Perioperative intravenous iron to treat patients with fractured hip surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Health science reports. 2022;5(3):e633
BACKGROUND Treatment of preoperative anemia with intravenous iron is common within elective surgical care pathways. It is plausible that this treatment may improve care for people with hip fractures many of whom are anemic because of pre-existing conditions, fractures, and surgery. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for intravenous iron administration on outcomes after hip fracture. DESIGN We followed a predefined protocol and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of intravenous iron to treat anemia before and after emergency hip fracture surgery. The planned primary outcome was a difference in length of stay between those treated with intravenous iron and the control group. Other outcomes analyzed were 30-day mortality, requirement for blood transfusion, changes in quality of life, and hemoglobin concentration on discharge from the hospital. DATA SOURCES EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, DARE) databases, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISRCTN trial registries. Date of final search March 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Adult patients undergoing urgent surgery for hip fracture. Studies considered patients who received intravenous iron and were compared with a control group. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials (RCT, 732 patients) and nine cohort studies (2986 patients) were included. The RCTs were at low risk of bias, and the nonrandomized studies were at moderate risk of bias. After metanalysis of the RCTs there was no significant difference in the primary outcome, length of hospital stay, between the control group and patients receiving intravenous iron (mean difference: -0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]; -1.20 to 0.03; I (2) = 30%, p = 0.23). Intravenous iron was not associated with a difference in 30-day mortality (n = 732, OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.62-2.1; I (2) = 0%, p = 0.50), nor with the requirement for transfusion (n = 732, OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1.14; I (2) = 0%, p < 0.01) in the analyzed RCTs. Functional outcomes and quality of life were variably reported in three studies. CONCLUSION The evidence on the use of intravenous iron in patients with hip fracture is low quality and shows no difference in length of acute hospital stay and transfusion requirements in this population. Improved large, multicentre, high-quality studies with patient-centered outcomes will be required to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this treatment.
Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat Vs rhEPO for Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:746265
Introduction: Daprodustat, a novel hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI), its efficacy and safety remain unclear. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis aiming at investigating its efficacy and safety on the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Methods: We systematically searched for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trial Registries databases from inception until December 2021. We selected randomized controlled trials comparing daprodustat with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in anemia patients with CKD with or without dialysis. Results: Seven studies including 7933 patients met the inclusion criteria. For both nondialysis-dependent (NDD-) CKD and dialysis-dependent (DD-) CKD patients, the pooled results showed that there was no significant difference in the changes in hemoglobin levels between the daprodustat and rhEPO groups (mean difference (MD) = -0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.38, 0.35, p = 0.95; MD = 0.15, 95% CI = -0.29, 0.60, p = 0.50; respectively). In addition, a significant increase in transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and total iron was observed in daprodustat groups compared with rhEPO groups in DD-CKD patients (p < 0.05). As for safety, the overall frequency of adverse events was similar between the daprodustat and rhEPO groups in DD-CKD patients (relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.92, 1.06, p = 0.76), and the trial sequential analysis (TSA) confirmed this result. But for NDD-CKD patients, the incidence of adverse events in the daprodustat groups was significantly higher than that of rhEPO groups (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01,1.07, p = 0.02), while the TSA corrected this result. No trend of increasing incidence of serious adverse events was found in all daprodustat treated patients, but the TSA could not confirm this result. Conclusion: Although daprodustat was noninferior to rhEPO in correcting anemia in both NDD-CKD and DD-CKD patients, it seemed to have a better effect on optimizing iron metabolism in DD-CKD patients. Daprodustat may be a promising alternative for the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD. However, due to the lack of included studies, future researches are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic effect of daprodustat. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42021229636.
Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Children: Report of a Case Series from Greece and Review of the Literature
Paediatric drugs. 2022
BACKGROUND Parenteral iron is generally considered safe in adults, and severe adverse events are extremely rare. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a third-generation parenteral iron product, is not licensed for pediatric use. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to present our data on the safety of FCM in children with iron deficiency (ID) and/or iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to investigate through a systematic literature review articles reporting on the safety of FCM use in children with ID/IDA. PATIENTS AND METHODS Safety data regarding children treated with FCM for ID/IDA from four pediatric departments in Greece over a 26-month period are presented. Additionally, a literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar on December 4, 2021 for articles reporting on the use of FCM in children with ID/IDA. Review articles, guidelines, case reports/case series, and reports on the use of FCM for conditions other than ID/IDA were excluded. Identified articles were screened for all reported adverse events (AE) that were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 5.0. RESULTS In our cohort, 37 children with ID/IDA received 41 FCM infusions. All infusions were tolerated well. In addition, 11 articles reporting 1231 infusions of FCM in 866 children were identified in the literature. Among them, 52 (6%) children developed AE that were graded as mild or moderate (grades I-III). CONCLUSIONS Our patient cohort and this literature review provide further evidence for the good safety profile of FCM in children, although well-designed prospective clinical trials with appropriate safety endpoints are still required.
