Caplacizumab prevents refractoriness and mortality in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: integrated analysis
Blood advances. 2021;5(8):2137-2141
The efficacy and safety of caplacizumab in individuals with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) have been established in the phase 2 TITAN and phase 3 HERCULES trials. Integrated analysis of data from both trials was conducted to increase statistical power for assessing treatment differences in efficacy and safety outcomes. Caplacizumab was associated with a significant reduction in the number of deaths (0 vs 4; P < .05) and a significantly lower incidence of refractory TTP (0 vs 8; P < .05) vs placebo during the treatment period. Consistent with the individual trials, treatment with caplacizumab resulted in a faster time to platelet count response (hazard ratio, 1.65; P < .001), a 72.6% reduction in the proportion of patients with the composite end point of TTP-related death, TTP exacerbation, or occurrence of at least 1 treatment-emergent major thromboembolic event during the treatment period (13.0% vs 47.3%; P < .001), and a 33.3% reduction in the median number of therapeutic plasma exchange days (5.0 vs 7.5 days) vs placebo. No new safety signals were identified; mild mucocutaneous bleeding was the main safety finding. This integrated analysis provided new evidence that caplacizumab prevents mortality and refractory disease in acquired TTP and strengthened individual trial findings, with a confirmed favorable safety and tolerability profile. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01151423 and #NCT02553317.
Bedside Allogeneic Erythrocyte Washing with a Cell Saver to Remove Cytokines, Chemokines, and Cell-derived Microvesicles
BACKGROUND Removal of cytokines, chemokines, and microvesicles from the supernatant of allogeneic erythrocytes may help mitigate adverse transfusion reactions. Blood bank-based washing procedures present logistical difficulties; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that on-demand bedside washing of allogeneic erythrocyte units is capable of removing soluble factors and is feasible in a clinical setting. METHODS There were in vitro and prospective, observation cohort components to this a priori planned substudy evaluating bedside allogeneic erythrocyte washing, with a cell saver, during cardiac surgery. Laboratory data were collected from the first 75 washed units given to a subset of patients nested in the intervention arm of a parent clinical trial. Paired pre- and postwash samples from the blood unit bags were centrifuged. The supernatant was aspirated and frozen at -70°C, then batch-tested for cell-derived microvesicles, soluble CD40 ligand, chemokine ligand 5, and neutral lipids (all previously associated with transfusion reactions) and cell-free hemoglobin (possibly increased by washing). From the entire cohort randomized to the intervention arm of the trial, bedside washing was defined as feasible if at least 75% of prescribed units were washed per protocol. RESULTS Paired data were available for 74 units. Washing reduced soluble CD40 ligand (median [interquartile range]; from 143 [1 to 338] ng/ml to zero), chemokine ligand 5 (from 1,314 [715 to 2,551] to 305 [179 to 488] ng/ml), and microvesicle numbers (from 6.90 [4.10 to 20.0] to 0.83 [0.33 to 2.80] × 106), while cell-free hemoglobin concentration increased from 72.6 (53.6 to 171.6) mg/dl to 210.5 (126.6 to 479.6) mg/dl (P < 0.0001 for each). There was no effect on neutral lipids. Bedside washing was determined as feasible for 80 of 81 patients (99%); overall, 293 of 314 (93%) units were washed per protocol. CONCLUSIONS Bedside erythrocyte washing was clinically feasible and greatly reduced concentrations of soluble factors thought to be associated with transfusion-related adverse reactions, increasing concentrations of cell-free hemoglobin while maintaining acceptable (less than 0.8%) hemolysis.
Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Protects Patients with Sepsis-Associated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation by Improving Endothelial Function
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211053313
The mortality rate of sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is high. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in sepsis-associated DIC patients by improving endothelial function. A total of 112 sepsis-associated DIC patients were randomly divided into the TPE group (n = 40), the heparin (HP) group (n = 36), and the SHAM group (n = 36). The SHAM group received conventional treatment; the HP group was treated with HP based on conventional treatment; and the TPE group received conventional treatment plus TPE. The differences in thromboelastogram (TEG), platelet (PLT), coagulation function, and the endothelial cell (EC) injury biomarkers at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after TPE were compared among the three groups, and the three groups were compared in terms of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, 28-day mortality rate, 28-day cumulative survival rate, the incidence of bleeding events, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of TPE is superior to the HP in increasing PLT, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of ICU hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, AKI, and ARDS with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Moreover, the effect of TPE outperforms HP on the EC injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Our results suggest that TPE may be more effective than HP in the treatment of patients with sepsis-associated DIC. The possible mechanism is via improving endothelial function.
