Efficacy of implementing intermittent STOP THE BLEED(®) reviews on long term retention of hemorrhage control skills of first year medical students
Journal of osteopathic medicine. 2021
CONTEXT Some medical schools integrate STOP THE BLEED(®) training into their curricula to teach students how to identify and stop life threatening bleeds; these classes that are taught as single day didactic and hands-on training sessions without posttraining reviews. To improve retention and confidence in hemorrhage control, additional review opportunities are necessary. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether intermittent STOP THE BLEED(®) reviews were effective for long term retention of hemorrhage control skills and improving perceived confidence. METHODS First year osteopathic medical students were asked to complete an eight item survey (five Likert scale and three quiz format questions) before (pretraining) and after (posttraining) completing a STOP THE BLEED(®) training session. After the surveys were collected, students were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. Over a 12 week intervention period, each group watched a 4 min STOP THE BLEED(®) review video (intervention group) or a "distractor" video (control group) at 4 week intervals. After the 12 weeks, the students were asked to complete an 11 item survey. RESULTS Scores on the posttraining survey were higher than the pretraining survey. The median score on the five Likert scale items was 23 points for the posttraining survey and 14 points for the pretraining survey. Two of the three knowledge based quiz format questions significantly improved from pretraining to posttraining (both p<0.001). On the 11 item postintervention survey, both groups performed similarly on the three quiz questions (all p>0.18), but the intervention group had much higher scores on the Likert scale items than the control group regarding their confidence in their ability to identify and control bleeding (intervention group median = 21.4 points vs. control group median = 16.8 points). CONCLUSIONS Intermittent review videos for STOP THE BLEED(®) training improved medical students' confidence in their hemorrhage control skills, but the videos did not improve their ability to correctly answer quiz-format questions compared with the control group.
A new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke patients
BMC neurology. 2020;20(1):426
BACKGROUND A reliable scoring tool to detect the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is warranted. The present study was designed to develop and validate a new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients treated with intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). METHODS We enrolled patients who suffered from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with IV rt-PA treatment in our emergency green channel between August 2016 and July 2018. The main outcome was defined as any type of intracerebral hemorrhage according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II (ECASS II). All patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the primary cohort and the validation cohort. On the basis of multivariate logistic model, the predictive nomogram was generated. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot. RESULTS A total of 194 patients with complete data were enrolled, of whom 131 comprised the primary cohort and 63 comprised the validation cohort, with HT rate 12.2, 9.5% respectively. The score of chronic disease scale (CDS), the global burden of cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 13, and onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ≥ 180 were detected important determinants of ICH and included to construct the nomogram. The nomogram derived from the primary cohort for HT had C- Statistics of 0.9562 and the calibration plot revealed generally fit in predicting the risk of HT. Furthermore, we made a comparison between our new nomogram and several other risk-assessed scales for HT with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the results showed the nomogram model gave an area under curve of 0.9562 (95%CI, 0.9221-0.9904, P < 0.01) greater than HAT (Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis), SEDAN (blood Sugar, Early infarct and hyper Dense cerebral artery sign on non-contrast computed tomography, Age, and NIHSS) and SPAN-100 (Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS) scores. CONCLUSIONS This proposed nomogram based on the score of CDS, the global burden of CSVD, NIHSS score ≥ 13, and OTT ≥ 180 gives rise to a more accurate and more comprehensive prediction for HT in patients with ischemic stroke receiving IV rt-PA treatment.
