Recommendations for Improving Stop the Bleed: A Systematic Review
Nichols R, Horstman J
Military medicine. 2022
INTRODUCTION In response to mass casualty events, The Hartford Consensus brought together subject matter experts across multiple disciplines in health care and public safety to create guidelines and publications intended to improve survivability in active shooter events. Among the recommendations was the earlier recognition and treatment application of life-threatening hemorrhage control. These recommendations culminated in efforts to create the Stop the Bleed Campaign, which aims to empower the layperson to render aid in a life-threatening bleeding emergency. As of February 2020, the program has held over 86,000 courses, trained over 1.4 million attendees, and over 77,000 instructors since its inception. In addition to spreading within the United States, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Stop the Bleed (StB) classes have been held in 118 different countries. This systematic narrative review aims to answer the following research question: What does the ACS StB Initiative do well, and where can it improve? MATERIALS AND METHODS The following search terms were utilized: "Stop the Bleed," "American College of Surgeons," "bleeding control," "first-aid," tourniquet, "wound pack," "direct pressure" hemorrhage, and bystander. The inclusion criteria were that the article needed to speak to the program or some aspect of bystander first aid, the article needed to be in a civilian setting, the article needed to be more than a case study or overview, and the first aid tools needed to be in the StB curriculum. 4 databases were searched, which produced 138 articles for screening. One hundred four full-text articles were able to be retrieved, and 56 articles were determined to meet the inclusion criteria once the full text was reviewed. RESULTS Fifty-six articles were included in the final review and were placed into the following categories: Needs Within the Community, Confidence and Knowledge, Training Modalities, Barriers and Gaps in Training, Instructor Selection, Skill Retention, and Patient Outcomes. The articles were then organized into each outcome for synthesis and reporting of the results. The program overwhelmingly improves short-term confidence, but gaps in skill retention, data collection on patient outcomes, and settings that would benefit were identified. CONCLUSION StB is an effective tool in building confidence in laypersons, which is its biggest strength. A review of the literature shows several areas where the curriculum and materials could be better developed. Research can also be further refined to better quantify the program's impact.
Effectiveness of "Stop the Bleed" Courses: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Tang X, Nie Y, Wu S, DiNenna MA, He J
Journal of surgical education. 2022
OBJECTIVE Our object was to comprehensively analyze the existing body of evidence to evaluate the Stop the Bleed (STB) course effectiveness and satisfaction and find the direction of improvement for the future. STUDY DESIGN A literature search with the term "Stop the Bleed" in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library was performed, retrieving records from January 1, 2013 to April 13, 2022 based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram. In addition, all selected papers' references were examined for qualified studies that were missed during the first search. Original publications were included that reported on (1) clinical studies of the STB course implementation; and (2) studies comparing students' hemostasis ability and attitude (comfort, confidence, and willingness) before and after the STB course. The literature search and data extraction were done independently by 2 writers. To establish consensus, disagreements will be handled with the help of a third reviewer. For data synthesis, the most inclusive data from studies with repeated data were abstracted. Changes in hemostasis questionnaire scoring and operation evaluation after the STB course were the main outcomes. RESULTS This systematic review and meta-analysis includes 36 trials with a total of 11,561 trainees. Thirty-one of them were undertaken in the USA, while the other 5, accounting for 13.9%, were conducted in other regions. Among various evaluation methods, 3 trials with 927 trainees indicated that scores of correct uses of tourniquet significantly increased after the STB course (mean difference of post versus pre groups, 44.28; 95% CI 41.24-47.32; p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in the willingness to apply a hemostatic dressing in a real-world situation (risk ratio for post versus pre groups, 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52; p = 0.004) (7 studies and 2360 participants). The results indicate that hemostasis knowledge and skills after the STB course had improved, but statistics indicated that STB courses implemented in the USA were more effective than other regions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Meta-analysis showed that comparison before and after the STB course were significantly different. However, the outcome measures in each study were different and could not, therefore, be compiled in all cases. The effectiveness and worth of implementation of STB in different countries should be continuously evaluated in the future.
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: recommendations for evidence-based practice, an international approach
Lieberman L, Greinacher A, Murphy MF, Bussel J, Bakchoul T, Corke S, Kjaer M, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Bertrand G, Oepkes D, et al
British journal of haematology. 2019
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) may result in severe bleeding, particularly fetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). As a result, FNAIT requires prompt identification and treatment; subsequent pregnancies need close surveillance and management. An international panel convened to develop evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of FNAIT. A rigorous approach was used to search, review and develop recommendations from published data for: antenatal management, postnatal management, diagnostic testing and universal screening. To confirm FNAIT, fetal human platelet antigen (HPA) typing, using non-invasive methods if quality-assured, should be performed during pregnancy when the father is unknown, unavailable for testing or heterozygous for the implicated antigen. Women with a previous child with an ICH related to FNAIT should be offered intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions during subsequent affected pregnancies as early as 12 weeks gestation. Ideally, HPA-selected platelets should be available at delivery for potentially affected infants and used to increase the neonatal platelet count as needed. If HPA-selected platelets are not immediately available, unselected platelets should be transfused. FNAIT studies that optimize antenatal and postnatal management, develop risk stratification algorithms to guide management and standardize laboratory testing to identify high risk pregnancies are needed.
