Efficacy of implementing intermittent STOP THE BLEED(®) reviews on long term retention of hemorrhage control skills of first year medical students
Journal of osteopathic medicine. 2021
CONTEXT Some medical schools integrate STOP THE BLEED(®) training into their curricula to teach students how to identify and stop life threatening bleeds; these classes that are taught as single day didactic and hands-on training sessions without posttraining reviews. To improve retention and confidence in hemorrhage control, additional review opportunities are necessary. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether intermittent STOP THE BLEED(®) reviews were effective for long term retention of hemorrhage control skills and improving perceived confidence. METHODS First year osteopathic medical students were asked to complete an eight item survey (five Likert scale and three quiz format questions) before (pretraining) and after (posttraining) completing a STOP THE BLEED(®) training session. After the surveys were collected, students were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. Over a 12 week intervention period, each group watched a 4 min STOP THE BLEED(®) review video (intervention group) or a "distractor" video (control group) at 4 week intervals. After the 12 weeks, the students were asked to complete an 11 item survey. RESULTS Scores on the posttraining survey were higher than the pretraining survey. The median score on the five Likert scale items was 23 points for the posttraining survey and 14 points for the pretraining survey. Two of the three knowledge based quiz format questions significantly improved from pretraining to posttraining (both p<0.001). On the 11 item postintervention survey, both groups performed similarly on the three quiz questions (all p>0.18), but the intervention group had much higher scores on the Likert scale items than the control group regarding their confidence in their ability to identify and control bleeding (intervention group median = 21.4 points vs. control group median = 16.8 points). CONCLUSIONS Intermittent review videos for STOP THE BLEED(®) training improved medical students' confidence in their hemorrhage control skills, but the videos did not improve their ability to correctly answer quiz-format questions compared with the control group.
A new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke patients
BMC neurology. 2020;20(1):426
BACKGROUND A reliable scoring tool to detect the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is warranted. The present study was designed to develop and validate a new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients treated with intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). METHODS We enrolled patients who suffered from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with IV rt-PA treatment in our emergency green channel between August 2016 and July 2018. The main outcome was defined as any type of intracerebral hemorrhage according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II (ECASS II). All patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the primary cohort and the validation cohort. On the basis of multivariate logistic model, the predictive nomogram was generated. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot. RESULTS A total of 194 patients with complete data were enrolled, of whom 131 comprised the primary cohort and 63 comprised the validation cohort, with HT rate 12.2, 9.5% respectively. The score of chronic disease scale (CDS), the global burden of cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 13, and onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ≥ 180 were detected important determinants of ICH and included to construct the nomogram. The nomogram derived from the primary cohort for HT had C- Statistics of 0.9562 and the calibration plot revealed generally fit in predicting the risk of HT. Furthermore, we made a comparison between our new nomogram and several other risk-assessed scales for HT with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the results showed the nomogram model gave an area under curve of 0.9562 (95%CI, 0.9221-0.9904, P < 0.01) greater than HAT (Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis), SEDAN (blood Sugar, Early infarct and hyper Dense cerebral artery sign on non-contrast computed tomography, Age, and NIHSS) and SPAN-100 (Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS) scores. CONCLUSIONS This proposed nomogram based on the score of CDS, the global burden of CSVD, NIHSS score ≥ 13, and OTT ≥ 180 gives rise to a more accurate and more comprehensive prediction for HT in patients with ischemic stroke receiving IV rt-PA treatment.
Dynamic Visual Feedback During Junctional Tourniquet Training
The Journal of surgical research. 2019;233:444-452.
