Interventions for treating iron deficiency anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;1:Cd013529
BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel disease affects approximately seven million people globally. Iron deficiency anaemia can occur as a common systemic manifestation, with a prevalence of up to 90%, which can significantly affect quality of life, both during periods of active disease or in remission. It is important that iron deficiency anaemia is treated effectively and not be assumed to be a normal finding of inflammatory bowel disease. The various routes of iron administration, doses and preparations present varying advantages and disadvantages, and a significant proportion of people experience adverse effects with current therapies. Currently, no consensus has been reached amongst physicians as to which treatment path is most beneficial. OBJECTIVES The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventions for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in people with inflammatory bowel disease. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two other databases on 21st November 2019. We also contacted experts in the field and searched references of trials for any additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of iron administration interventions compared to other iron administration interventions or placebo in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease. We considered both adults and children, with studies reporting outcomes of clinical, endoscopic, histologic or surgical remission as defined by study authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently conducted data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment of included studies. We expressed dichotomous and continuous outcomes as risk ratios and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE methodology. MAIN RESULTS We included 11 studies (1670 randomised participants) that met the inclusion criteria. The studies compared intravenous iron sucrose vs oral iron sulphate (2 studies); oral iron sulphate vs oral iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (1 study); oral iron fumarate vs intravenous iron sucrose (1 study); intravenous ferric carboxymaltose vs intravenous iron sucrose (1 study); erythropoietin injection + intravenous iron sucrose vs intravenous iron sucrose + injection placebo (1 study); oral ferric maltol vs oral placebo (1 study); oral ferric maltol vs intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (1 study); intravenous ferric carboxymaltose vs oral iron sulphate (1 study); intravenous iron isomaltoside vs oral iron sulphate (1 study); erythropoietin injection vs oral placebo (1 study). All studies compared participants with CD and UC together, as well as considering a range of disease activity states. The primary outcome of number of responders, when defined, was stated to be an increase in haemoglobin of 20 g/L in all but two studies in which an increase in 10g/L was used. In one study comparing intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and intravenous iron sucrose, moderate-certainty evidence was found that intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was probably superior to intravenous iron sucrose, although there were responders in both groups (150/244 versus 118/239, RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.46, number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) = 9). In one study comparing oral ferric maltol to placebo, there was low-certainty evidence of superiority of the iron (36/64 versus 0/64, RR 73.00, 95% CI 4.58 to 1164.36). There were no other direct comparisons that found any difference in the primary outcomes, although certainty was low and very low for all outcomes, due to imprecision from sparse data and risk of bias varying between moderate and high risk. The reporting of secondary outcomes was inconsistent. The most common was the occurrence of serious adverse events or those requiring withdrawal of therapy. In no comparisons was there a difference seen between any of the intervention agents being studied, although the certainty was very low for all comparisons made, due to risk of bias and significant imprecision due to the low numbers of events. Time to remission, histological and biochemical outcomes were sparsely reported in the studies. None of the other secondary outcomes were reported in any of the studies. An analysis of all intravenous iron preparations to all oral iron preparations showed that intravenous administration may lead to more responders (368/554 versus 205/373, RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.31, NNTB = 11, low-certainty due to risk of bias and inconsistency). Withdrawals due to adverse events may be greater in oral iron preparations vs intravenous (15/554 versus 31/373, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.74, low-certainty due to risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose probably leads to more people having resolution of IDA (iron deficiency anaemia) than intravenous iron sucrose. Oral ferric maltol may lead to more people having resolution of IDA than placebo. We are unable to draw conclusions on which of the other treatments is most effective in IDA with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) due to low numbers of studies in each comparison area and clinical heterogeneity within the studies. Therefore, there are no other conclusions regarding the treatments that can be made and certainty of all findings are low or very low. Overall, intravenous iron delivery probably leads to greater response in patients compared with oral iron, with a NNTB (number needed to treat) of 11. Whilst no serious adverse events were specifically elicited with any of the treatments studied, the numbers of reported events were low and the certainty of these findings very low for all comparisons, so no conclusions can be drawn. There may be more withdrawals due to such events when oral is compared with intravenous iron delivery. Other outcomes were poorly reported and once again no conclusions can be made as to the impact of IDA on any of these outcomes. Given the widespread use of many of these treatments in practice and the only guideline that exists recommending the use of intravenous iron in favour of oral iron, research to investigate this key issue is clearly needed. Considering the current ongoing trials identified in this review, these are more focussed on the impact in specific patient groups (young people) or on other symptoms (such as fatigue). Therefore, there is a need for studies to be performed to fill this evidence gap.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
The Effect of Iron Supplementation on FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review and Time-Response Meta-Analysis
Biological trace element research. 2021;199(12):4516-4524
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene is found to be responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and is highly expressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated the efficacy of different iron treatments on FGF23 levels in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients with IDA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of iron treatment versus placebo in CKD patients up to May 2020. We investigated the efficacy of iron treatment on the levels of FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) in CKD patients. We estimated weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Nine studies with 11 arms were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, iron treatment showed a significant reduction in FGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 60.56 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 92.17, - 28.95). Compared to placebo, subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy (WMD: - 6.98 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 10.66, - 3.31) was more effective than intravenous (IV) iron therapy (WMD: 4.90 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 12.03, 21.83) on FGF23 levels. There was no significant change in cFGF23 levels between iron treatment and control group (WMD: - 64.72 Ru/ml, 95% CI: - 147.69, 18.25). Subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy resulted in a significant reduction in cFGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 150.48 RU/ml, 95% CI: - 151.31, - 149.65). In conclusion, iron treatment was associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 levels in CKD patients.