Effect of the competency-based Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB) training on maternal morbidity: a cluster-randomised trial in 20 districts in Tanzania
BMJ global health. 2019;4(2):e001214
Background: Training health providers is an important strategy to improve health. We conducted a cluster-randomised two-arm trial in Tanzania to assess the effect of a 1-day competency-based training 'Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB)' followed by eight weekly drills on postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: Twenty districts in four purposefully selected regions in Tanzania included 61 facilities. The districts were randomly allocated using matched pairs to ensure similarity in terms of district health services in intervention and comparison districts. In the 10 intervention districts 331 health providers received the HMS BAB training. The other half continued with standard practices. We used the WHO's near miss tool to collect information on severe morbidity (near misses) of all women admitted to study facilities. We performed interrupted time series analysis to estimate differences in the change of near miss per delivery rate and case fatality rates. We also assessed implementation of evidence-based preventive and basic management practices for PPH as secondary outcomes. Results: We included 120 533 facility deliveries, 6503 near misses and 202 maternal deaths in study districts during study period (November 2014 to January 2017). A significant reduction of PPH near misses was found among women who suffered PPH in the intervention district compared with comparison districts (difference-in-differences of slopes -5.3, 95% CI -7.8 to -2.7, p<0.001) from a baseline PPH-related near miss rate of 71% (95% CI 60% to 80%). There was a significant decrease in the long-term PPH near miss case fatality (difference-in-differences of slopes -4 to 0) (95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, p<0.01) in intervention compared with the comparison districts. The intervention had a positive effect on the proportion of PPH cases treated with intravenous oxytocin (difference-in-differences of slopes 5.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9) (p <0.01). Conclusion: The positive effect of the training intervention on PPH morbidity and case fatality suggests that the training addresses important deficits in knowledge and skills. Trial registration number: PACTR201604001582128.
Missing expectations: Windlass tourniquet use without formal training yields poor results
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2019
BACKGROUND Despite significant attempts to educate civilians in hemorrhage control, the majority remain untrained. We sought to determine if laypersons can successfully apply one of three commercially available tourniquets; including those endorsed by the United States Military and the American College of Surgeons. METHODS Pre-clinical graduate health science students were randomly assigned a commercially-available windless tourniquet: SAM(R) XT, Combat Application Tourniquet(R) (CAT), or Special Operation Forces(R) Tactical Tourniquet (SOFT-T). Each was given up to one minute to read package instructions and asked to apply it to the HapMed(R) Leg Tourniquet Trainer. Estimated blood loss was measured until successful hemostatic pressure was achieved or simulated death occurred from exsanguination. Simulation survival, time to read instructions and stop bleeding, tourniquet pressure, and blood loss were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 150 students recruited, 55, 46, and 49 were randomized to the SAM XT, CAT, SOFT-T, respectively. Mean overall simulation survival was less than 66% (61%, 72%, 65%; p=0.55). Of survivors, all three tourniquets performed similarly in median pressure applied (319 mmHg, 315 mmHg, and 329 mmHg; p=0.54) and median time to stop bleeding (91 sec, 70 sec, 77 sec; p=0.28). There was a statistical difference in median blood loss volume favoring SOFT-T (SAM XT 686 ml, CAT 624 ml, SOFT-T 433 ml; p=0.03). All 16 participants with previous experience were able to successfully place the tourniquet compared to 81 of 131 (62%) first-time users (p=0.008). CONCLUSION No one should die of extremity hemorrhage, and civilians are our first line of defense. We demonstrate that when an untrained layperson is handed a commonly accepted tourniquet, failure is unacceptably high. Current devices are not intuitive and require training beyond the enclosed instructions. Plans to further evaluate this cohort after formal "Stop the Bleed" training are underway. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level II; Therapeutic study type.
Dynamic Visual Feedback During Junctional Tourniquet Training
The Journal of surgical research. 2019;233:444-452.
BACKGROUND This project involved the development and evaluation of a new visual bleeding feedback (VBF) system for tourniquet training. We hypothesized that dynamic VBF during junctional tourniquet training would be helpful and well received by trainees. MATERIALS AND METHODS We designed the VBF to simulate femoral bleeding. Medical students (n = 15) and emergency medical service (EMS) members (n = 4) were randomized in a single-blind, crossover study to the VBF or without feedback groups. Poststudy surveys assessing VBF usefulness and recommendations were conducted along with participants' reported confidence using a 7-point Likert scale. Data from the different groups were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests. RESULTS Participants rated the helpfulness of the VBF highly (6.53/7.00) and indicated they were very likely to recommend the VBF simulator to others (6.80/7.00). Pre- and post-VBF confidence were not statistically different (P = 0.59). Likewise, tourniquet application times for VBF and without feedback before crossover were not statistically different (P = 0.63). Although participant confidence did not change significantly from beginning to end of the study (P = 0.46), application time was significantly reduced (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS New tourniquet learners liked our VBF prototype and found it useful. Although confidence did not change over the course of the study for any group, application times improved. Future studies using outcomes of this study will allow us to continue VBF development as well as incorporate other quantitative measures of task performance to elucidate VBF's true benefit and help trainees achieve mastery in junctional tourniquet skills.