Patients with sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), (n= 112).
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), (n= 40).
Heparin (HP), (n= 36); conventional treatment (n= 36).
The efficacy of TPE was superior to the HP in increasing platelet, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of intensive care unit hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome with statistically significant differences. The effect of TPE outperformed HP on the endothelial cell injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences.
Clinical hemocompatibility of double filtration lipoprotein apheresis comparing polyethersulfone and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer membranes
Artificial organs. 2021
INTRODUCTION Activation of the complement system and leukocytes by blood-membrane interactions may further promote arteriosclerosis typically present in patients on lipoprotein apheresis. As clinical data on the hemocompatibility of lipoprotein apheresis are scarce, a controlled clinical study comparing two different types of plasma separation and fractionation membranes used in double filtration lipoprotein apheresis was urgently needed, as its outcome may influence clinical decision-making. METHODS In a prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial, eight patients on double filtration lipoprotein apheresis were subjected to one treatment with recent polyethersulfone (PES) plasma separation and fractionation membranes and one control treatment using a set of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) membranes. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet (PC) counts, complement factor C5a and thrombin-anti-thrombin III (TAT) concentrations were determined in samples drawn at defined times from different sites of the extracorporeal blood and plasma circuit. RESULTS With a nadir at 25 min, WBC in EVAL decreased to 33.5 ± 10.7 % of baseline compared to 63.8 ± 22.0 % at 20 min in PES (P < 0.001). The maximum C5a levels in venous blood re-entering the patients were measured at 30 min, being 30.0 ± 11.2 µg/L with EVAL and 12.3 ± 9.0 µg/L with PES (P < 0.05). The highest C5a concentrations were found in plasma after the plasma filters (EVAL 56.1 ± 22.0 µg/L at 15 min vs. PES 23.3 ± 15.2 µg/L at 10 min; P < 0.001). PC did not significantly decrease over time with both membrane types, while TAT levels did not rise until the end of the treatment without differences between membranes. Regarding lipoprotein(a) and LDL cholesterol removal, both membrane sets performed equally. CONCLUSION Compared to EVAL, PES membranes cause less leukocyte and complement system activation, the classical parameters of hemocompatibility of extracorporeal treatment procedures, at identical treatment efficacy. Better hemocompatibility may avoid inflammation-promoting effects through blood-material interactions in patients requiring double-filtration lipoprotein apheresis.
High dose coupled plasma filtration and adsorption in septic shock patients. Results of the COMPACT-2: a multicentre, adaptive, randomised clinical trial
Intensive care medicine. 2021
PURPOSE This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of high-dose (> 0.2 L/kg of treated plasma per day) coupled plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA) in treating patients with septic shock. METHODS Multicentre, randomised, adaptive trial, performed in 12 Italian intensive care units (ICUs). Patients aged 14 or more, admitted to the ICU with septic shock, or had developed it during the stay were eligible. The final outcome was mortality at discharge from the last hospital at which the patient received care. RESULTS Between May 2015, and October 2017, 115 patients were randomised. The first interim analysis revealed a number of early deaths, prompting an unplanned analysis. Last hospital mortality was non-significantly higher in the CPFA (55.6%) than in the control group (46.2%, p = 0.35). The 90-day survival curves diverged in favour of the controls early after randomisation and remained separated afterwards (p = 0.100). An unplanned analysis showed higher mortality in CPFA compared to controls among patients without severe renal failure (p = 0.025); a dose-response relationship was observed between treated plasma volume and mortality (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION The COMPACT-2 trial was stopped due to the possible harmful effect of CPFA in patients with septic shock. The harmful effect, if present, was particularly marked in the early phase of septic shock. Patients not requiring renal replacement therapy seemed most exposed to the possible harm, with evidence of a dose-response effect. Until the mechanisms behind these results are fully understood, the use of CPFA for the treatment of patients with septic shock is not recommended.
