Eltrombopag Added to Immunosuppression in Severe Aplastic Anemia
The New England journal of medicine. 2022;386(1):11-23
BACKGROUND A single-group, phase 1-2 study indicated that eltrombopag improved the efficacy of standard immunosuppressive therapy that entailed horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) plus cyclosporine in patients with severe aplastic anemia. METHODS In this prospective, investigator-led, open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase 3 trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of horse ATG plus cyclosporine with or without eltrombopag as front-line therapy in previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia. The primary end point was a hematologic complete response at 3 months. RESULTS Patients were assigned to receive immunosuppressive therapy (Group A, 101 patients) or immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag (Group B, 96 patients). The percentage of patients who had a complete response at 3 months was 10% in Group A and 22% in Group B (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 7.8; P = 0.01). At 6 months, the overall response rate (the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response) was 41% in Group A and 68% in Group B. The median times to the first response were 8.8 months (Group A) and 3.0 months (Group B). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. With a median follow-up of 24 months, a karyotypic abnormality that was classified as myelodysplastic syndrome developed in 1 patient (Group A) and 2 patients (Group B); event-free survival was 34% and 46%, respectively. Somatic mutations were detected in 29% (Group A) and 31% (Group Β) of the patients at baseline; these percentages increased to 66% and 55%, respectively, at 6 months, without affecting the hematologic response and 2-year outcome. CONCLUSIONS The addition of eltrombopag to standard immunosuppressive therapy improved the rate, rapidity, and strength of hematologic response among previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia, without additional toxic effects. (Funded by Novartis and others; RACE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02099747; EudraCT number, 2014-000363-40.).
Patients with severe aplastic anaemia (n= 197).
Immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag (n= 96).
Immunosuppressive therapy (n= 101).
The percentage of patients who had a complete response at 3 months was 10% for patients in the immunosuppressive therapy group, and 22% for patients in the immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag group. At 6 months, the overall response rate (the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response) was 41% for those receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and 68% for those receiving immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag. The median times to the first response were 8.8 months (immunosuppressive therapy group) and 3.0 months (immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag group). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in all patients.
Erythropoietin in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND The efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in sparing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome related to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS) is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a pilot randomized controlled open trial between December 2018 and January 2021. Children were randomized to the intervention (subcutaneous rHuEPO 50 U/kg three times weekly until discharge + RBC transfusion if hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL and/or hemodynamic instability) or to the control arm (RBC transfusion if hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL and/or hemodynamic instability). Primary outcome was the number of RBC transfusions received during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were to explore whether baseline EPO levels were adequate to the degree of anemia, to correlate selected acute phase parameters with the number of RBC transfusions, and to assess possible adverse events. RESULTS Twelve patients per arm were included; they were comparable at recruitment and throughout the disease course. Median number of RBC transfusions was similar between groups (1.5, p = 0.76). Most patients had baseline EPO levels adequate to the degree of anemia, which did not correlate with the number of transfusions (r = 0.19, p = 0.44). Conversely, baseline (r = 0.73, p = 0.032) and maximum lactic dehydrogenase levels (r = 0.78, p = 0.003), creatinine peak (r = 0.71, p = 0.03) and dialysis duration (r = 0.7, p = 0.04) correlated significantly with RBC requirements. No side effects were recorded. CONCLUSION In children with STEC-HUS, the administration of rHuEPO did not reduce the number of RBC transfusions. Larger studies addressing higher doses and similar severity of kidney failure at rHuEPO initiation (e.g. at start of dialysis) are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03776851. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Health Status Improvement with Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction and Iron Deficiency
European journal of heart failure. 2022
