Ferric Carboxymaltose for Anemic Perioperative Populations: A Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Journal of blood medicine. 2021;12:337-359
IMPORTANCE Perioperative anemia is a common comorbid condition associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) to determine the efficacy and safety of the use of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) for the treatment of perioperative anemia in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative elective surgical care. EVIDENCE REVIEW Studies meeting inclusion criteria for the SLR reported on treatment efficacy in an adult study population randomly allocated to FCM for the treatment of perioperative anemia during the perioperative period. After screening, 10 of 181 identified studies from searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were identified for inclusion in this review. FINDINGS Preoperative treatment was reported in six studies, intraoperative treatment in one study, postoperative treatment in two studies, and both pre- and postoperative treatment in one study. Together, 1975 patients were studied, of whom 943 were randomized to FCM, of whom 914 received FCM treatment. The 10 studies reported elective surgical populations for colorectal, gastric, orthopedic, abdominal, urologic, plastic, neck, gynecologic, and otolaryngologic procedures. Given the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the studies, the analyses were limited to qualitative assessments without meta-analyses. All 10 studies reported statistically greater changes in hemoglobin concentration, serum ferritin, and/or transferrin saturation with FCM treatment compared with comparators (placebo, oral iron, standard care, or a combination of these). Two studies reported statistically significant differences in transfusion rate and 2 studies reported significant differences in length of hospital stay between FCM and its comparator(s). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This SLR adds to existing data that administration of FCM in preoperative and postoperative settings improves hematologic parameters. Several studies in the review supported the beneficial effects of FCM in reducing transfusion rate and length of stay. Larger, well-designed, longer-term studies may be needed to further establish the efficacy and safety of FCM in elective surgery patients with perioperative anemia.
The effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on cardiac reverse remodelling following cardiac resynchronization therapy-the IRON-CRT trial
European heart journal. 2021
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and negatively affects cardiac function and structure. The study the effect of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) on cardiac reverse remodelling and contractile status in HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS Symptomatic HFrEF patients with iron deficiency and a persistently reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <45%) at least 6 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant were prospectively randomized to FCM or standard of care (SOC) in a double-blind manner. The primary endpoint was the change in LVEF from baseline to 3-month follow-up assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography. Secondary endpoints included the change in left ventricular end-systolic (LVESV) and end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Cardiac performance was evaluated by the force-frequency relationship as assessed by the slope change of the cardiac contractility index (CCI = systolic blood pressure/LVESV index) at 70, 90, and 110 beats of biventricular pacing. A total of 75 patients were randomized to FCM (n = 37) or SOC (n = 38). At baseline, both treatment groups were well matched including baseline LVEF (34 ± 7 vs. 33 ± 8, P = 0.411). After 3 months, the change in LVEF was significantly higher in the FMC group [+4.22%, 95% confidence interval (CI) +3.05%; +5.38%] than in the SOC group (-0.23%, 95% CI -1.44%; +0.97%; P < 0.001). Similarly, LVESV (-9.72 mL, 95% CI -13.5 mL; -5.93 mL vs. -1.83 mL, 95% CI -5.7 mL; 2.1 mL; P = 0.001), but not LVEDV (P = 0.748), improved in the FCM vs. the SOC group. At baseline, both treatment groups demonstrated a negative force-frequency relationship, as defined by a decrease in CCI at higher heart rates (negative slope). FCM resulted in an improvement in the CCI slope during incremental biventricular pacing, with a positive force-frequency relationship at 3 months. Functional status and exercise capacity, as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and peak oxygen consumption, were improved by FCM. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with FCM in HFrEF patients with iron deficiency and persistently reduced LVEF after CRT results in an improvement of cardiac function measured by LVEF, LVESV, and cardiac force-frequency relationship.