BACKGROUND This project involved the development and evaluation of a new visual bleeding feedback (VBF) system for tourniquet training. We hypothesized that dynamic VBF during junctional tourniquet training would be helpful and well received by trainees. MATERIALS AND METHODS We designed the VBF to simulate femoral bleeding. Medical students (n = 15) and emergency medical service (EMS) members (n = 4) were randomized in a single-blind, crossover study to the VBF or without feedback groups. Poststudy surveys assessing VBF usefulness and recommendations were conducted along with participants' reported confidence using a 7-point Likert scale. Data from the different groups were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests. RESULTS Participants rated the helpfulness of the VBF highly (6.53/7.00) and indicated they were very likely to recommend the VBF simulator to others (6.80/7.00). Pre- and post-VBF confidence were not statistically different (P = 0.59). Likewise, tourniquet application times for VBF and without feedback before crossover were not statistically different (P = 0.63). Although participant confidence did not change significantly from beginning to end of the study (P = 0.46), application time was significantly reduced (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS New tourniquet learners liked our VBF prototype and found it useful. Although confidence did not change over the course of the study for any group, application times improved. Future studies using outcomes of this study will allow us to continue VBF development as well as incorporate other quantitative measures of task performance to elucidate VBF's true benefit and help trainees achieve mastery in junctional tourniquet skills.
Effectiveness of the American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control Basic Training Among Laypeople Applying Different Tourniquet Types: A Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA surgery. 2019
Importance: More than 500000 laypeople in the United States have been trained in hemorrhage control, including tourniquet application, under the Stop the Bleed campaign. However, it is unclear whether after hemorrhage control training participants become proficient in a specific type of tourniquet or can also use other tourniquets effectively. Objective: To assess whether participants completing the American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control Basic (B-Con) training with Combat Application Tourniquets (CATs) can effectively apply bleeding control principles using other tourniquet types (commercial and improvised). Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonblinded, crossover, sequential randomized clinical trial with internal control assessed a volunteer sample of laypeople who attended a B-Con course at Gillette Stadium and the Longwood Medical Area in Boston, Massachusetts, for correct application of each of 5 different tourniquet types immediately after B-Con training from April 4, 2018, to October 9, 2018. The order of application varied for each participant using randomly generated permutated blocks. Interventions: Full B-Con course, including cognitive and skill sessions, that taught bleeding care, wound pressure and packing, and CAT application. Main Outcomes and Measures: Correct tourniquet application (applied pressure of ≥250 mm Hg with a 2-minute time cap) in a simulated scenario for 3 commercial tourniquets (Special Operation Forces Tactical Tourniquet, Stretch-Wrap-and-Tuck Tourniquet, and Rapid Application Tourniquet System) and improvised tourniquet compared with correct CAT application as an internal control using 4 pairwise Bonferroni-corrected comparisons with the McNemar test. Results: A total of 102 participants (50 [49.0%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 37.5 [27.0-53.0] years) were included in the study. Participants correctly applied the CAT at a significantly higher rate (92.2%) than all other commercial tourniquet types (Special Operation Forces Tactical Tourniquet, 68.6%; Stretch-Wrap-and-Tuck Tourniquet, 11.8%; Rapid Application Tourniquet System, 11.8%) and the improvised tourniquet (32.4%) (P < .001 for each pairwise comparison). When comparing tourniquets applied correctly, all tourniquet types had higher estimated blood loss, had longer application time, and applied less pressure than the CAT. Conclusions and Relevance: The B-Con principles for correct CAT application are not fully translatable to other commercial or improvised tourniquet types. This study demonstrates a disconnect between the B-Con course and tourniquet designs available for bystander first aid, potentially stemming from the lack of consensus guidelines. These results suggest that current B-Con trainees may not be prepared to care for bleeding patients as tourniquet design evolves. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT03538379.
