Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis and Microscopic Polyangiitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Benefits and Harms of Common Treatments
ACR open rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The aim of this systemic review is to compare different treatments for patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) to inform evidence-based recommendations for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/Vasculitis Foundation (VF) Vasculitis Management Guidelines. METHODS A systemic review was conducted by searching articles in English using OVID Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were screened for suitability in addressing PICO questions, with studies presenting the highest level of evidence given preference. RESULTS A total of 729 full-text articles addressing GPA and MPA PICO questions were reviewed. For remission induction, rituximab was shown to be noninferior to cyclophosphamide (CYC) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55, moderate certainty of evidence). The addition of plasma exchange to induction therapy in severe disease did not improve the composite end point of death or end stage renal disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86 [95% confidence interval CI: 0.65, 1.13], moderate certainty of evidence). In nonsevere disease, methotrexate was noninferior to CYC for induction of remission (remission at 6 months of 90% vs. 94%). For maintenance of remission, methotrexate and azathioprine showed no difference in the risk of relapse over a mean follow-up of 29 months (HR: 0.92, [95% CI: 0.52, 1.65]low certainty of evidence). As maintenance therapy, rituximab was superior to a tapering azathioprine strategy in major relapse-free survival at 28 months (HR: 6.61, [95% CI: 1.56, 27.96], moderate certainty of evidence). In two randomized trials, longer-term azathioprine maintenance therapy (>24 months) is associated with fewer relapses without an increase in adverse events. CONCLUSION This comprehensive systematic review synthesizes and evaluates the benefits and toxicities of different treatment options for GPA and MPA.
Effect of evolocumab on lipoprotein apheresis requirement and lipid levels: Results of the randomized, controlled, open-label DE LAVAL study
Journal of clinical lipidology. 2019
BACKGROUND Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) can effectively lower lipoproteins but is an invasive procedure. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate whether evolocumab can reduce LA requirement in patients undergoing chronic LA. METHODS Patients on regular weekly or every-2-week LA and moderate- to high-intensity statin (if tolerated) with pre-LA low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ≥2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) to ≤4.9 mmol/L (190 mg/dL) were randomized to continue the same LA frequency, or discontinue LA and receive evolocumab 140 mg every-2-weeks subcutaneously for 6 weeks. At week 6, all patients received only open-label evolocumab for 18 weeks. The primary endpoint was LA avoidance at the end of 6 weeks based on achieving pre-LA LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L at week 4. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients (mean [SD] age 62  years, 59% male, 82% with familial hypercholesterolemia) were randomized (evolocumab, n = 19; LA, n = 20). At the end of 6 weeks, more patients receiving evolocumab avoided LA than those receiving LA (84% vs 10%; treatment difference, 74% [95% CI: 45, 87]; P < .0001). Thirty patients (77%) did not require LA at 24 weeks. Evolocumab reduced pre-LA LDL-C by 50% from the baseline to week 4 compared with a 3% increase in the LA arm. Pre-LA LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) was achieved by 10 patients (53%) receiving evolocumab and none receiving LA (week 4). Safety was comparable between arms. CONCLUSION Evolocumab treatment significantly reduced LA requirement in patients undergoing chronic LA. In addition, >50% of patients achieved LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L on evolocumab alone, demonstrating that in patients with pre-LA LDL-C ≤4.9 mmol/L, evolocumab may replace LA.
Effects of therapeutic plasma exchange on anticoagulants in patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation: a systematic review
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) removes coagulation proteins, but its impact on therapeutic anticoagulation is unknown. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the coagulation effects of TPE in patients receiving systemic anticoagulation. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science until June 2018 for studies combining controlled vocabulary and keywords related to therapeutic plasma exchange, plasmapheresis, anticoagulants, and therapy. The primary outcome was the effect of TPE on anti-Xa activity, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), or international normalized ratio (INR). The secondary outcome was reports of post-TPE bleeding or thrombosis. A total of 1830 references were screened and eight studies identified. Our selected studies (five case reports and three case series) involved 23 patients and evaluated the effects of seven anticoagulants. Six studies of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins, and direct oral anticoagulants demonstrated an anti-Xa level decline. Two studies of unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins showed an aPTT increase. One study of warfarin showed a post-TPE INR increase. Reports of post-TPE bleeding occurred in two patients and thrombosis in one. In patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation, TPE is associated with anti-Xa activity decline and aPTT and INR increase. These coagulation changes do not appear to significantly increase bleeding or thrombotic risk. Our data suggest the need for prospective studies to investigate the true clinical impact of TPE on therapeutic anticoagulation.
