU/ml, 95% CI: - 151.31, - 149.65). In conclusion, iron treatment was associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 levels in CKD patients.
Factors Affecting Doses of Roxadustat Versus Darbepoetin Alfa for Anemia in Nondialysis Patients
American journal of nephrology. 2021;52(9):702-713
INTRODUCTION Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor for treating anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This post hoc analysis of a Japanese, open-label, partially randomized, phase 3 study in nondialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients treated with traditional erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) evaluated dosing trends of roxadustat and darbepoetin alfa (DA) required to maintain target hemoglobin concentrations in patients with risk factors associated with ESA hyporesponsiveness. METHODS Patients enrolled in the 1517-CL-0310 study (NCT02988973) that demonstrated noninferiority of roxadustat to DA for change in average hemoglobin levels of week 18-24 from baseline who had used human recombinant erythropoietin or DA before conversion and who were randomized to either roxadustat or DA were included. The endpoints were the average allocated dose of roxadustat and DA per administration in the last 6 weeks (AAD/6W), assessed by subgroups known to be associated with ESA hyporesponsiveness. The analysis of variance was performed by the treatment group to test the influence of subgroup factors on the AAD/6W of study drug. The ratios between the mean AAD/6W in each subgroup category and the within-arm mean AAD/6W were calculated. RESULTS Two hundred and sixty-two patients were randomized to either the roxadustat or DA comparative group and received treatment (roxadustat, n = 131; DA, n = 131). Higher mean (standard deviation) doses of both roxadustat (63.15 [24.84] mg) and DA (47.33 [29.79] μg) were required in the highest ESA resistance index (≥6.8) quartile (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with adequate iron repletion had the lowest doses for both roxadustat (45.54 [18.01] mg) and DA (28.13 [20.98] μg). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥28.57 nmol/L and the estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 were associated with requiring higher DA but not roxadustat doses. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION The roxadustat dose required to maintain target hemoglobin in NDD patients in Japan with anemia of CKD relative to DA dose may not be impacted by low-grade inflammation. Roxadustat may be beneficial for ESA-hyporesponsive NDD CKD patients.
Role of Intravenous Ascorbic Acid in the Management of Anemia in Hemodialysis Patients
Indian journal of nephrology. 2021;31(3):230-234
INTRODUCTION Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) suffer from functional iron deficiency where despite the presence of sufficient iron stores in the body, adequate iron is unavailable for heme synthesis. This study hypothesis was that in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), administration of intravenous (IV) ascorbic acid (AA) exerts a good effect on the management of anemia, either by increasing the mobilization of iron from tissue stores or acting as an antioxidant to overcome the inflammatory block and increase the erythropoietin sensitivity. METHODS Fifty patients with ESRD who were on regular HD were included in the study. Patients' ferritin levels ranged from 500 to 1200 ng/mL with transferrin saturation of 30% or more. However, all patients were anemic and received erythropoietin therapy. Iron therapy was discontinued in the first group, whereas it was continued in the second group that received IV AA. RESULTS A significant increase in the levels of Hb was observed in the second group after 6 months despite the decrease in ferritin levels in both the groups. Transferrin saturation decreased in both groups, the decrease being more in the first group. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased in the second group, whereas these increased in the first group. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous AA as an adjuvant therapy with iron exerts a favorable and significant effect on the Hb, serum ferritin, and CRP levels in patients with ESKD having anemia. The discontinuation of iron therapy only decreases the serum ferritin levels and does not improve the Hb or CRP levels.
Renal prognoses by different target hemoglobin levels achieved by epoetin beta pegol dosing to chronic kidney disease patients with hyporesponsive anemia to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent: a multicenter open-label randomized controlled study
Clinical and experimental nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND There is no evidence regarding appropriate target hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA)-hyporesponsiveness. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled study in non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients with ESA-hyporesponsiveness, comparing results of intensive versus conservative treatment to maintain hemoglobin levels. METHODS This was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel-group study conducted at 89 institutions. Among NDD-CKD patients, those with ESA-hyporesponsive renal anemia were randomly assigned to an intensive treatment group, to which epoetin beta pegol was administered with target hemoglobin level of 11 g/dL or higher, or conservative treatment group, in which the hemoglobin levels at enrollment (within ± 1 g/dL) were maintained. The primary endpoint was the time to the first kidney composite event defined as (1) transition to renal replacement therapy (dialysis or renal transplantation); (2) reduction of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to less than 6.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2); or (3) reduction of eGFR by 30% or more. Secondary endpoints were kidney function (change rate in eGFR), cardiovascular (CV) events, and safety. RESULTS Between August 2012 and December 2015, 385 patients were registered, and 362 patients who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled. There was no significant difference in kidney survival or in CV events between the two groups. However, the incidences of the 3 types of kidney composite events tended to differ. CONCLUSIONS In NDD-CKD patients with ESA-hyporesponsive renal anemia, the aggressive administration of ESA did not clearly extend kidney survival or result in a significant difference in the incidence of CV events.
