Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis and Microscopic Polyangiitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Benefits and Harms of Common Treatments
ACR open rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The aim of this systemic review is to compare different treatments for patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) to inform evidence-based recommendations for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/Vasculitis Foundation (VF) Vasculitis Management Guidelines. METHODS A systemic review was conducted by searching articles in English using OVID Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were screened for suitability in addressing PICO questions, with studies presenting the highest level of evidence given preference. RESULTS A total of 729 full-text articles addressing GPA and MPA PICO questions were reviewed. For remission induction, rituximab was shown to be noninferior to cyclophosphamide (CYC) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55, moderate certainty of evidence). The addition of plasma exchange to induction therapy in severe disease did not improve the composite end point of death or end stage renal disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86 [95% confidence interval CI: 0.65, 1.13], moderate certainty of evidence). In nonsevere disease, methotrexate was noninferior to CYC for induction of remission (remission at 6 months of 90% vs. 94%). For maintenance of remission, methotrexate and azathioprine showed no difference in the risk of relapse over a mean follow-up of 29 months (HR: 0.92, [95% CI: 0.52, 1.65]low certainty of evidence). As maintenance therapy, rituximab was superior to a tapering azathioprine strategy in major relapse-free survival at 28 months (HR: 6.61, [95% CI: 1.56, 27.96], moderate certainty of evidence). In two randomized trials, longer-term azathioprine maintenance therapy (>24 months) is associated with fewer relapses without an increase in adverse events. CONCLUSION This comprehensive systematic review synthesizes and evaluates the benefits and toxicities of different treatment options for GPA and MPA.
Caplacizumab prevents refractoriness and mortality in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: integrated analysis
Blood advances. 2021;5(8):2137-2141
The efficacy and safety of caplacizumab in individuals with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) have been established in the phase 2 TITAN and phase 3 HERCULES trials. Integrated analysis of data from both trials was conducted to increase statistical power for assessing treatment differences in efficacy and safety outcomes. Caplacizumab was associated with a significant reduction in the number of deaths (0 vs 4; P < .05) and a significantly lower incidence of refractory TTP (0 vs 8; P < .05) vs placebo during the treatment period. Consistent with the individual trials, treatment with caplacizumab resulted in a faster time to platelet count response (hazard ratio, 1.65; P < .001), a 72.6% reduction in the proportion of patients with the composite end point of TTP-related death, TTP exacerbation, or occurrence of at least 1 treatment-emergent major thromboembolic event during the treatment period (13.0% vs 47.3%; P < .001), and a 33.3% reduction in the median number of therapeutic plasma exchange days (5.0 vs 7.5 days) vs placebo. No new safety signals were identified; mild mucocutaneous bleeding was the main safety finding. This integrated analysis provided new evidence that caplacizumab prevents mortality and refractory disease in acquired TTP and strengthened individual trial findings, with a confirmed favorable safety and tolerability profile. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01151423 and #NCT02553317.
Bedside Allogeneic Erythrocyte Washing with a Cell Saver to Remove Cytokines, Chemokines, and Cell-derived Microvesicles
BACKGROUND Removal of cytokines, chemokines, and microvesicles from the supernatant of allogeneic erythrocytes may help mitigate adverse transfusion reactions. Blood bank-based washing procedures present logistical difficulties; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that on-demand bedside washing of allogeneic erythrocyte units is capable of removing soluble factors and is feasible in a clinical setting. METHODS There were in vitro and prospective, observation cohort components to this a priori planned substudy evaluating bedside allogeneic erythrocyte washing, with a cell saver, during cardiac surgery. Laboratory data were collected from the first 75 washed units given to a subset of patients nested in the intervention arm of a parent clinical trial. Paired pre- and postwash samples from the blood unit bags were centrifuged. The supernatant was aspirated and frozen at -70°C, then batch-tested for cell-derived microvesicles, soluble CD40 ligand, chemokine ligand 5, and neutral lipids (all previously associated with transfusion reactions) and cell-free hemoglobin (possibly increased by washing). From the entire cohort randomized to the intervention arm of the trial, bedside washing was defined as feasible if at least 75% of prescribed units were washed per protocol. RESULTS Paired data were available for 74 units. Washing reduced soluble CD40 ligand (median [interquartile range]; from 143 [1 to 338] ng/ml to zero), chemokine ligand 5 (from 1,314 [715 to 2,551] to 305 [179 to 488] ng/ml), and microvesicle numbers (from 6.90 [4.10 to 20.0] to 0.83 [0.33 to 2.80] × 106), while cell-free hemoglobin concentration increased from 72.6 (53.6 to 171.6) mg/dl to 210.5 (126.6 to 479.6) mg/dl (P < 0.0001 for each). There was no effect on neutral lipids. Bedside washing was determined as feasible for 80 of 81 patients (99%); overall, 293 of 314 (93%) units were washed per protocol. CONCLUSIONS Bedside erythrocyte washing was clinically feasible and greatly reduced concentrations of soluble factors thought to be associated with transfusion-related adverse reactions, increasing concentrations of cell-free hemoglobin while maintaining acceptable (less than 0.8%) hemolysis.