Effect of iron supplementation in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of cardiology. Heart & vasculature. 2021;36:100871
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of oral and intravenous iron supplementation in reducing the risk of mortality and hospitalizations in HF patients with iron deficiency is not well-established. METHODS A thorough literature search was conducted across 2 electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane Central) from inception through March 2021. RCTs assessing the impact of iron supplementation on clinical outcomes in iron deficient HF patients were considered for inclusion. Primary end-points included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. Evaluations were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analysis was performed using a random effects model. I(2) index was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS From the 2599 articles retrieved from initial search, 10 potentially relevant studies (n = 2187 patients) were included in the final analysis. Both oral (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.08-11.30; p = 0.951) and intravenous (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73-1.29; p = 0.840) iron supplementation did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality. However, intravenous iron supplementation significantly decreased the rates of overall (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; p = 0.004) and HF (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.80; p = 0.009) hospitalizations. In addition, intravenous ferric carboxymaltose therapy significantly reduced the time to first HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50-1.00; p = 0.048), but had no effect on time to first cardiovascular death (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.70-1.25; p = 0.655). CONCLUSION Oral or intravenous iron supplementation did not reduce mortality in iron deficient HF patients. However, intravenous iron supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in overall and HF hospitalizations.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
The efficacy of Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Annals of translational medicine. 2021;9(23):1714
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently published RCTs were conducted to compare the effect of the new medication roxadustat (ROX) with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in dialysis-dependent CKD (DD-CKD) patients. Our article aimed to meta-analyze published RCTs to investigate the efficacy and safety of ROX for anemia in DD-CKD patients and update the effect of the new studies on overall analysis with subsequent impact on management. METHODS Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar) were searched systematically from inception to July 2021 by using this search term (Roxadustat OR ASP1517 OR FG4592 OR "FG-4592") AND (kidney OR renal) AND (Anemia). We only included randomized control trials (RCTs) that reported the primary outcome of change in hemoglobin (Hb) level and iron utilization parameters, including ferritin, serum iron, TSAT, TIBC, transferrin, and hepcidin. RESULTS Ten RCTs were finally included with 3031 patients in the ROX group and 2737 patients in the control group. ROX was associated with increase in Hb level (SMD: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.39; P=0.03), TIBC (SMD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.98; P<0.00001), serum iron (SMD: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.36; P<0.00001), transferrin (SMD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.15; P<0.00001) and decrease in hepcidin (SMD: -15.53; 95% CI: -28.07, -3.00; P<0.02) when compared with control group. There was no difference between ROX and the control group regarding ferritin level and TSAT. Sensitivity analysis by removing the most recent studies, Chen et al. or Hou et al. did not show significant difference in regard to change in Hb level. There was no difference between both groups regarding the serious side effects. However, ROX showed higher TEAEs when compared to the control group (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05; P=0.002). DISCUSSION Our updated meta-analysis concluded that ROX increased Hb level and improved iron utilization parameters in DD-CKD patients, but ROX was associated with higher TEAEs. Our results support the use of ROX for DD-CKD patients with anemia. However, higher-quality RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of our review.
Physical health-related quality of life at higher achieved hemoglobin levels among chronic kidney disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC Nephrol. 2020;21(1):259
BACKGROUND The impact of anemia treatment with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is controversial, particularly regarding optimal hemoglobin (Hb) target ranges. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) with ESA to estimate the effect of different achieved Hb values on physical HRQOL and functionality. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PEDro, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases, until May 2020. Two authors independently extracted data from studies. We included observational and RCTs that enrolled CKD patients undergoing anemia treatment with ESA with different achieved Hb levels among groups. We excluded studies with achieved Hb < 9 g/dL. For the meta-analysis, we included RCTs with control groups achieving Hb 10-11.5 g/dL and active groups with Hb > 11.5 g/dL. We analyzed the standardized mean difference (SMD) between groups for physical HRQOL. RESULTS Among 8496 studies, fifteen RCTs and five observational studies were included for the systematic review. We performed the meta-analysis in a subset of eleven eligible RCTs. For physical role and physical function, SMDs were 0.0875 [95% CI: - 0.0025 - 0.178] and 0.08 [95% CI: - 0.03 - 0.19], respectively. For fatigue, SMD was 0.16 [95% CI: 0.09-0.24]. Subgroup analysis showed that trials with greater achieved Hb had greater pooled effects sizes - 0.21 [95% CI: 0.07-0.36] for Hb > 13 g/dL vs. 0.09 [95% CI: 0.02-0.16] for Hb 11.5-13 g/dL. Proportion of older and long-term diabetic patients across studies were associated with lower effect sizes. CONCLUSION Achieved hemoglobin higher than currently recommended targets may be associated with small but potentially clinically significant improvement in fatigue, but not in physical role or physical function. Younger and non-diabetic patients may experience more pronounced benefits of higher Hb levels after treatment with ESAs.