AIM: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been shown to improve overall quality of life in iron-deficient heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients at a trial population level. This FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF pooled analysis explored the likelihood of individual improvement or deterioration in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) domains with FCM vs placebo and evaluated the stability of this response over time. METHODS Changes vs baseline in KCCQ overall summary score (OSS), clinical summary score (CSS) and total symptom score (TSS) were assessed at weeks 12 and 24 in FCM and placebo groups . Mean between-group differences were estimated and individual responder analyses and analyses of response stability were performed. RESULTS Overall, 760 (FCM: 454) patients were studied. At week 12, the mean improvement in KCCQ OSS was 10.6 points with FCM vs 4.8 points with placebo (least-square mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 4.36 [2.14;6.59] points). A higher proportion of patients on FCM vs placebo experienced a KCCQ OSS improvement of ≥5 (58.3% vs 43.5%; odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.81 [1.30;2.51]), ≥10 (42.4% vs 29.3%; 1.73 [1.23;2.43]) or ≥15 (32.1% vs 22.6%; 1.46 [1.02;2.11]) points. Differences were similar at week 24 and for CSS and TSS domains. Of FCM patients with a ≥5-, ≥10- or ≥15-point improvement in KCCQ OSS at week 12, >75% sustained this improvement at week 24. CONCLUSION Treatment of iron-deficient HFrEF patients with intravenous FCM conveyed clinically relevant improvements in health status at an individual-patient level; benefits were sustained over time in most patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Randomised open-label trial comparing intravenous iron and an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent versus oral iron to treat preoperative anaemia in cardiac surgery (INITIATE trial)
British journal of anaesthesia. 2022
BACKGROUND Preoperative anaemia is a risk factor for adverse postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. Iron deficiency is a frequent cause of low preoperative haemoglobin. An effective treatment for preoperative anaemia associated with iron deficiency has not been determined. METHODS We conducted a single-centre, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial, enrolling 156 elective cardiac surgery patients who had low preoperative haemoglobin (100-130 g L(-1)) with iron deficiency (serum ferritin <100 μg L(-1) or transferrin saturation <30%) to compare intravenous ferric derisomaltose 1000 mg and darbepoetin 200 μg subcutaneously (intervention group) with oral ferrous sulphate 600 mg daily (control group). The primary outcome was transfusion of at least one unit of allogeneic red cells during surgery and within the following 5 days. Secondary outcomes included the change in haemoglobin concentration between randomisation and surgery, red cell transfusion volume, postoperative blood loss, pre-specified postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital death. RESULTS The odds of red cell transfusion were lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio=0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.75; P=0.008). Of the secondary outcomes, the only significant difference was the increase in haemoglobin between randomisation and surgery, intervention vs control 9.5 g L(-1) (95% CI, 6.8-12.2; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients with a low preoperative haemoglobin and iron deficiency, preoperative treatment with a single dose of ferric derisomaltose and darbepoetin decreased the proportion of participants who received a perioperative blood transfusion as a consequence of a greater increase in haemoglobin compared with treatment with oral ferrous sulphate. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN Number: 41421863; EUDRACT number: 2011-003695-36.
Efficacy and safety of ferric derisomaltose (FDI) compared with iron sucrose (IS) in patients with iron deficiency anemia after bariatric surgery
Obesity surgery. 2022
PURPOSE Iron deficiency is common following bariatric surgery, and treatment with intravenous iron is often required. This post hoc analysis of data from two randomized, open-label, multicenter trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ferric derisomaltose (FDI; formerly iron isomaltoside 1000) versus iron sucrose (IS) over 4 weeks in adults with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) resulting from prior bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data were pooled for participants who received FDI or IS in the PROVIDE or FERWON-IDA trials for the treatment of IDA post bariatric surgery. Efficacy outcomes included changes in hemoglobin (Hb) and iron parameters; safety outcomes included the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), serious or severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), and hypophosphatemia. RESULTS The analysis included 159 patients. Mean (standard deviation) cumulative iron doses were 1199 (± 347) mg for FDI and 937 (± 209) mg for IS. Compared with IS, FDI resulted in a faster and more pronounced Hb response, and a higher proportion of responders (Hb level increase ≥ 2 g/dL from baseline) at all time points. The incidence of ADRs was similar with FDI and IS (15.1% and 18.2%, respectively), with no serious ADRs or serious or severe HSRs reported. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was low and similar in both treatment groups, with no cases of severe hypophosphatemia observed. CONCLUSIONS In patients with IDA resulting from bariatric surgery, FDI produced a faster and more pronounced Hb response than IS. Both FDI and IS were well tolerated.