Patients aged 14 or more with septic shock, enrolled in the COMPACT-2 multicentre trial (n= 115).
High dose coupled plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA), (n= 63).
Standard care (n= 52).
The first interim analysis revealed a number of early deaths, prompting an unplanned analysis. Last hospital mortality was non-significantly higher in the CPFA (55.6%) than in the control group (46.2%). The 90-day survival curves diverged in favour of the controls early after randomisation and remained separated afterwards. An unplanned analysis showed higher mortality in CPFA compared to controls among patients without severe renal failure; a dose-response relationship was observed between treated plasma volume and mortality. The COMPACT-2 trial was stopped due to the possible harmful effect of CPFA in patients with septic shock.
A prognostic score for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure treated with plasma exchange-centered artificial liver support system
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):1469
Artificial liver support system (ALSS) therapy is widely used in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). We aimed to develop a predictive score to identify the subgroups who may benefit from plasma exchange (PE)-centered ALSS therapy. A total of 601 patients were retrospectively enrolled and randomly divided into a derivation cohort of 303 patients and a validation cohort of 298 patients for logistic regression analysis, respectively. Five baseline variables, including liver cirrhosis, total bilirubin, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, infection and hepatic encephalopathy, were found independently associated with 3-month mortality. A predictive PALS model and the simplified PALS score were developed. The predicative value of PALS score (AUROC = 0.818) to 3-month prognosis was as capable as PALS model (AUROC = 0.839), R score (AUROC = 0.824) and Yue-Meng' score (AUROC = 0.810) (all p > 0.05), and superior to CART model (AUROC = 0.760) and MELD score (AUROC = 0.765) (all p < 0.05). The PALS score had significant linear correlation with 3-month mortality (R(2) = 0.970, p = 0.000). PALS score of 0-2 had both sensitivity and negative predictive value of > 90% for 3-month mortality, while PALS score of 6-9 had both specificity and positive predictive value of > 90%. Patients with PALS score of 3-5 who received 3-5 sessions of ALSS therapy had much lower 3-month mortality than those who received 1-2 sessions (32.8% vs. 59.2%, p < 0.05). The more severe patients with PALS score of 6-9 could still benefit from ≥ 6 sessions of ALSS therapy compared to ≤ 2 sessions (63.6% vs. 97.0%, p < 0.05). The PALS score could predict prognosis reliably and conveniently. It could identify the subgroups who could benefit from PE-centered ALSS therapy, and suggest the reasonable sessions.Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000032055. Registered 19th April 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=52471 .
Neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and quality-of-life assessments in Alzheimer's disease patients treated with plasma exchange with albumin replacement from the randomized AMBAR study
Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 2021
INTRODUCTION We report the effects of plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement on neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in a phase 2b/3 trial (Alzheimer's Management by Albumin Replacement [AMBAR] study). METHODS Three hundred forty-seven patients were randomized into placebo (sham-PE) and three PE-treatment arms with low/high doses of albumin, with/without intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Specific test measurements were performed at baseline; month 2 (weekly conventional PE); months 6, 9, and 12 (monthly low-volume PE [LVPE]); and month 14. RESULTS The PE-treated mild-AD cohort improved their language fluency and processing speed versus placebo at month 14 (effect sizes: >100%; P-values: .03 to .001). The moderate-AD cohort significantly improved short-term verbal memory (effect sizes: 94% to >100%; P-values: .02 to .003). The progression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PE-treated was similar to placebo. Mild-AD patients showed improved QoL (P-values: .04 to .008). DISCUSSION PE-treated AD patients showed improvement in memory, language abilities, processing speed, and QoL-AD. No worsening of their psychoaffective status was observed.