The safety of modern intravenous iron infusions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - a review of the literature
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2020;25(1):108-111
Objectives: To assess the evidence for the safety of intravenous iron infusions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in June 2019 on PubMed and Cochrane databases for eligible studies.Results: There is significant evidence of safety and efficacy of intravenous iron in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using newer, less immunogenic iron preparations, such as iron sucrose and low molecular weight iron dextran preparations.Discussion: Iron deficiency anaemia has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but the use of intravenous iron is generally avoided due to concerns raisedin older studies using high molecular weight iron dextran of exacerbating the disease. However, such concerns have not been confirmed in more recent studies using newer preparations.Conclusion: We find significant evidence of safety and efficacy in more recent studies of larger cohorts of patients using newer, less immunogenic iron preparations.
Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat for Anemia Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2020;11:573645
Objective: Daprodustat is a novel oral agent in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and several clinical trials have been conducted to compare daprodustat with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) or placebo. Our systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of daprodustat for anemia treatment in both dialysis-dependent (DD) and non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) patients. Methods: Six databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting daprodustat vs. rhEPO or placebo for anemia patients in CKD. The outcome indicators were focused on hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and serious adverse events (SAEs). Results: Eight eligible studies with 1,516 participants were included. For both NDD and DD patients, changes in Hb levels from baseline were significantly higher in daprodustat group than that in the placebo (mean difference (MD) = 1.73, [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 3.12], p = 0.01; MD = 1.88, [95% CI, 0.68 to 3.09], p = 0.002; respectively), and there was no significant difference between daprodustat and rhEPO group (MD = 0.05, [95% CI, -0.49 to 0.59], p = 0.86; MD = 0.12, [95% CI, -0.28 to 0.52], p = 0.55; respectively). The indexes of iron metabolism were improved significantly in the daprodustat group compared to placebo- or rhEPO-treated patients, while there was no similar change in terms of TSAT for DD patients. Furthermore, no trend of increasing plasma VEGF was observed in daprodustat-treated subjects. As for safety, there was no significant difference in the incidence of SAEs between daprodustat and placebo treatment, while the incidence of SAEs in the daprodustat group was significantly lower than that in the rhEPO group. Conclusion: Daprodustat was efficacious and well tolerated for anemia in both NDD and DD patients in the short term based on current RCTs. And daprodustat may become an effective alternative for treatment of anemia with CKD. Since the application of daprodustat is still under exploration, future researches should consider the limitations of our study to evaluate the value of daprodustat.
Efficacy and safety of HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor vs epoetin and darbepoetin for anemia in chronic kidney disease patients not undergoing dialysis: a network meta-analysis
Pharmacol Res. 2020;:105020
Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) are a new class of oral medicines being developed for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of HIF-PHI vs epoetin and darbepoetin in CKD patients with anemia not undergoing dialysis. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and http://clinicaltrials.gov/ clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched from inception to October 2019 for randomized controlled trials investigating different agents (six HIF-PHIs, epoetin, darbepoetin, and placebo) for treating CKD patients with anemia that did not undergo dialysis. The outcomes included a change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels and all-cause mortality. A total of 19 studies were included. Compared with the placebo, except for vadadustat (mean differences: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-2.35), the other drugs significantly increased Hb levels, with mean differences of 2.46 (95% CI: 0.933.99) for desidustat, 1.81 (0.872.75) for enarodustat, 1.68 (0.642.72) for molidustat, 1.66 (0.892.44) for epoetin, 1.63 (0.692.56) for darbepoetin, 1.61 (0.992.22) for roxadustat, and 1.55 (0.742.36) for daprodustat. No differences were found in the Hb level elevations among these eight drugs. Compared with the placebo, there also was no significant association between the drugs and all-cause mortality (molidustat of RR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.062.59]; roxadustat, 0.40 (0.062.84); enarodustat, 0.33 (0.0116.25); desidustat, 0.34 (0.0117.00); epoetin, 0.50 (0.181.42); daprodustat, 0.54 (0.093.31); darbepoetin, 1.03 (0.651.65); and vadadustat, 1.43 (0.1513.27)). No differences were observed in the all-cause mortality among the drugs. In conclusion, these HIF-PHIs are effective and relatively tolerant for treating anemia patients with CKD not undergoing dialysis. Further research should consider the limitations of our study to evaluate the value of these HIF-PHIs in clinical settings.