Plasma exchange and glucocorticoid dosing in the treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (PEXIVAS): protocol for a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) are small vessel vasculitides collectively referred to as anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). AAV is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality due to uncontrolled disease and treatment toxicity. Small randomized trials suggest adjunctive plasma exchange may improve disease control, while observational evidence suggests that current oral glucocorticoid doses are associated with severe infections in patients with AAV. A randomized study of both plasma exchange and glucocorticoids is required to evaluate plasma exchange and oral glucocorticoid dosing in patients with AAV. METHODS/DESIGN PEXIVAS is a two-by-two factorial randomized trial evaluating adjunctive plasma exchange and two oral glucocorticoid regimens in severe AAV. Five hundred patients are being randomized at centers across Europe, North America, Asia, and Australasia to receive plasma exchange or no plasma exchange, and to receive standard or reduced oral glucocorticoid dosing. All patients receive immunosuppression with either cyclophosphamide or rituximab. The primary outcome is the time to the composite of all-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease.PEXIVAS is funded by the National Institute of Health Research (UK), the Food and Drug Administration (USA), the National Institutes of Health (USA), the Canadian Institute of Health Research (Canada), the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), and Assistance Publique (France). Additional in-kind supplies for plasma exchange are provided by industry partners (TerumoBCT, Gambro Australia, and Fresenius Australia). DISCUSSION This is the largest trial in AAV undertaken to date. PEXIVAS will inform the future standard of care for patients with severe AAV. The cooperation between investigators, funding agencies, and industry provides a model for conducting studies in rare diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials: (ISRCTN07757494) and clinicaltrials.gov: (NCT00987389).
Plasma exchange for induction and cyclosporine A for maintenance of remission in Wegener's granulomatosis--a clinical randomized controlled trial
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 2011;26((1):):206-13.
BACKGROUND The use of plasma exchange (PE) for induction treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), including Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is still controversial. The use of PE in AAV is not commonly accepted in patients with a plasma creatinine <500 Î¼mol/L (5.7 mg/dL) despite experimental support for involvement of ANCA in the pathogenesis of vasculitis. METHODS In a single-centre study from a tertiary referral centre, 32 patients with ANCA-positive WG were treated with standard immunosuppressive therapy, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide (CYC). In addition, they were randomized to treatment with or without initial PE. After 3 months, they were further randomized in a Latin square design to continue CYC or to change to cyclosporine A (CyA) for 9 months. The renal follow-up was at least 5 years. RESULTS Renal survival after 1, 3 and 12 months, and 5 years was significantly better in the PE groups. For all groups, the kidney/patient survival was 87.5%/93.7% at 1 year and 72%/56% at 5 years. All patients who were on dialysis when recruited were dialysis dependent 5 years later. There was no difference in morbidity or mortality between PE and control groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PE improved renal survival (P < 0.01) at initial plasma creatinine levels >250 µmol/L (2.85 mg/dL). Change from CYC to CyA did not influence rate of relapses or time to relapse. CONCLUSIONS PE is recommended for induction therapy in WG patients at creatinine levels >250 µmol/L (2.85 mg/dL), whereas previous randomized studies have limited PE to patients with creatinine >500 µmol/L (5.65 mg/dL).
A first-in-man, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of autologous delipidated high-density lipoprotein plasma infusions in patients with acute coronary syndrome
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010;55((24):):2727-35.