Therapeutic plasma exchange in pregnancy: A literature review
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2021;260:29-36
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is indicated as a treatment for a wide array of diseases, extensively addressed in the Guidelines of the American Society for Apheresis. In pregnancy, TPE is an uncommon event and application is largely based on extrapolation of efficacy and safety in a non-pregnant population. This review intends to describe the currently available experience of TPE in pregnancy to help clinicians recognise indications during pregnancy and to support current guideline recommendations with literature-based experiences. In order to identify the clinical indications for which TPE is applied in pregnant women, we performed a literature search including studies till November 2019, without a start date restriction. Data extraction included medical indication for TPE and safety of TPE in pregnant women. 279 studies were included for analysis. Nowadays, TPE is predominantly applied for thrombotic microangiopathies, lipid disorders and a variety of autoimmune diseases. The application of TPE during pregnancy remains largely empiric and relies on individual case reports in the absence of high-quality studies and definitive evidence-based guidelines. Safety profile of TPE during pregnancy appears to be comparable to application of TPE in non-pregnant patients. In conclusion, based on the limited evidence that we found in literature with a high risk of publication bias, TPE procedures can be used safely during pregnancy with the appropriate preparation and experience of a multidisciplinary team.
Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Protects Patients with Sepsis-Associated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation by Improving Endothelial Function
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211053313
The mortality rate of sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is high. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in sepsis-associated DIC patients by improving endothelial function. A total of 112 sepsis-associated DIC patients were randomly divided into the TPE group (n = 40), the heparin (HP) group (n = 36), and the SHAM group (n = 36). The SHAM group received conventional treatment; the HP group was treated with HP based on conventional treatment; and the TPE group received conventional treatment plus TPE. The differences in thromboelastogram (TEG), platelet (PLT), coagulation function, and the endothelial cell (EC) injury biomarkers at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after TPE were compared among the three groups, and the three groups were compared in terms of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, 28-day mortality rate, 28-day cumulative survival rate, the incidence of bleeding events, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of TPE is superior to the HP in increasing PLT, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of ICU hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, AKI, and ARDS with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Moreover, the effect of TPE outperforms HP on the EC injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Our results suggest that TPE may be more effective than HP in the treatment of patients with sepsis-associated DIC. The possible mechanism is via improving endothelial function.
Patients with sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), (n= 112).
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), (n= 40).
Heparin (HP), (n= 36); conventional treatment (n= 36).
The efficacy of TPE was superior to the HP in increasing platelet, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of intensive care unit hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome with statistically significant differences. The effect of TPE outperformed HP on the endothelial cell injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences.