The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Pregnant Women in Malaysia: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:847693
Anemia in pregnancy is defined as a hemoglobin level of <11 g/dl, and is commonly due to iron deficiency. This systematic review was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency among pregnant women in Malaysia. A systematic literature search was conducted in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Eight studies comprising a total number of 2,638 pregnant women were included in this review. Only two studies focused on iron deficiency, whereas the other six investigated anemia in pregnancy without specifying iron deficiency or any other nutritional cause for the anemia, signifying the lack of published literature on this important public health nutritional issue in Malaysia. The overall prevalence of anemia in pregnancy ranged from 19.3 to 57.4%, while the prevalence of iron deficiency was 31.6 to 34.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with anemia in pregnancy were extremes of reproductive age, late antenatal booking, non-compliance to hematinics, Indian ethnicity, being in the second or third trimester, low maternal educational level, low family income, and unemployment. The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was found to be higher in rural compared to urban areas. Meanwhile, in terms of iron deficiency anemia, grandmultiparity, late antenatal booking and Indian ethnicity were significant determinants. It is certainly plausible that the anemia in pregnancy reported in these studies is not entirely secondary to iron deficiency and may be attributable to other nutritional deficiencies, emphasizing the importance of researching deeper into this subject. Nevertheless, in the meantime, focusing on iron supplementation in high-risk mothers with emphasis on compliance, seems to be the best option, in view of the high prevalence of iron deficiency found in this review.
Practice review: Evidence-based and effective management of anaemia in palliative care patients
Palliative medicine. 2022;:2692163221081967
BACKGROUND Anaemia is a common sequela of advanced disease and is associated with significant symptom burden. No specific guidance exists for the investigation and management of anaemia in palliative care patients. AIM: We aim to offer a pragmatic overview of the approaches to investigate and manage anaemia in advanced disease, based on guidelines and evidence in disease specific patient groups, including cancer, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. DESIGN Scoping review methodology was used to determine the strength of evidence supporting the investigation and management of anaemia in patients with advanced disease. DATA SOURCES A search for guidelines was performed in 2020. National or international guidelines were examined if they described the investigation or management of anaemia in adult patients with health conditions seen by palliative care services written within the last 5 years in the English language. Searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane library and WHO guidance were made in 2019 to identify key publications that provided additional primary data. RESULTS Evidence supports patient-centred investigation of anaemia, results of which should guide targeted intervention. Blanket use of blood transfusion should be avoided, with evidence supporting a more restrictive approach to transfusion. Routine use of oral iron and erythropoetin stimulating agents (ESAs) are not recommended. Insufficient evidence exists to determine the effectiveness of IV iron in this patient group. CONCLUSION We advocate early consideration and investigation of anaemia, guided by symptom burden and patient preferences. Correction of reversible causes should be the mainstay of treatment, with a restrictive approach to blood transfusion. Research is required to evaluate the efficacy of IV iron in these patients.
Palliative care patients (6 guidelines).
Scoping review methodology was used to determine the strength of evidence supporting the investigation and management of anaemia.
Evidence supported patient-centred investigation of anaemia. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of intravenous iron in this patient group.
Pre-operative iron increases haemoglobin concentration before abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Scientific reports. 2022;12(1):2158
Professional surgical societies recommend the identification and treatment of pre-operative anaemia in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. Our aim was to determine if pre-operative iron allows correction of haemoglobin concentration and decreased incidence of peri-operative blood transfusion in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL were searched for RCTs written in English and assessing the effect of pre-operative iron on the incidence of peri-operative allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Pooled relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD) and mean difference (MD) were obtained using models with random effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q-test and quantified using the I(2) value. Four RCTs were retained for analysis out of 285 eligible articles. MD in haemoglobin concentration between patients with pre-operative iron and patients without pre-operative iron was of 0.81 g/dl (3 RCTs, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.33, I(2): 60%, p = 0.002). Pre-operative iron did not lead to reduction in the incidence of peri-operative blood transfusion in terms of RD (4 RCTs, RD: - 0.13, 95% CI - 0.27 to 0.01, I(2): 65%, p = 0.07) or RR (4 RCTs, RR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.09, I(2): 64%, p = 0.09). To conclude, pre-operative iron significantly increases haemoglobin concentration by 0.81 g/dl before abdominal surgery but does not reduce the need for peri-operative blood transfusion. Important heterogeneity exists between existing RCTs in terms of populations and interventions. Future trials should target patients suffering from iron-deficiency anaemia and assess the effect of intervention on anaemia-related complications.
Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery (4 studies, n= 651).
Placebo or usual care.
Mean difference in haemoglobin concentration between patients with pre-operative iron and patients without pre-operative iron was of 0.81 g/dl. Pre-operative iron did not lead to reduction in the incidence of peri-operative blood transfusion in terms of risk difference (RD) or pooled relative risk (RR), (RD: - 0.13, RR: 0.57).