Fetal thrombocytopenia in pregnancies complicated by fetal anemia due to red-cell alloimmunization: cohort study and meta-analysis
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2019
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of fetal thrombocytopenia at the time of percutaneous umbilical cord sampling (PUBS) in pregnancies complicated by alloimmunization and to conduct a systematic review on fetal thrombocytopenia in these pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing PUBS at our institution from 2000-2017. Clinical data, including fetal platelet counts, were abstracted from the medical record and analyzed with routine statistical procedures. A systematic review and meta-analysis were also conducted according to standard procedures. RESULT At first procedure, prior to any transfusion, 13/36 fetuses (36%) had thrombocytopenia: 11/36 (31%) had moderate thrombocytopenia and 2/36 (6%) had severe thrombocytopenia (14 patients had no platelet count at first procedure). The systematic review identified six studies, and the prevalence of fetal thrombocytopenia at the time of PUBS for alloimmunization was 18% (95% confidence interval 11%, 26%). CONCLUSION Thrombocytopenia is common and underappreciated in fetuses undergoing PUBS for alloimmunization.
What matters to women and healthcare providers in relation to interventions for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage: A qualitative systematic review
PloS one. 2019;14(5):e0215919
BACKGROUND Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Reducing deaths from PPH is a global challenge. The voices of women and healthcare providers have been missing from the debate around best practices for PPH prevention. The aim of this review was to identify, appraise and synthesize available evidence about the views and experiences of women and healthcare providers on interventions to prevent PPH. METHODS We searched eight electronic databases and reference lists of eligible studies published between 1996 and 2018, reporting qualitative data on views and experiences of PPH in general, and of any specific preventative intervention(s). Authors' findings were extracted and synthesised using meta-ethnographic techniques. Confidence in the quality, coherence, relevance and adequacy of data underpinning the resulting themes was assessed using GRADE-CERQual. A line of argument synthesis was developed. RESULTS Thirty-five studies from 29 countries met our inclusion criteria. Our results indicate that women and healthcare providers recognise the dangers of severe blood loss in the perinatal and postpartum period, but don't always share the same beliefs about the causes and consequences of PPH. Skilled birth attendants and traditional birth attendants (TBA's) want to prevent PPH but may lack the required resources and training. Women generally appreciate PPH prevention strategies, especially where their individual needs, beliefs and values are taken into account. Women and healthcare providers also recognize the value of using uterotonics (medications that contract the uterus) to prevent PPH but highlight safety concerns and potential misuse of the drugs as acceptability and implementation issues. CONCLUSIONS Based on stakeholder views and experiences, PPH prevention strategies are more likely to be successful where all stakeholders agree on the causes and consequences of severe postpartum blood loss, especially in the context of sufficient resources and effective implementation by competent, suitably trained providers.
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: recommendations for evidence-based practice, an international approach
British journal of haematology. 2019
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) may result in severe bleeding, particularly fetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). As a result, FNAIT requires prompt identification and treatment; subsequent pregnancies need close surveillance and management. An international panel convened to develop evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of FNAIT. A rigorous approach was used to search, review and develop recommendations from published data for: antenatal management, postnatal management, diagnostic testing and universal screening. To confirm FNAIT, fetal human platelet antigen (HPA) typing, using non-invasive methods if quality-assured, should be performed during pregnancy when the father is unknown, unavailable for testing or heterozygous for the implicated antigen. Women with a previous child with an ICH related to FNAIT should be offered intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions during subsequent affected pregnancies as early as 12 weeks gestation. Ideally, HPA-selected platelets should be available at delivery for potentially affected infants and used to increase the neonatal platelet count as needed. If HPA-selected platelets are not immediately available, unselected platelets should be transfused. FNAIT studies that optimize antenatal and postnatal management, develop risk stratification algorithms to guide management and standardize laboratory testing to identify high risk pregnancies are needed.