Is a 20 gauge fenestrated intravenous catheter non-inferior to a 18 gauge standard catheter for apheresis procedures? A pilot study
Journal of clinical apheresis. 2021
BACKGROUND Peripheral venous access has been promoted as the safest, quickest, and most easily achievable route for performing apheresis procedures by the American Society for Apheresis' Choosing Wisely campaign. The current literature regarding catheter size and selection for both draw and return access is limited. Furthermore, the Infusion Nurses Society recommends using the smallest gauge catheter possible for the prescribed therapy in order to limit vein trauma and phlebitis. Since there is a lack of evidence to guide selection of catheter size for return access during therapeutic apheresis procedures (TAPs) for patients with chronic conditions, this pilot study seeks to compare the performance of a 20-gauge fenestrated (20G) catheter to a standard 18-gauge (18G) intravenous catheter. METHODS This non-inferiority pilot study randomized 26 subjects during 74 TAPs to either 20G fenestrated catheter or 18G standard catheter. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences for variables associated with the efficiency of the TAPs comparing 20G to 18G catheter for inlet rate (P = .8666), return pressure (P = .9427), blood processed (P = .4318), or total procedure time (P = .3184). CONCLUSION The results from this pilot study suggest that 20G fenestrated catheter is non-inferior to 18G standard catheters. Additional studies with increased power are warranted to confirm these findings.
Risk factors for mortality of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Arthritis research & therapy. 2021;23(1):57
BACKGROUND Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The current knowledge of the prognostic factors for SLE-associated DAH is controversial. This meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the relevant risk factors for mortality in SLE-associated DAH. METHODS Studies were searched from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases published up to May 27, 2020, and were selected or removed according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers extracted data independently from the enrolled studies, and the odds ratios (OR) or the standardized mean difference (SMD) was utilized to identify and describe the prognostic factors for mortality. RESULTS Eight studies encompassing 251 patients with SLE-associated DAH were included in the meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was shown. Age at the diagnosis of DAH (SMD = 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.08, 0.61), P = 0.01, I(2) = 0.0%) was found to be an independent risk factor of mortality. Longer lupus disease duration (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI (0.01, 0.55), P = 0.042, I(2) = 0.0%), concurrent infection (OR = 2.77, 95% CI (1.55, 4.95), P = 0.001, I(2) = 37.5%), plasmapheresis treatment (OR = 1.96, 95% CI (1.04, 3.70), P = 0.038, I(2) = 14.6%), and mechanical ventilation (OR = 6.11, 95% CI (3.27, 11.39), P < 0.0001, I(2) = 23.3%) were also related to poor survival, whereas no noticeable relationships were revealed between survival and concurrent lupus nephritis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI (0.52, 56.95), P = 0.16, I(2) = 58.4%) or treatment of cyclophosphamide (CTX) (OR = 0.74, 95% CI (0.16, 3.41), P = 0.70, I(2) = 75.5%). CONCLUSIONS Older age at the diagnosis of DAH, longer disease duration of SLE, concurrent infection, plasmapheresis treatment, and mechanical ventilation were found related to increased mortality in patients with SLE-associated DAH according to our meta-analysis. However, due to limited studies with heterogeneity, these results should be interpreted cautiously. Notably, severe diseases rendered the requirement of plasmapheresis treatment and mechanical ventilation are themselves associated with poor outcome. Randomized trials of therapeutics are needed to determine the most efficacious strategies for SLE-associated DAH for better management of this life-threatening complication.
Clinical hemocompatibility of double filtration lipoprotein apheresis comparing polyethersulfone and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer membranes
Artificial organs. 2021
INTRODUCTION Activation of the complement system and leukocytes by blood-membrane interactions may further promote arteriosclerosis typically present in patients on lipoprotein apheresis. As clinical data on the hemocompatibility of lipoprotein apheresis are scarce, a controlled clinical study comparing two different types of plasma separation and fractionation membranes used in double filtration lipoprotein apheresis was urgently needed, as its outcome may influence clinical decision-making. METHODS In a prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial, eight patients on double filtration lipoprotein apheresis were subjected to one treatment with recent polyethersulfone (PES) plasma separation and fractionation membranes and one control treatment using a set of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) membranes. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet (PC) counts, complement factor C5a and thrombin-anti-thrombin III (TAT) concentrations were determined in samples drawn at defined times from different sites of the extracorporeal blood and plasma circuit. RESULTS With a nadir at 25 min, WBC in EVAL decreased to 33.5 ± 10.7 % of baseline compared to 63.8 ± 22.0 % at 20 min in PES (P < 0.001). The maximum C5a levels in venous blood re-entering the patients were measured at 30 min, being 30.0 ± 11.2 µg/L with EVAL and 12.3 ± 9.0 µg/L with PES (P < 0.05). The highest C5a concentrations were found in plasma after the plasma filters (EVAL 56.1 ± 22.0 µg/L at 15 min vs. PES 23.3 ± 15.2 µg/L at 10 min; P < 0.001). PC did not significantly decrease over time with both membrane types, while TAT levels did not rise until the end of the treatment without differences between membranes. Regarding lipoprotein(a) and LDL cholesterol removal, both membrane sets performed equally. CONCLUSION Compared to EVAL, PES membranes cause less leukocyte and complement system activation, the classical parameters of hemocompatibility of extracorporeal treatment procedures, at identical treatment efficacy. Better hemocompatibility may avoid inflammation-promoting effects through blood-material interactions in patients requiring double-filtration lipoprotein apheresis.