Erythropoietin in Acute Kidney Injury (EAKI): a pragmatic randomized clinical trial
BMC nephrology. 2022;23(1):100
BACKGROUND Treatment with erythropoietin is well established for anemia in chronic kidney disease patients but not well studied in acute kidney injury. METHODS This is a multicenter, randomized, pragmatic controlled clinical trial. It included 134 hospitalized patients with anemia defined as hemoglobin < 11 g/dL and acute kidney injury defined as an increase of serum creatinine of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL within 48 h or 1.5 times baseline. One arm received recombinant human erythropoietin 4000 UI subcutaneously every other day (intervention; n = 67) and the second received standard of care (control; n = 67) during the hospitalization until discharge or death. The primary outcome was the need for transfusion; secondary outcomes were death, renal recovery, need for dialysis. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in transfusion need (RR = 1.05, 95%CI 0.65,1.68; p = 0.855), in renal recovery full or partial (RR = 0.96, 95%CI 0.81,1.15; p = 0.671), in need for dialysis (RR = 11.00, 95%CI 0.62, 195.08; p = 0.102) or in death (RR = 1.43, 95%CI 0.58,3.53; p = 0.440) between the erythropoietin and the control group. CONCLUSIONS Erythropoietin treatment had no impact on transfusions, renal recovery or mortality in acute kidney injury patients with anemia. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03401710, 17/01/2018).
Impact of treating iron deficiency, diagnosed according to hepcidin quantification, on outcomes after a prolonged ICU stay compared to standard care: a multicenter, randomized, single-blinded trial
Critical care (London, England). 2021;25(1):62
BACKGROUND Anemia is a significant problem in patients on ICU. Its commonest cause, iron deficiency (ID), is difficult to diagnose in the context of inflammation. Hepcidin is a new marker of ID. We aimed to assess whether hepcidin levels would accurately guide treatment of ID in critically ill anemic patients after a prolonged ICU stay and affect the post-ICU outcomes. METHODS In a controlled, single-blinded, multicenter study, anemic (WHO definition) critically ill patients with an ICU stay ≥ 5 days were randomized when discharge was expected to either intervention by hepcidin treatment protocol or control. In the intervention arm, patients were treated with intravenous iron (1 g of ferric carboxymaltose) when hepcidin was < 20 μg/l and with intravenous iron and erythropoietin for 20 ≤ hepcidin < 41 μg/l. Control patients were treated according to standard care (hepcidin quantification remained blinded). Primary endpoint was the number of days spent in hospital 90 days after ICU discharge (post-ICU LOS). Secondary endpoints were day 15 anemia, day 30 fatigue, day 90 mortality and 1-year survival. RESULTS Of 405 randomized patients, 399 were analyzed (201 in intervention and 198 in control arm). A total of 220 patients (55%) had ID at discharge (i.e., a hepcidin < 41 μg/l). Primary endpoint was not different (medians (IQR) post-ICU LOS 33(13;90) vs. 33(11;90) days for intervention and control, respectively, median difference - 1(- 3;1) days, p = 0.78). D90 mortality was significantly lower in intervention arm (16(8%) vs 33(16.6%) deaths, absolute risk difference - 8.7 (- 15.1 to - 2.3)%, p = 0.008, OR 95% IC, 0.46, 0.22-0.94, p = 0.035), and one-year survival was improved (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION Treatment of ID diagnosed according to hepcidin levels did not reduce the post-ICU LOS, but was associated with a significant reduction in D90 mortality and with improved 1-year survival in critically ill patients about to be discharged after a prolonged stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION www.clinicaltrial.gov NCT02276690 (October 28, 2014; retrospectively registered).
Critically ill patients with a prolonged ICU stay (n= 399).
Intravenous iron (1 g of ferric carboxymaltose) when hepcidin was < 20 μg/l and with intravenous iron and erythropoietin for 20 ≤ hepcidin < 41 μg/l, (n= 201).
Standard care (n= 198).
A total of 220 patients (55%) had iron deficiency at discharge (i.e., a hepcidin < 41 μg/l). The number of days spent in hospital 90 days after ICU discharge was not different (medians: 33 vs. 33) days for intervention and control, respectively. Day 90 mortality was significantly lower in intervention arm (16 (8%) vs. 33 (16.6%) deaths, and one-year survival was improved.