Single-dose intravenous ferric carboxymaltose infusion versus multiple fractionated doses of intravenous iron sucrose in the treatment of post-operative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients: a randomised controlled trial
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Recent clinical guidelines suggest that treatment of postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer surgery with intravenous iron reduces transfusion requirements and improves outcomes. The study aimed at comparing two intravenous iron regimens in anaemic patients after colorectal cancer surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial in patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery. Patients with moderate to severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) after surgery were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive ferric carboxymaltose (FC; 1,000 mg, single dose) or iron sucrose (IS; 200 mg every 48 hours until covering the total iron deficit or discharge). Randomisation was stratified by Hb level: <10 g/dL (Group A) or ≥10-10.9 (Group B). The primary endpoint was the change in Hb concentration at postoperative day 30. Secondary endpoints included iron status parameters, transfusion requirements, complications, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS From September 2015 to May 2018, 104 patients were randomised (FC 50, IS 54). The median intravenous iron dose was 1,000 mg and 600 mg in the FC and IS groups, respectively. There were no between-group differences in mean change in Hb from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 30 (FC: 2.5 g/dL, 95% CI: 2.1-2.9; IS: 2.4 g/dL, 95% CI: 2.0-2.8; p=0.52), in transfusion requirements or length of stay. The infection rate was lower in the FC group compared with the IS group (9.8% vs 37.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION The administration of approximately 500 mg of IS resulted in an increase in Hb at postoperative day 30 similar to that of 1,000 mg of FC, but it was associated with a higher infection rate. Future research will be needed to confirm the results, and to choose the best regime in terms of effectiveness and side effects to treat postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients.
Role of preoperative intravenous iron therapy to correct anemia before major surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic reviews. 2021;10(1):36
BACKGROUND Preoperative anemia is a common comorbidity that often necessitates allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). As there is a risk associated with blood transfusions, preoperative intravenous iron (IV) has been proposed to increase the hemoglobin to reduce perioperative transfusion; however, randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating this efficacy for IV iron are small, limited, and inconclusive. Consequently, a meta-analysis that pools these studies may provide new and clinically useful information. METHODS/DESIGN Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews; Cochrane-controlled trial registry; Scopus; registries of health technology assessment and clinical trials; Web of Science; ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; Clinicaltrials.gov; and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) were searched. Also, we screened all the retrieved reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA Titles and abstracts were screened for relevance (i.e., relevant, irrelevant, or potentially relevant). Then, we screened full texts of those citations identified as potentially applicable. RESULTS Our search found 3195 citations and ten RCTs (1039 participants) that met our inclusion criteria. Preoperative IV iron supplementation significantly decreases ABT by 16% (risk ratio (RR): 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.99, p = 0.04). In addition, preoperatively, hemoglobin levels increased after receiving IV iron (mean difference [MD] between the study groups: 7.15 g/L, 95% CI: 2.26, 12.04 g/L, p = 0.004) and at follow-up > 4 weeks postoperatively (MD: 6.46 g/L, 95% CI: 3.10, 9.81, p = 0.0002). Iron injection was not associated with increased incidence of non-serious or serious adverse effects across groups (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.65, p = 0.52) and (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.44, 2.10, p = 0.92) respectively. CONCLUSIONS With moderate certainty, due to the high risk of bias in some studies in one or two domains, we found intravenous iron supplementation is associated with a significant decrease in the blood transfusions rate, and modest hemoglobin concentrations rise when injected pre-surgery compared with placebo or oral iron supplementation. However, further full-scale randomized controlled trials with robust methodology are required. In particular, the safety, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of different intravenous iron preparations require further evaluation.
Preemptive intravenous iron therapy versus autologous whole blood therapy for early postoperative hemoglobin level in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a prospective randomized noninferiority trial
BMC oral health. 2021;21(1):16
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy during the perioperative period as an alternative and adjunct to allogeneic blood transfusion. Preemptive IV iron therapy provides noninferior hemoglobin levels on postoperative day (POD) 1 compared to autologous whole blood therapy (AWBT) in healthy patients who had undergone bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. METHODS This was a prospective, patient-randomized, noninferiority trial. After excluding 2 patients, 64 patients were divided into two groups: the IV iron therapy group (patients received IV iron infusion 4 weeks before surgery; n = 32) and the AWBT group (2 units of autologous whole blood were collected 4 and 2 weeks before surgery; n = 32). The primary outcome was hemoglobin level on POD 1 and the prespecified noninferiority limit was - 1 g/dL. RESULTS Baseline data were comparable, including hemoglobin and iron levels, between the two groups. Immediately before surgery, the levels of hemoglobin, iron, and ferritin were higher in the IV iron group than in the AWBT group. The mean treatment difference (iron group-whole blood group) in hemoglobin level on POD 1 between the two groups was 0.09 (95% CI = - 0.83 to 1.0). As the lower limit of the 95% CI (- 0.83) was higher than the prespecified noninferiority margin (δ = - 1), noninferiority was established. On POD 2, the hemoglobin level became lower in the iron group, which eventually led to greater requirement of allogeneic blood transfusion compared to the whole blood group. However, the iron group did not require allogeneic blood transfusion during or early after surgery, and the whole blood group showed continuously higher incidence of overt iron deficiency compared to the iron group. CONCLUSION As collection of autologous whole blood caused overt iron loss and anemia before surgery and intraoperative transfusion of whole blood was not able to prevent the occurrence of persistent iron deficiency after surgery, IV iron therapy was found to have potential benefits for iron homeostasis and subsequent erythropoiesis in healthy patients early after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea, approval number: KCT0003680 on March 27, 2019. https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01_kren.jsp?seq=15769&sLeft=2<ype=my&rtype=my .