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine whether serial autologous infusions of selective high-density lipoprotein (HDL) delipidated plasma are feasible and well tolerated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). BACKGROUND Low HDL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Plasma selective delipidation converts alphaHDL to prebeta-like HDL, the most effective form of HDL for lipid removal from arterial plaques. METHODS ACS patients undergoing cardiac catheterization with >or=1 nonobstructive native coronary artery atheroma were randomized to either 7 weekly HDL selective delipidated or control plasma apheresis/reinfusions. Patients underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) evaluation of the target vessel during the catheterization for ACS and up to 14 days following the final apheresis/reinfusion session. 2-D gel electrophoresis of delipidated plasmas established successful conversion of alphaHDL to prebeta-like HDL. The trial was complete with 28 patients randomized. RESULTS All reinfusion sessions were tolerated well by all patients. The levels of prebeta-like HDL and alphaHDL in the delipidated plasma converted from 5. 6% to 79. 1% and 92. 8% to 20. 9%, respectively. The IVUS data demonstrated a numeric trend toward regression in the total atheroma volume of -12. 18 +/- 36. 75 mm(3) in the delipidated group versus an increase of total atheroma volume of 2. 80 +/- 21. 25 mm(3) in the control group (p = 0. 268). CONCLUSIONS In ACS patients, serial autologous infusions of selective HDL delipidated plasma are clinically feasible and well tolerated. This therapy may offer a novel adjunct treatment for patients presenting with ACS. Further study will be needed to determine its ability to reduce clinical cardiovascular events.
Tolerance to nitrates in patients with angina and effect of plasmapheresis Russian
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv. 2001;73((12):):21-5.
AIM: To evaluate tolerance to isosorbide dinitrate (ID) in patients with angina pectoris functional class II-III and effect of plasmapheresis in this tolerance management. MATERIAL AND METHODS 85 patients with angina pectoris functional class II-III taking long-acting ID. RESULTS As shown by repeat transesophageal left atrial pacing, 24.7% patients have developed tolerance to nitrate while taking prolonged ID. Two methods of this tolerance elimination were compared: plasmapheresis + withdrawal of long-acting nitrate and withdrawal of the nitrates only. The former has shown some advantages: use of plasmapheresis reestablished ID efficiency in 4 days (two sessions) in 81.8% and in 7 days (3 sessions) in 100% patients without withdrawal syndrome. The latter method reestablished a marked antiischemic effect of ID in 7 days and 20% patients exhibited a variant of withdrawal syndrome--early negative aftereffect. CONCLUSION When withdrawal of long-acting nitrates is combined with plasmapheresis in anginal patients to eliminate tolerance to nitrates, the effect is better.
Hemodynamic effects of immunoadsorption and subsequent immunoglobulin substitution in dilated cardiomyopathy: three-month results from a randomized study
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2000;35((6):):1590-8.
OBJECTIVES The objective of our study was to assess the hemodynamic effects of immunoadsorption (IA) and subsequent immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution in comparison with the effects of conventional medical treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND Various circulating cardiac autoantibodies have been detected among patients suffering from DCM. These antibodies are extractable by IA. METHODS Patients with DCM (n = 18, New York Heart Association III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction <30%) and who were on stable medication participated in the study. Hemodynamic measurements were performed using a Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter. The patients were randomly assigned either to the treatment group with IA and subsequent IgG substitution (IA/IgG group, n = 9) or to the control group without IA/IgG (n = 9). In the IA/IgG group, the patients were initially treated in one IA session daily on three consecutive days. After the final IA session, 0.5 g/kg of polyclonal IgG was substituted. At one-month intervals, IA was then repeated for three further courses with one IA session daily on two consecutive days, until the third month. RESULTS After the first IA course and IgG substitution, cardiac index (CI) increased from 2.1 (+/-0.1) to 2.8 (+/-0.1) L/min/m2 (p < 0.01) and stroke volume index (SVI) increased from 27.8 (+/-2.3) to 36.2 (+/-2.5) ml/m2 (p < 0.01). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased from 1,428 (+/-74) to 997 (+/-55) dyne x s x cm(-5) (p < 0.01). The improvement in CI, SVI and SVR persisted after three months. In contrast, hemodynamics did not change throughout the three months in the control group. CONCLUSIONS Immunoadsorption and subsequent IgG substitution improves cardiovascular function in DCM.
Low density lipoprotein apheresis improves regional myocardial perfusion in patients with hypercholesterolemia and extensive coronary artery disease. LDL-Apheresis Atherosclerosis Regression Study (LAARS)
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1996;28((7):):1696-704.