Single-dose intravenous ferric carboxymaltose infusion versus multiple fractionated doses of intravenous iron sucrose in the treatment of post-operative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients: a randomised controlled trial
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Recent clinical guidelines suggest that treatment of postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer surgery with intravenous iron reduces transfusion requirements and improves outcomes. The study aimed at comparing two intravenous iron regimens in anaemic patients after colorectal cancer surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial in patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery. Patients with moderate to severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) after surgery were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive ferric carboxymaltose (FC; 1,000 mg, single dose) or iron sucrose (IS; 200 mg every 48 hours until covering the total iron deficit or discharge). Randomisation was stratified by Hb level: <10 g/dL (Group A) or ≥10-10.9 (Group B). The primary endpoint was the change in Hb concentration at postoperative day 30. Secondary endpoints included iron status parameters, transfusion requirements, complications, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS From September 2015 to May 2018, 104 patients were randomised (FC 50, IS 54). The median intravenous iron dose was 1,000 mg and 600 mg in the FC and IS groups, respectively. There were no between-group differences in mean change in Hb from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 30 (FC: 2.5 g/dL, 95% CI: 2.1-2.9; IS: 2.4 g/dL, 95% CI: 2.0-2.8; p=0.52), in transfusion requirements or length of stay. The infection rate was lower in the FC group compared with the IS group (9.8% vs 37.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION The administration of approximately 500 mg of IS resulted in an increase in Hb at postoperative day 30 similar to that of 1,000 mg of FC, but it was associated with a higher infection rate. Future research will be needed to confirm the results, and to choose the best regime in terms of effectiveness and side effects to treat postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis: a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (ALPS)
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2021
BACKGROUND Roxadustat is an orally active hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia. METHODS This phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined patients with stage 3-5 CKD not on dialysis (NCT01887600). Patients were randomized (2:1) to oral roxadustat or placebo three times weekly for 52-104 weeks. This study examined two primary efficacy endpoints: European Union (EMA) - hemoglobin (Hb) response, defined as Hb ≥ 11.0 g/dL that increased from baseline by ≥ 1.0 g/dL in patients with Hb > 8.0 g/dL or ≥ 2.0 g/dL in patients with baseline Hb ≤ 8.0 g/dL, without rescue therapy, during the first 24 weeks of treatment; United States (FDA) - change in Hb from baseline to the average Hb level during Weeks 28-52, regardless of rescue therapy. Secondary efficacy endpoints and safety were examined. RESULTS A total of 594 patients were analyzed (roxadustat: 391; placebo: 203). Superiority of roxadustat versus placebo was demonstrated for both primary efficacy endpoints: Hb response (odds ratio: 34.74 [95% CI: 20.48, 58.93]) and change in Hb from baseline (roxadustat - placebo: +1.692 [95% CI: 1.52, 1.86]; both P<0.001). Superiority of roxadustat was demonstrated for LDL cholesterol change from baseline, and time to first use of rescue medication (both P<0.001). The incidences of treatment-emergent adverse events were comparable between groups (roxadustat: 87.7%, placebo: 86.7%). CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat demonstrated superior efficacy versus placebo both in terms of Hb response rate and change in Hb from baseline. The safety profiles of roxadustat and placebo were comparable.
The effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on health-related quality of life in iron-deficient patients with acute heart failure: the results of the AFFIRM-AHF study
European heart journal. 2021
AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency experience poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the impact of intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) vs. placebo on HRQoL for the AFFIRM-AHF population. METHODS AND RESULTS The baseline 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12), which was completed for 1058 (535 and 523) patients in the FCM and placebo groups, respectively, was administered prior to randomization and at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52. The baseline KCCQ-12 overall summary score (OSS) mean ± standard error was 38.7 ± 0.9 (FCM group) and 37.1 ± 0.8 (placebo group); corresponding values for the clinical summary score (CSS) were 40.9 ± 0.9 and 40.1 ± 0.9. At Week 2, changes in OSS and CSS were similar for FCM and placebo. From Week 4 to Week 24, patients assigned to FCM had significantly greater improvements in OSS and CSS scores vs. placebo [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval, CI) at Week 4: 2.9 (0.5-5.3, P = 0.018) for OSS and 2.8 (0.3-5.3, P = 0.029) for CSS; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) at Week 24: 3.0 (0.3-5.6, P = 0.028) for OSS and 2.9 (0.2-5.6, P = 0.035) for CSS]. At Week 52, the treatment effect had attenuated but remained in favour of FCM. CONCLUSION In iron-deficient patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% who had stabilized after an episode of acute HF, treatment with IV FCM, compared with placebo, results in clinically meaningful beneficial effects on HRQoL as early as 4 weeks after treatment initiation, lasting up to Week 24.