Iron supplementation following bariatric surgery: A systematic review of current strategies
Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2021
Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common following bariatric surgery; however, there are limited standardized treatment recommendations for their management. The purpose of this study was to review the current strategies for iron supplementation following bariatric surgery and assess their relative efficacy in managing ID and IDA. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to January 2021. Primary outcomes of interest were prevention or improvement in ID or IDA with iron supplementation. Forty-nine studies with 12,880 patients were included. Most patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (61.9%). Iron supplementation was most commonly administered orally for prevention of ID/IDA and was effective in 52% of studies. Both IV and oral iron were given for treatment of ID/IDA. Fifty percent (3/6) of the oral and 100% (3/3) of the IV supplementation strategies were effective at treating ID. Iron supplementation strategies employed following bariatric surgery are highly variable, and many do not provide sufficient iron to prevent the development of ID and IDA, potentially due to poor patient adherence. Further high-quality prospective trials, particularly comparing intravenous and oral iron, are warranted in order to determine the ideal dosage, route, and duration of iron supplementation.
Intraoperative and Postoperative Iron Supplementation in Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2021
INTRODUCTION Postoperative anemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our primary objective was Postoperative anemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our primary objective was to determine whether perioperative iron supplementation improves postoperative hemoglobin levels in TJA. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects of perioperative iron on adverse events, quality of life, and functional measures in TJA. METHODS We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using six databases. We included English-language, randomized controlled trials investigating intraoperative or postoperative iron supplementation in elective TJA that reported postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients aged 18 years or older. Seven eligible studies were identified, among which substantial heterogeneity was noted. Bias risk was low in four studies, unclear in two studies, and high in one study. Three studies assessed oral iron supplementation, three assessed intravenous iron supplementation, and one compared oral and intravenous iron supplementation. All intravenous iron was administered intraoperatively, except in the oral versus intravenous comparison. RESULTS Postoperative oral iron supplementation had no effect on postoperative hemoglobin levels. Intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation was associated with higher postoperative hemoglobin levels and greater increases in hemoglobin levels. Two studies reported rates of anemia and found that intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation reduced rates of postoperative anemia at postoperative day 30. No adverse events were associated with iron supplementation. One study found that intravenous iron improved quality of life in TJA patients with severe postoperative anemia compared with those treated with oral iron. Perioperative iron had no effects on functional outcomes. DISCUSSION We found no evidence that postoperative oral iron supplementation improves hemoglobin levels, quality of life, or functional outcomes in elective TJA patients. However, intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation may accelerate recovery of hemoglobin levels in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Association of iron supplementation with risk of transfusion, hospital length of stay, and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgeries: a meta-analysis
European geriatric medicine. 2021;12(1):5-15
AIMS: To assess the efficacy and safety of iron supplementation for perioperative anemia in geriatric patients with hip fracture. METHODS A systematic search was conducted for studies published using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Databases that compared iron supplementation with placebo in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The outcomes were blood transfusion rate and volume, length of stay, infection and mortality (last follow-up). Sub-group and sensitivity analyses were performed in cases of substantial heterogeneity. RESULTS The meta-analysis (6 studies: 1201 patients) indicated that iron supplements were not associated with reducing blood transfusion rate (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.60-1.41; P = 0.69), but high heterogeneity (I(2) = 61%) was detected and a significant association was found in sensitivity analysis of four studies (n = 637; OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.95; P = 0.02). A significant reduction was detected in transfusion volume (two studies: n = 234; MD - 0.45 units/patient, 95% CI - 0.74 to - 0.16; P = 0.002), hospital stay (five studies: n = 998; MD - 1.42, 95% CI - 2.18 to - 0.67; P = 0.0002) and caused no increased risk of mortality (five studies: n = 937; OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36; P = 0.76) and infection (four studies: n = 701; OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.90; P = 0.01). Sub-group analyses of four studies showed that the preoperative intravenous use of iron at 200-300 mg (two studies) may be the beneficial option for hip fractures patients. CONCLUSIONS Iron supplementation, especially preoperative intravenous use of 200-300 mg iron, is safe and associated with reducing transfusion requirement and hospital stay. Unfortunately, data were too limited to draw a definite conclusion. Further evaluation is required before recommending iron supplementation for older patients with hip fracture surgeries.