Fetal thrombocytopenia in pregnancies complicated by fetal anemia due to red-cell alloimmunization: cohort study and meta-analysis
Rosenbloom JI, Bruno AM, Conner SN, Tuuli MG, Simon LE, Macones GA, Cahill AG
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2019
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of fetal thrombocytopenia at the time of percutaneous umbilical cord sampling (PUBS) in pregnancies complicated by alloimmunization and to conduct a systematic review on fetal thrombocytopenia in these pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing PUBS at our institution from 2000-2017. Clinical data, including fetal platelet counts, were abstracted from the medical record and analyzed with routine statistical procedures. A systematic review and meta-analysis were also conducted according to standard procedures. RESULT At first procedure, prior to any transfusion, 13/36 fetuses (36%) had thrombocytopenia: 11/36 (31%) had moderate thrombocytopenia and 2/36 (6%) had severe thrombocytopenia (14 patients had no platelet count at first procedure). The systematic review identified six studies, and the prevalence of fetal thrombocytopenia at the time of PUBS for alloimmunization was 18% (95% confidence interval 11%, 26%). CONCLUSION Thrombocytopenia is common and underappreciated in fetuses undergoing PUBS for alloimmunization.
What matters to women and healthcare providers in relation to interventions for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage: A qualitative systematic review
Finlayson K, Downe S, Vogel JP, Oladapo OT
PloS one. 2019;14(5):e0215919
BACKGROUND Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Reducing deaths from PPH is a global challenge. The voices of women and healthcare providers have been missing from the debate around best practices for PPH prevention. The aim of this review was to identify, appraise and synthesize available evidence about the views and experiences of women and healthcare providers on interventions to prevent PPH. METHODS We searched eight electronic databases and reference lists of eligible studies published between 1996 and 2018, reporting qualitative data on views and experiences of PPH in general, and of any specific preventative intervention(s). Authors' findings were extracted and synthesised using meta-ethnographic techniques. Confidence in the quality, coherence, relevance and adequacy of data underpinning the resulting themes was assessed using GRADE-CERQual. A line of argument synthesis was developed. RESULTS Thirty-five studies from 29 countries met our inclusion criteria. Our results indicate that women and healthcare providers recognise the dangers of severe blood loss in the perinatal and postpartum period, but don't always share the same beliefs about the causes and consequences of PPH. Skilled birth attendants and traditional birth attendants (TBA's) want to prevent PPH but may lack the required resources and training. Women generally appreciate PPH prevention strategies, especially where their individual needs, beliefs and values are taken into account. Women and healthcare providers also recognize the value of using uterotonics (medications that contract the uterus) to prevent PPH but highlight safety concerns and potential misuse of the drugs as acceptability and implementation issues. CONCLUSIONS Based on stakeholder views and experiences, PPH prevention strategies are more likely to be successful where all stakeholders agree on the causes and consequences of severe postpartum blood loss, especially in the context of sufficient resources and effective implementation by competent, suitably trained providers.
Machine Learning to Predict Outcomes in Patients with Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review
Shung D, Simonov M, Gentry M, Au B, Laine L
Digestive diseases and sciences. 2019
Risk stratification of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is recommended, but current risk assessment tools have variable performance. Machine learning (ML) has promise to improve risk assessment. We performed a systematic review to evaluate studies utilizing ML techniques for GIB. Bibliographic databases and conference abstracts were searched for studies with a population of overt GIB that used an ML algorithm with outcomes of mortality, rebleeding, hemostatic intervention, and/or hospital stay. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text studies, and extracted data from included studies. Risk of bias was assessed with an adapted Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were the primary assessment of performance with AUC ≥ 0.80 predefined as an acceptable threshold of good performance. Fourteen studies with 30 assessments of ML models met inclusion criteria. No study had low risk of bias. Median AUC reported in validation datasets for predefined outcomes of mortality, intervention, or rebleeding was 0.84 (range 0.40-0.98). AUCs were higher with artificial neural networks (median 0.93, range 0.78-0.98) than other ML models (0.81, range 0.40-0.92). ML performed better than clinical risk scores (Glasgow-Blatchford, Rockall, Child-Pugh, MELD) for mortality in upper GIB. Limitations include heterogeneity of ML models, inconsistent comparisons of ML models with clinical risk scores, and high risk of bias. ML generally provided good-excellent prognostic performance in patients with GIB, and artificial neural networks tended to outperform other ML models. ML was better than clinical risk scores for mortality in upper GIB.