High dose coupled plasma filtration and adsorption in septic shock patients. Results of the COMPACT-2: a multicentre, adaptive, randomised clinical trial
Intensive care medicine. 2021
PURPOSE This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of high-dose (> 0.2 L/kg of treated plasma per day) coupled plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA) in treating patients with septic shock. METHODS Multicentre, randomised, adaptive trial, performed in 12 Italian intensive care units (ICUs). Patients aged 14 or more, admitted to the ICU with septic shock, or had developed it during the stay were eligible. The final outcome was mortality at discharge from the last hospital at which the patient received care. RESULTS Between May 2015, and October 2017, 115 patients were randomised. The first interim analysis revealed a number of early deaths, prompting an unplanned analysis. Last hospital mortality was non-significantly higher in the CPFA (55.6%) than in the control group (46.2%, p = 0.35). The 90-day survival curves diverged in favour of the controls early after randomisation and remained separated afterwards (p = 0.100). An unplanned analysis showed higher mortality in CPFA compared to controls among patients without severe renal failure (p = 0.025); a dose-response relationship was observed between treated plasma volume and mortality (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION The COMPACT-2 trial was stopped due to the possible harmful effect of CPFA in patients with septic shock. The harmful effect, if present, was particularly marked in the early phase of septic shock. Patients not requiring renal replacement therapy seemed most exposed to the possible harm, with evidence of a dose-response effect. Until the mechanisms behind these results are fully understood, the use of CPFA for the treatment of patients with septic shock is not recommended.
Patients aged 14 or more with septic shock, enrolled in the COMPACT-2 multicentre trial (n= 115).
High dose coupled plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA), (n= 63).
Standard care (n= 52).
The first interim analysis revealed a number of early deaths, prompting an unplanned analysis. Last hospital mortality was non-significantly higher in the CPFA (55.6%) than in the control group (46.2%). The 90-day survival curves diverged in favour of the controls early after randomisation and remained separated afterwards. An unplanned analysis showed higher mortality in CPFA compared to controls among patients without severe renal failure; a dose-response relationship was observed between treated plasma volume and mortality. The COMPACT-2 trial was stopped due to the possible harmful effect of CPFA in patients with septic shock.
Efficacy and safety of double-filtration plasmapheresis treatment of myasthenia gravis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), and Wanfang databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) on DFPP for MG from database establishment to June 2019. Two researchers independently screened the articles, extracted the data, and cross checked the results. RevMan 5.3 was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS Seven RCTs and 2 CCTs were found comprising 329 patients. The results showed that clinical MG remission rate after DFPP treatment was significantly higher (OR = 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.97-9.53; P < .001) and the serum levels of antititin antibody was significantly decreased (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 9.30; 95% CI, 7.51-11.08; P < .001). In addition, the quantitative MG (QMG) score, hospital stay and time to remission of MG symptoms, and acetylcholine receptor antibody (AchRAb) decreased in the DFPP treatment group; however, these outcomes had high heterogeneity among the studies. Only one study has reported on the adverse effects, including hypotension and hematoma. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that DFPP can be recommended for the short-term mitigation of MG. Because our review was limited by the quantity and quality of the included studies, the above conclusions should be verified by additional high-quality studies.