Benefits of Screen-Based Postpartum Hemorrhage Simulation on Nontechnical Skills Training: A Randomized Simulation Study
Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. 2019;14(6):391-397
BACKGROUND Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death in the world. Nontechnical skills (NTS), such as communication and teamwork, are critical for efficient management of this obstetric emergency. Specific scenarios were designed on a screen-based simulator to train NTS. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of training midwives for NTS with a PPH screen-based simulation. METHODS A total of 24 midwives participated in the study. They were randomized in 2 groups: the NTS group (n = 12) performed 3 screen-based scenarios designed to train NTS and the control group (n = 12) performed 3 basic scenarios of the screen-based simulation without the NTS training. A structured interview followed the simulation. On the same day, each trainee underwent individually an evaluation on a PPH high-fidelity simulation scenario. Three experts, blinded to the study arm, assessed the NTS with the Anesthetists Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) score. RESULTS Midwives from the NTS group achieved higher median scores in each dimension of the ANTS score: task management (4 vs. 2/4, P < 0.0001), team working (4 vs. 2/4, P < 0.0001), situation awareness (4 vs. 2.7/4, P < 0.0001), and decision-making (4 vs. 2/4, P < 0.0001). The median value of the total ANTS score was higher in the NTS group than in the control group (15.5 vs. 8/16, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Our study highlights that training with a NTS screen-based simulation, with specific scenarios and debriefing, leads to higher midwives' nontechnical skills performance during simulated postpartum hemorrhage.
The effect of speed and precaution technique on postpartum bleeding among midwifery students in the clinical field
Journal of education and health promotion. 2019;8:72
BACKGROUND Cooperative teaching methods have been used widely in medical education. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of theater in the clinical stage on postpartum hemorrhage management among midwifery student. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was an experimental study, performed in 2016 among midwifery students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and selected through the random sampling method. Satisfaction questionnaire and clinical practice checklist were completed by both groups before and after the education. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-test and paired test. The significant level was considered statistically <0.05. RESULTS The findings of independent t-test did not show any significant difference between satisfaction and clinical practice scores of theater and control group before intervention while a statistically significant difference was observed in after intervention between the scores of two groups (P = 0.001). Paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference in satisfaction and clinical practice score in two groups after intervention theater and control group, respectively (P = 0.002, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Theater method in postpartum hemorrhage can be increased satisfaction and clinical practice levels in midwifery students. Hence, the conduction of this educational model is recommended as an effective learning.
Effectiveness of the American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control Basic Training Among Laypeople Applying Different Tourniquet Types: A Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA surgery. 2019
Importance: More than 500000 laypeople in the United States have been trained in hemorrhage control, including tourniquet application, under the Stop the Bleed campaign. However, it is unclear whether after hemorrhage control training participants become proficient in a specific type of tourniquet or can also use other tourniquets effectively. Objective: To assess whether participants completing the American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control Basic (B-Con) training with Combat Application Tourniquets (CATs) can effectively apply bleeding control principles using other tourniquet types (commercial and improvised). Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonblinded, crossover, sequential randomized clinical trial with internal control assessed a volunteer sample of laypeople who attended a B-Con course at Gillette Stadium and the Longwood Medical Area in Boston, Massachusetts, for correct application of each of 5 different tourniquet types immediately after B-Con training from April 4, 2018, to October 9, 2018. The order of application varied for each participant using randomly generated permutated blocks. Interventions: Full B-Con course, including cognitive and skill sessions, that taught bleeding care, wound pressure and packing, and CAT application. Main Outcomes and Measures: Correct tourniquet application (applied pressure of ≥250 mm Hg with a 2-minute time cap) in a simulated scenario for 3 commercial tourniquets (Special Operation Forces Tactical Tourniquet, Stretch-Wrap-and-Tuck Tourniquet, and Rapid Application Tourniquet System) and improvised tourniquet compared with correct CAT application as an internal control using 4 pairwise Bonferroni-corrected comparisons with the McNemar test. Results: A total of 102 participants (50 [49.0%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 37.5 [27.0-53.0] years) were included in the study. Participants correctly applied the CAT at a significantly higher rate (92.2%) than all other commercial tourniquet types (Special Operation Forces Tactical Tourniquet, 68.6%; Stretch-Wrap-and-Tuck Tourniquet, 11.8%; Rapid Application Tourniquet System, 11.8%) and the improvised tourniquet (32.4%) (P < .001 for each pairwise comparison). When comparing tourniquets applied correctly, all tourniquet types had higher estimated blood loss, had longer application time, and applied less pressure than the CAT. Conclusions and Relevance: The B-Con principles for correct CAT application are not fully translatable to other commercial or improvised tourniquet types. This study demonstrates a disconnect between the B-Con course and tourniquet designs available for bystander first aid, potentially stemming from the lack of consensus guidelines. These results suggest that current B-Con trainees may not be prepared to care for bleeding patients as tourniquet design evolves. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT03538379.