Intravenous iron supplement for iron deficiency in cardiac transplant recipients (IronIC): A randomized clinical trial
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation. 2021
AIMS: Heart transplant recipients have reduced exercise capacity despite preserved graft function. The IronIC trial was designed to test the hypothesis that intravenous iron therapy would improve peak oxygen consumption in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was performed at our national center for heart transplantation. One hundred and 2 heart transplant recipients with a serum ferritin <100 µg/liter or 100 to 300 µg/liter, in combination with transferrin saturation of <20%, and hemoglobin level >100 g/liter were enrolled ≥1 year after transplantation. A cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed before administration of the study drug and at 6 months follow-up. The primary endpoint was peak oxygen consumption. Key secondary outcomes included iron status, handgrip strength, quality of life, and safety. Fifty-two patients were randomized to receive ferric derisomaltose 20 mg/kg, and 50 to placebo. The between-group difference in baseline-adjusted peak oxygen consumption was 0.3 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval -0.9 to 1.4, p = 0.66). In patients with a baseline ferritin <30 µg/liter, peak oxygen consumption was significantly higher in the ferric derisomaltose arm. At 6 months, iron stores were restored in 86% of the patients receiving ferric derisomaltose vs 20% in patients receiving placebo (p < 0.001). Quality of life was significantly better in patients receiving ferric derisomaltose. Twenty-seven adverse events occurred in the intravenous iron group vs 30 in the placebo group (p = 0.39). CONCLUSION Intravenous iron treatment did not improve peak oxygen consumption in heart transplant recipients with ferritin <100 µg/liter or 100 to 300 µg/liter in combination with transferrin saturation <20%. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER http//www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03662789.
Preoperative Single-Dose Intravenous Iron Formulation to Reduce Postsurgical Complications in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Control Trial Feasibility Study (PIRCAS Trial Pilot)
Background Preoperative anemia is associated with an increased need for blood transfusion, complications, and prolonged hospital stay. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) may be treated with oral or intravenous (IV) iron. IV iron repletes iron stores more rapidly. Its impact on perioperative blood transfusion, postoperative complications, patients' recovery, and long-term quality of life is unclear. Newer agents, such as ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), are costly but have higher maximum approved doses and a very low incidence of anaphylactic-type reactions. This study aims to explore the feasibility of a randomized control trial to compare the preoperative treatment of IDA with IV FCM versus oral ferrous fumarate, in patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery. Experimental design This is an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial. A total of 30 adults with IDA scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery were recruited for the study. They were randomized into two groups to receive either oral iron or IV FCM. Primary outcomes are defined as the time from enrollment to study drug administration, recruitment rate, and follow-up rate up to three months. Secondary outcomes are hemoglobin rise from recruitment to surgery, perioperative blood transfusion, postoperative complications, EQ-5D-3L scores at baseline, and three months and adverse events related to IV FCM therapy. Results All patients received study drugs within five days of enrollment; 30 patients were recruited within four months, 15 patients in each group. Two in each group were withdrawn for surgery postponement. All patients were followed up for three months and there was no crossover of patients. Per protocol, analysis was performed. No severe adverse events related to IV FCM therapy occurred. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics, similar hemoglobin rise from enrollment to the day of surgery [0.2 (+1.6) g/dL in the FCM group and 0.8 (+0.7) g/dL in the Oral Iron group, p=0.3] and similar mean units of perioperative blood transfused (recruitment to discharge) per patient [1.3 (+ 2.1) in the FCM group and 0.9 (+1.3) in the Oral Iron group, p=0.6]. Postoperatively, there was a similar hospital length of stay [11.5 (+13.6 days) in the FCM group and 9.0 (+9.8 days) in the Oral Iron group, p=0.6]; there were similar postoperative complications as reflected by the average Comprehensive Complication Index [12.8 (+19.6) in the FCM group and 22.6 (+30.7) in the Oral Iron group, p=0.3]; similar postoperative health-related quality of life as reflected by mean EQ-5D-3L scores at one month [70.4 (+21.8) in the FCM group and 84.5 (+12.1) in the Oral Iron group] and three months [80.0 (+18.4) in the FCM group and 85.9 (+10.7) in the Oral Iron group]. Conclusions A full-scale randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative IV FCM compared to oral iron in patients with IDA undergoing major abdominal surgery is feasible.