Daprodustat Compared with Epoetin Beta Pegol for Anemia in Japanese Patients Not on Dialysis: A 52-Week Randomized Open-Label Phase 3 Trial
American journal of nephrology. 2021;:1-10
BACKGROUND Daprodustat is an oral agent that stimulates erythropoiesis by inhibiting the prolyl hydroxylases which mark hypoxia-inducible factor for degradation through hydroxylation. Its safety and efficacy (noninferiority) were assessed in this 52-week, open-label study. METHODS Japanese patients not on dialysis (ND) (N = 299) with anemia of CKD (stages G3, G4, and G5) with iron parameters of ferritin >100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation >20% at screening were randomized to daprodustat or epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator [CERA], also known as methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta). After initiation of the study, the daprodustat starting dose for erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA)-naïve participants was revised, and daprodustat was started at 2 or 4 mg once daily depending on baseline hemoglobin. ESA users switched to daprodustat 4 mg once daily. CERA was started at 25 μg every 2 weeks for ESA-naïve patients and 25-250 μg every 4 weeks for ESA users based on previous ESA dose. In both treatment groups, dose was adjusted every 4 weeks based on hemoglobin level and changed according to a prespecified algorithm. The primary endpoint was mean hemoglobin level during weeks 40-52 in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. ESA-naïve patients who entered before the protocol amendment revising the daprodustat starting dose were excluded from the ITT population. RESULTS Mean hemoglobin levels during weeks 40-52 were 12.0 g/dL in the daprodustat group (n = 108; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.8-12.1) and 11.9 g/dL for CERA (n = 109; 95% CI 11.7-12.0); the difference between the groups was 0.1 g/dL (95% CI -0.1 to 0.3 g/dL). The lower limit of the 95% CI of the difference was greater than the prespecified margin of -1.0 g/dL. The mean hemoglobin level was within the target range (11.0-13.0 g/dL) during weeks 40-52 for 92% of participants in both groups. There was no meaningful difference in the frequencies of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Oral daprodustat was noninferior to CERA in achieving and maintaining target hemoglobin levels in Japanese ND patients. Daprodustat was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns identified.
Phase 3 Randomized Study Comparing Vadadustat with Darbepoetin Alfa for Anemia in Japanese Patients with Nondialysis-Dependent CKD
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2021
BACKGROUND Standard care for treating anemia in patients with CKD includes use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, which sometimes involves increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies in patients with anemia and nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) found significantly elevated hemoglobin levels with use of vadadustat, an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, compared with placebo. METHODS In this phase 3, open-label, active-controlled noninferiority trial, we randomized 304 Japanese adults with anemia in NDD-CKD (including erythropoiesis-stimulating agent users and nonusers) to oral vadadustat or subcutaneous darbepoetin alfa for 52 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was average hemoglobin at weeks 20 and 24. Safety data included adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. RESULTS A total of 151 participants received vadadustat and 153 received darbepoetin alfa. Least squares mean of the average hemoglobin at weeks 20 and 24 was 11.66 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 11.49 to 11.84) g/dl for vadadustat and 11.93 (95% CI, 11.76 to 12.10) g/dl for darbepoetin alfa. The 95% CIs for both treatments were within the target hemoglobin range (11.0-13.0 g/dl), and the lower 95% confidence limit for the difference between groups (-0.50 g/dl) was above the predefined noninferiority margin (-0.75 g/dl), demonstrating noninferiority of vadadustat to darbepoetin alfa. Similar proportions of patients in each group reported AEs and serious AEs. The most frequent AEs with vadadustat were nasopharyngitis, diarrhea, and constipation. CONCLUSIONS In Japanese patients with NDD-CKD, vadadustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa, was effective up to week 52 in terms of average hemoglobin, and was generally well tolerated. These results suggest that vadadustat may be a potential treatment for anemia in this patient population.
Efficacy and safety of vadadustat compared with darbepoetin alfa in japanese anemic patients on hemodialysis: A phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2021
BACKGROUND Vadadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis. METHODS The efficacy and safety of vadadustat, compared with darbepoetin alfa, was determined in a phase 3 double-blind study in Japanese anemic patients on hemodialysis. Patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were randomized and switched to either vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa for 52 weeks. Doses were adjusted to maintain a hemoglobin level of 10.0-12.0 g/dL. The primary endpoint was average hemoglobin level at weeks 20 and 24. RESULTS Of 323 randomized patients, 120 and 135 completed the 52-week treatment period in the vadadustat and darbepoetin alfa groups, respectively. The average hemoglobin levels at weeks 20 and 24 (least square mean [LSM] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were 10.61 (10.45-10.76) and 10.65 (10.50-10.80) g/dL in the vadadustat and darbepoetin alfa groups, respectively, demonstrating vadadustat's non-inferiority to darbepoetin alfa (difference, -0.05 g/dL; 95% CI, -0.26-0.17). In both groups, the mean hemoglobin levels were maintained within the target range for 52 weeks. Furthermore, irrespective of patient backgrounds, the LSMs at week 52 were within the target range. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, diarrhea, and shunt stenosis, which occurred at similar frequencies in both groups. No new safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS Vadadustat was as well tolerated and effective as darbepoetin alfa in maintaining hemoglobin levels within the target range. The findings suggest that vadadustat can be an alternative to ESA in the management of anemia in Japanese hemodialysis patients receiving ESA (Clinical Trials.gov, NCT03439137).