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
PloS one. 2022;17(4):e0266243
BACKGROUND Roxadustat (ROX) is a new medication for anemia as a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ROX, especially on the cardiovascular risks, for anemia in NDD-CKD patients. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically from inception to July 2021 to look for randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated ROX NDD-CKD patients. Hemoglobin level and iron utilization parameters, including ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin, and hepcidin were analyzed for efficacy. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and presented with their 95% confidential intervals (CIs). RESULTS Nine RCTs included a total of 3,175 patients in the ROX group and 2,446 patients in the control group. When compared the control group, ROX increased Hb level significantly (SMD: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.22; P< 0.00001) and improved iron utilization parameters by decreasing ferritin (SMD: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.14; P = 0.0006), TSAT (SMD: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.07; P = 0.003), and hepcidin (SMD: -0.74; 95% CI: -1.09, -0.39; P< 0.0001) and increasing TIBC (SMD: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.22; P< 0.00001) and transferrin (SMD: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.71; P< 0.00001). As for safety, ROX was associated with higher serious adverse effects (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13; P = 0.01), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RR: 3.80; 95% CI: 1.5, 9.64; P = 0.08), and hypertension (HTN) (RR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.65; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION We concluded that ROX increased Hb level and improved iron utilization parameters in NDD-CKD patients, but ROX was associated with higher serious adverse effects, especially DVT and HTN. Our results support the use of ROX for NDD-CKD patients with anemia. However, higher-quality RCTs are still needed to ensure its safety and risk of thrombosis.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron with different frequencies for renal anaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with renal anaemia. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from their inception until 17 September 2021, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron at different frequencies. The observed efficacy indicators included transfer saturation (TSAT), serum ferritin (SF) and haemoglobin (HGB). Outcomes of interest included allergies, infections, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Of the 751 eligible studies, 7 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The RCTs showed that there were no significant differences between the low-frequency high-dose group (1-2 doses, >200 mg/dose) and the high-frequency low-dose group (4-5 doses, ≤200 mg/dose) in the increase in TSAT (WMD = 1.90; 95% CI = -2.04 to 5.84; I(2) = 0%), SF (WMD = 15.70; 95% CI = -32.20 to 70.61; I(2) = 0%) and HGB (WMD = -0.00; 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.42; I(2) = 0%). There was also no significant difference in the occurrence of outcome events, including allergies (RR = 1.84; 95% CI = 0.95 to 3.57; I(2) = 45%), infections (RR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.20-1.86; I(2) = 0%), cardiovascular events (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.67-1.15; I(2) = 48%) and all-cause mortality (RR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40-1.35; I(2) = 0%). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Frequencies of intravenous iron supplementation with similar doses share similar safety and efficacy in patients with renal anaemia. However, a single dose or two doses of intravenous iron are more cost-effective and patient friendly. These findings may provide evidence for the clinical application of intravenous iron supplementation for patients with renal anaemia.
A Systematic review on diagnostic methods of red cell membrane disorders in Asia
International journal of laboratory hematology. 2022
Membranopathies are a group of inherited blood disorders where the diagnosis could form a challenge due to phenotype-genotype heterogeneity. In this review, the usage and limitations of diagnostic methods for membranopathies in Asian countries were evaluated. A systematic review was done using articles from PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO from 2000 to 2020. Thirty-six studies conducted in seven Asian countries had used different diagnostic methods to confirm membranopathies. In 58.3% of studies, full blood count (FBC), reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear (PBS) were used in preliminary diagnosis. The combination of the above three with osmotic fragility (OF) test was used in 38.8%. The flowcytometric osmotic fragility (FC-OF) test was used in 27.7% where it showed high sensitivity (92%-100%) and specificity (96%-98%). The eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) assay was used in 68.1% with high sensitivity (95%-100%) and specificity (93%-99.6%). About 36.1% of studies had used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as a further diagnostic method to detect defective proteins. Genetic analysis to identify mutations was done using Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 33.3%, 22.2%, and 13.8% of studies, respectively. The diagnostic yield of NGS ranged from 63% to 100%. Proteomics was used in 5.5% of studies to support the diagnosis of membranopathies. A single method could not diagnose all membranopathies. Next-generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and proteomics will supplement the well-established screening and confirmatory methods, but not replace them in hereditary hemolytic anemia assessment.
Preoperative Anemia Treatment with Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Preoperative anemia is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. As a result of the increased incidence of chronic blood loss and iron deficiency anemia in abdominal surgery patients and its impact on patient outcomes, we systematically evaluated the quality of evidence for preoperative intravenous (IV) administration of iron to patients with anemia undergoing major abdominal surgery with the focus on clinical outcomes. METHODS In this systematic review, PubMed, Cochrane, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web Of Science, and Excerpta Medica Database databases were searched up to 2019 using specific keywords. Inclusion criteria were patients that were over 18 years of age, underwent abdominal surgery, and received an IV iron treatment in the preoperative setting. RESULTS The nine studies included in the final systematic review do not provide consistent evidence of a reduced incidence of allogeneic blood transfusions with preoperative IV iron administration. However, IV iron administration did consistently cause a significant increase in hemoglobin levels relative to oral iron therapy or no iron. CONCLUSION Overall, these findings are consistent in that IV iron administration is highly effective at rapidly increasing hemoglobin levels in patients with iron deficiency anemia undergoing major abdominal surgery. Unfortunately, there is currently no evidence of reduced incidence of allogeneic blood transfusions or other enhanced outcomes.