Standard-volume plasma-exchange improves outcomes in patients with acute liver failure - A Randomized Controlled Trial
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2021
BACKGROUND High volume plasma-exchange (HVPE) improves survival in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), but apprehension regarding volume overload and worsening of cerebral edema remain. METHODS In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 40 consecutive patients of ALF were randomized 1:1 to either standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT with standard-volume plasma-exchange (SVPE). SVPE was performed using centrifugal apheresis [target volume of 1.5 to 2.0 plasma volumes per session] until desired response was achieved. Cerebral edema was assessed by brain imaging. Results were analyzed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Primary outcome was 21-day transplant-free survival. The levels of cytokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and endotoxins were analyzed at baseline and day 5. RESULTS ALF patients [aged 31.5±12.2 years, 60% male, 78% viral, 83% hyperacute, 70% with SIRS were included. At day 5, SVPE [mean sessions 2.15±1.42, median plasma volume replaced 5.049 L] compared to SMT alone, resulted in higher lactate clearance (p=0.02), amelioration of SIRS (84% vs. 26%; P=0.02), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5±96.9) vs.(439±385.6) μg/dl, P=0.02) and SOFA scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8); P=0.001]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival [75% vs. 45%; P=0.04, HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.01-0.88]. A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and DAMPs was seen with SVPE. CONCLUSION In ALF patients with cerebral edema, SVPE is safe and effective and improves survival possibly by a reduction in cytokine storm and ammonia. ClinicalTrial.gov (identifier: NCT02718079).
Plasma Exchange and Glucocorticoids in Severe ANCA-Associated Vasculitis
The New England journal of medicine. 2020;382(7):622-631
BACKGROUND More effective and safer treatments are needed for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to evaluate the use of plasma exchange and two regimens of oral glucocorticoids in patients with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis (defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <50 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area or diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage). Patients were randomly assigned to undergo plasma exchange (seven plasma exchanges within 14 days after randomization) or no plasma exchange (control group). Patients were also randomly assigned to follow either a standard-dose regimen or a reduced-dose regimen of oral glucocorticoids. Patients were followed for up to 7 years for the primary composite outcome of death from any cause or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). RESULTS Death from any cause or ESKD occurred in 100 of 352 patients (28.4%) in the plasma-exchange group and in 109 of 352 patients (31.0%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 1.13; P = 0.27). The results were similar in subgroup analyses and in analyses of secondary outcomes. We also assessed the noninferiority of a reduced-dose regimen of glucocorticoids to a standard-dose regimen, using a noninferiority margin of 11 percentage points. Death from any cause or ESKD occurred in 92 of 330 patients (27.9%) in the reduced-dose group and in 83 of 325 patients (25.5%) in the standard-dose group (absolute risk difference, 2.3 percentage points; 90% CI, -3.4 to 8.0), which met the criterion for noninferiority. Serious infections at 1 year were less common in the reduced-dose group than in the standard-dose group (incidence rate ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.93), but other secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis, the use of plasma exchange did not reduce the incidence of death or ESKD. A reduced-dose regimen of glucocorticoids was noninferior to a standard-dose regimen with respect to death or ESKD. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research and others; PEXIVAS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN07757494; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00987389.).
Caplacizumab: an anti-von Willebrand factor antibody for the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2020
PURPOSE The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosing and administration, and place in therapy of caplacizumab, a novel antibody fragment that inhibits von Willebrand factor, for the treatment of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are summarized. SUMMARY Caplacizumab is a humanized anti-von Willebrand factor monoclonal antibody fragment that inhibits the interaction between ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers and platelets. Caplacizumab is indicated for use in combination with standard-of-care modalities such as plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of adults with acquired TTP. By inhibiting von Willebrand factor, caplacizumab offers a new approach to the management of TTP by preventing the development of potentially life-threatening microvascular thrombosis that can occur in the disease process. In a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, patients with acquired TTP treated with caplacizumab had more rapid platelet level normalization than placebo users; caplacizumab use also resulted in lower rates of disease recurrence and TTP-related death. The most common adverse events associated with caplacizumab use are bleeding-related events. In a phase 3 trial, serious bleeding-related adverse events were reported in 8 patients (11%) in the caplacizumab group and 1 patient (1%) in the placebo group. Caplacizumab is administered as an 11-mg intravenous loading dose 15 minutes prior to plasma exchange, followed by administration of 11 mg subcutaneously daily after plasma exchange. Once-daily caplacizumab administration can be continued for 30 days after the last plasma exchange. The medication and supplies for administration are provided as a single-use kit; patients should be trained on proper reconstitution and self-administration technique prior to the use of caplacizumab in the ambulatory setting. CONCLUSION Caplacizumab is a first-in-class von Willebrand factor inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with acquired TTP.