The effect of speed and precaution technique on postpartum bleeding among midwifery students in the clinical field
Journal of education and health promotion. 2019;8:72
BACKGROUND Cooperative teaching methods have been used widely in medical education. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of theater in the clinical stage on postpartum hemorrhage management among midwifery student. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was an experimental study, performed in 2016 among midwifery students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and selected through the random sampling method. Satisfaction questionnaire and clinical practice checklist were completed by both groups before and after the education. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-test and paired test. The significant level was considered statistically <0.05. RESULTS The findings of independent t-test did not show any significant difference between satisfaction and clinical practice scores of theater and control group before intervention while a statistically significant difference was observed in after intervention between the scores of two groups (P = 0.001). Paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference in satisfaction and clinical practice score in two groups after intervention theater and control group, respectively (P = 0.002, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Theater method in postpartum hemorrhage can be increased satisfaction and clinical practice levels in midwifery students. Hence, the conduction of this educational model is recommended as an effective learning.
Characterizing red blood cell age exposure in massive transfusion therapy: the scalar age of blood index (SBI)
BACKGROUND The mortality of trauma patients requiring massive transfusion to treat hemorrhagic shock approaches 17% at 24 hours and 26% at 30 days. The use of stored RBCs is limited to less than 42 days, so older RBCs are delivered first to rapidly bleeding trauma patients. Patients who receive a greater quantity of older RBCs may have a higher risk for mortality. METHODS AND MATERIALS Characterizing blood age exposure requires accounting for the age of each RBC unit and the quantity of transfused units. To address this challenge, a novel Scalar Age of Blood Index (SBI) that represents the relative distribution of RBCs received is introduced and applied to a secondary analysis of the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) randomized controlled trial (NCT01545232, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01545232). The effect of the SBI is assessed on the primary PROPPR outcome, 24-hour and 30-day mortality. RESULTS The distributions of blood storage ages successfully maps to a parameter (SBI) that fully defines the blood age curve for each patient. SBI was a significant predictor of 24-hour and 30-day mortality in an adjusted model that had strong predictive ability (odds ratio, 1.15 [1.01-1.29], p = 0.029, C-statistic, 0.81; odds ratio, 1.14 [1.02-1.28], p = 0.019, C-statistic, 0.88, respectively). CONCLUSION SBI is a simple scalar metric of blood age that accounts for the relative distribution of RBCs among age categories. Transfusion of older RBCs is associated with 24-hour and 30-day mortality, after adjustment for total units and clinical covariates.
Effect of the competency-based Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB) training on maternal morbidity: a cluster-randomised trial in 20 districts in Tanzania
BMJ global health. 2019;4(2):e001214
Background: Training health providers is an important strategy to improve health. We conducted a cluster-randomised two-arm trial in Tanzania to assess the effect of a 1-day competency-based training 'Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB)' followed by eight weekly drills on postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: Twenty districts in four purposefully selected regions in Tanzania included 61 facilities. The districts were randomly allocated using matched pairs to ensure similarity in terms of district health services in intervention and comparison districts. In the 10 intervention districts 331 health providers received the HMS BAB training. The other half continued with standard practices. We used the WHO's near miss tool to collect information on severe morbidity (near misses) of all women admitted to study facilities. We performed interrupted time series analysis to estimate differences in the change of near miss per delivery rate and case fatality rates. We also assessed implementation of evidence-based preventive and basic management practices for PPH as secondary outcomes. Results: We included 120 533 facility deliveries, 6503 near misses and 202 maternal deaths in study districts during study period (November 2014 to January 2017). A significant reduction of PPH near misses was found among women who suffered PPH in the intervention district compared with comparison districts (difference-in-differences of slopes -5.3, 95% CI -7.8 to -2.7, p<0.001) from a baseline PPH-related near miss rate of 71% (95% CI 60% to 80%). There was a significant decrease in the long-term PPH near miss case fatality (difference-in-differences of slopes -4 to 0) (95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, p<0.01) in intervention compared with the comparison districts. The intervention had a positive effect on the proportion of PPH cases treated with intravenous oxytocin (difference-in-differences of slopes 5.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9) (p <0.01). Conclusion: The positive effect of the training intervention on PPH morbidity and case fatality suggests that the training addresses important deficits in knowledge and skills. Trial registration number: PACTR201604001582128.