The effectiveness of a de-implementation strategy to reduce low-value blood management techniques in primary hip and knee arthroplasty: a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial
Implementation Science : Is. 2017;12((1)):72.
BACKGROUND Perioperative autologous blood salvage and preoperative erythropoietin are not (cost) effective to reduce allogeneic transfusion in primary hip and knee arthroplasty, but are still used. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a theoretically informed multifaceted strategy to de-implement these low-value blood management techniques. METHODS Twenty-one Dutch hospitals participated in this pragmatic cluster-randomized trial. At baseline, data were gathered for 924 patients from 10 intervention and 1040 patients from 11 control hospitals undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. The intervention included a multifaceted de-implementation strategy which consisted of interactive education, feedback on blood management performance, and a comparison with benchmark hospitals, aimed at orthopedic surgeons and anesthesiologists. After the intervention, data were gathered for 997 patients from the intervention and 1096 patients from the control hospitals. The randomization outcome was revealed after the baseline measurement. Primary outcomes were use of blood salvage and erythropoietin. Secondary outcomes included postoperative hemoglobin, length of stay, allogeneic transfusions, and use of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) and tranexamic acid (TXA). RESULTS The use of blood salvage (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.30) and erythropoietin (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.97) reduced significantly over time, but did not differ between intervention and control hospitals (blood salvage OR 1.74 95% CI 0.27 to 11.39, erythropoietin OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.26 to 6.84). Postoperative hemoglobin levels were significantly higher (beta 0.21, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.34) and length of stay shorter (beta -0.36, 95% CI -0.64 to -0.09) in hospitals receiving the multifaceted strategy, compared with control hospitals and after adjustment for baseline. Transfusions did not differ between the intervention and control hospitals (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.78). Both LIA (OR 0.0, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.0) and TXA (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5) were significantly associated with the reduction in blood salvage over time. CONCLUSIONS Blood salvage and erythropoietin use reduced over time, but not differently between intervention and control hospitals. The reduction in blood salvage was associated with increased use of local infiltration analgesia and tranexamic acid, suggesting that de-implementation is assisted by the substitution of techniques. The reduction in blood salvage and erythropoietin did not lead to a deterioration in patient-related secondary outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION www.trialregister.nl, NTR4044.
Trial of feedback on blood use
Transfusion. 2016;56((S4)):30A.. s68-030j.
Selecting patients for acute normovolemic hemodilution during hepatic resection: A prospective randomized evaluation of nomogram-based allocation
Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2013;217((2):):210-20.
BACKGROUND Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) decreases transfusion rates but adds to the complexity of anesthetic management during hepatectomy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine if selecting patients for ANH using a transfusion nomogram improves management and resource use compared with selection using extent of resection. STUDY DESIGN One hundred fourteen patients undergoing partial hepatectomy were randomized to a clinical arm (ANH used for resection of >=3 liver segments) or a nomogram arm (ANH used for predicted probability of transfusion >=50% based on a previously validated nomogram). The primary end point was appropriate management, defined as avoidance of ANH in patients at low risk or use of ANH in patients at high risk for allogeneic red blood cell transfusions. RESULTS Between September 2009 and May 2011, 58 patients were randomized to the clinical arm and 56 to the nomogram arm. Demographics, diagnoses, extent of resection, blood loss, and incidence and grade of complications did not differ between the 2 groups. There were no differences in perioperative transfusions or laboratory values. Nomogram-based allocation did not change appropriate management overall (80% vs 76% in the clinical arm; p=0.65), but did result in comparable perioperative outcomes and a trend toward decreased ANH use (30% vs 47%; p= 0.09), particularly in low blood loss (estimated blood loss <=400mL) cases (12% vs 25%; p= 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Although allocation of intraoperative management using a transfusion nomogram did not improve appropriate management overall, it more effectively identified low blood loss cases and reduced ANH use in patients least likely to benefit. Copyright 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.