OBJECTIVES In a randomized study we evaluated the effect of biweekly low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis plus simvastatin versus medication alone on regional myocardial perfusion. BACKGROUND In patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, diet and lipid-lowering drugs are often insufficient to achieve optimal LDL cholesterol values. Low density lipoprotein apheresis is a very effective lipid-lowering therapy. Assessment of regional myocardial perfusion enables evaluation of the functional state of the coronary circulation. METHODS We studied 42 patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and extensive coronary artery disease who were randomized to diet and simvastatin with or without biweekly LDL apheresis. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed by digital subtraction angiography with videodensitometric calculation of hyperemic mean transit time (HMTT) of contrast medium at baseline and after 2 years of therapy. RESULTS Low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by 63% (to 3.0 mmol/liter) in the LDL apheresis group and by 47% (to 4.1 mmol/liter) in the medication group. Paired HMTT measurements were assessed in 43 regions in the LDL apheresis group and 35 regions in the medication group. In the LDL apheresis group, regional HMTT decreased over 2 years from 3.35 +/- 1.18 (mean +/- SD) to 2.87 +/- 0.82 s (-14%, p = 0.001), whereas no change in the medication group was observed: 2.95 +/- 1.06 to 2.96 +/- 0.90 s (p = NS). In the patient-based comparison, the mean change in HMTT was -0.45 s (-14%, p = 0.01) in the LDL apheresis group and -0.05 s (-2%, p = NS) in the medication group, respectively. Only exercise-induced ischemia improved in the LDL apheresis group. CONCLUSIONS Biweekly LDL apheresis plus simvastatin decreased time-averaged LDL cholesterol levels by an additional 31% (1.1 mmol/liter) compared with medication alone. After 2 years of therapy, regional myocardial perfusion improved in the LDL apheresis group and remained unchanged in the medication group. Thus, aggressive reduction of LDL cholesterol has a favorable effect on regional myocardial perfusion and alleviates ischemia.
Corticosteroids plus pulse cyclophosphamide and plasma exchanges versus corticosteroids plus pulse cyclophosphamide alone in the treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome patients with factors predicting poor prognosis. A prospective, randomized trial in sixty-two patients
Arthritis & Rheumatism. 1995;38((11):):1638-45.
OBJECTIVE To define the most effective treatment for severe polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and to investigate the indication for plasma exchange treatment. METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial in which 62 patients were randomly assigned to receive either prednisone plus cyclophosphamide (intravenous bolus) (group A; n = 28) or prednisone plus cyclophosphamide (intravenous bolus) plus plasma exchanges (group B; n = 34) as first-line treatment for severe PAN or CSS. Factors predicting poor prognosis were renal symptoms, gastrointestinal tract involvement, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system involvement, weight loss > 10% of body weight, and age > 50 years old. Patients with hepatitis B virus-related PAN were not included in this study. The end point of the study was control of the disease (recovery or remission) or death. RESULTS Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. Initial control of the disease was similar in both groups. Relapse after initial control of the disease was observed in 7 patients (4 in group A and 3 in group B). The mean +/- SD followup period was 31.1 +/- 20 months for group A and 35.9 +/- 16.8 months for group B. At 5 years of followup, 38 patients (61.3%) were cured (16 in group A and 22 in group B), and 5 (8.1%) were in remission without treatment but had not yet completed the cure-defining period of 18 months (3 in group A and 2 in group B). Eight (12.9%) (2 in group A and 2 in group B) were considered to be in clinical remission and required a maintenance regimen of low-dose corticosteroids. Eleven patients died during the study period (7 in group A [25%], 4 in group B [11.8%]). Uncontrolled vasculitis was responsible for 4 deaths (2 in each group), and treatment side effects caused the death of 1 patient in group A. There was no significant difference between the 5-year cumulative survival rates of the 2 groups (75% and 88%, respectively). CONCLUSION Based on our data, combined treatment with prednisone, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchanges is not superior to treatment with prednisone and cyclophosphamide alone, and plasma exchanges should not be systematically proposed for initial treatment of severe PAN or CSS.