Characterizing red blood cell age exposure in massive transfusion therapy: the scalar age of blood index (SBI)
BACKGROUND The mortality of trauma patients requiring massive transfusion to treat hemorrhagic shock approaches 17% at 24 hours and 26% at 30 days. The use of stored RBCs is limited to less than 42 days, so older RBCs are delivered first to rapidly bleeding trauma patients. Patients who receive a greater quantity of older RBCs may have a higher risk for mortality. METHODS AND MATERIALS Characterizing blood age exposure requires accounting for the age of each RBC unit and the quantity of transfused units. To address this challenge, a novel Scalar Age of Blood Index (SBI) that represents the relative distribution of RBCs received is introduced and applied to a secondary analysis of the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) randomized controlled trial (NCT01545232, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01545232). The effect of the SBI is assessed on the primary PROPPR outcome, 24-hour and 30-day mortality. RESULTS The distributions of blood storage ages successfully maps to a parameter (SBI) that fully defines the blood age curve for each patient. SBI was a significant predictor of 24-hour and 30-day mortality in an adjusted model that had strong predictive ability (odds ratio, 1.15 [1.01-1.29], p = 0.029, C-statistic, 0.81; odds ratio, 1.14 [1.02-1.28], p = 0.019, C-statistic, 0.88, respectively). CONCLUSION SBI is a simple scalar metric of blood age that accounts for the relative distribution of RBCs among age categories. Transfusion of older RBCs is associated with 24-hour and 30-day mortality, after adjustment for total units and clinical covariates.
High Tourniquet Failure Rates Among Non-Medical Personnel Do Not Improve with Tourniquet Training, Including Combat Stress Inoculation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Prehospital and disaster medicine. 2019;:1-6
BACKGROUND The rate of failing to apply a tourniquet remains high. HYPOTHESIS The study objective was to examine whether early advanced training under conditions that approximate combat conditions and provide stress inoculation improve competency, compared to the current educational program of non-medical personnel. METHODS This was a randomized controlled trial. Male recruits of the armored corps were included in the study. During Combat Lifesaver training, recruits apply The Tourniquet 12 times. This educational program was used as the control group. The combat stress inoculation (CSI) group also included 12 tourniquet applications, albeit some of them in combat conditions such as low light and physical exertion. Three parameters defined success, and these parameters were measured by The Simulator: (1) applied pressure ≥ 200mmHg; (2) time to stop bleeding ≤ 60 seconds; and (3) placement up to 7.5cm above the amputation. RESULTS Out of the participants, 138 were assigned to the control group and 167 were assigned to the CSI group. The overall failure rate was 80.33% (81.90% in the control group versus 79.00% in the CSI group; P value = .565; 95% confidence interval, 0.677 to 2.122). Differences in pressure, time to stop bleeding, or placement were not significant (95% confidence intervals, -17.283 to 23.404, -1.792 to 6.105, and 0.932 to 2.387, respectively). Tourniquet placement was incorrect in most of the applications (62.30%). CONCLUSIONS This study found high rates of failure in tourniquet application immediately after successful completion of tourniquet training. These rates did not improve with tourniquet training, including CSI. The results may indicate that better tourniquet training methods should be pursued.