Massive Transfusion in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Summary of Best-Evidence Practice Strategies
Kamyszek RW, Leraas HJ, Reed C, Ray CM, Nag UP, Poisson JL, Tracy ET
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2019
BACKGROUND Pediatric patients require massive transfusion (MT) in a variety of settings. Multiple studies of adult MT support balanced ratio transfusion to improve outcomes, however it is unclear if these findings can be extrapolated to pediatric populations. The use of balanced transfusion ratios, MT protocols, hemostatic adjuncts, and even the definition of a MT in children are all open questions. This review presents details of care from current practices in pediatric MT and summarizes practice strategies while providing insight from our single center experience. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched using MeSH index and free text terms for articles from 1946 to 2017. Articles were independently reviewed by two reviewers. Studies were assessed for definition of MT, factors predicting MT, MT complications, blood product ratios, hemostatic adjuncts, protocol logistics, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS A heterogeneous composite of 29 articles was included in the analysis. Of these, 45% reported a formal transfusion protocol or adopted one during the study. Seven unique definitions of pediatric MT were reported; the most common was >1 total blood volume within 24 hours. A total of 18,369 patients were assessed, and 1,163 received MT (6.3%). Overall mortality for patients requiring MT in studies reporting mortality was high (range 14.7% to 51.2%). We identified 14 patients receiving MT at our center with an age range of 8 months to 18 years and average transfusion of 38.1 ml/kg RBC (range: 22.1 ml/kg to 156.7 ml/kg). CONCLUSIONS Current practices of pediatric MT demonstrate a variety of site-specific interventions with a persistently high mortality rate. A national focus on improving techniques of massive transfusion in children has the potential to save the lives of these children. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level IV and V, Systematic Review.
Behaviour modification interventions to optimise red blood cell transfusion practices: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Soril L J J, Noseworthy T W, Dowsett L E, Memedovich K, Holitzki H M, Lorenzetti D L, Stelfox H T, Zygun D A, Clement F M
Bmj Open. 2018;8((5)):e019912.
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of behaviour modification interventions to promote restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2018. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised studies examining an intervention to modify healthcare providers' RBC transfusion practice in any healthcare setting were included. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES The primary outcome was the proportion of patients transfused. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of inappropriate transfusions, RBC units transfused per patient, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), pretransfusion haemoglobin and healthcare costs. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and meta-regression was performed in cases of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's funnel plot. RESULTS Eighty-four low to moderate quality studies were included: 3 were RCTs and 81 were non-randomised studies. Thirty-one studies evaluated a single intervention, 44 examined a multimodal intervention. The comparator in all studies was standard of care or historical control. In 33 non-randomised studies, use of an intervention was associated with reduced odds of transfusion (OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.71)), odds of inappropriate transfusion (OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.59)), RBC units/patient weighted mean difference (WMD: -0.50 units (95% CI -0.85 to -0.16)), LOS (WMD: -1.14 days (95% CI -2.12 to -0.16)) and pretransfusion haemoglobin (-0.28 g/dL (95% CI -0.48 to -0.08)). There was no difference in odds of mortality (OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.02)). Protocol/algorithm and multimodal interventions were associated with the greatest decreases in the primary outcome. There was high heterogeneity among estimates and evidence for publication bias. CONCLUSIONS The literature examining the impact of interventions on RBC transfusions is extensive, although most studies are non-randomised. Despite this, pooled analysis of 33 studies revealed improvement in the primary outcome. Future work needs to shift from asking, 'does it work?' to 'what works best and at what cost?' PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42015024757.
Patients' and health care professionals' perceptions of blood transfusion: a systematic review
Abdul-Aziz B, Lorencatto F, Stanworth SJ, Francis JJ
BACKGROUND Blood transfusions are frequently prescribed for acute and chronic conditions; however, the extent to which patients' and health care professionals' (HCPs') perceptions of transfusion have been investigated is unclear. Patients' treatment perceptions influence how patients cope with illnesses or symptoms. HCPs' perceptions may influence treatment decision making. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This was a systematic review of studies post-1984 reporting adult patients' and HCPs' perceptions of blood transfusion. Seven databases were searched using a three-domain search strategy capturing synonyms relating to: 1) blood transfusion, 2) perceptions, and 3) participant group (patients or HCPs). Study and sample characteristics were extracted and narratively summarized. Reported perceptions were extracted and synthesized using inductive qualitative methods to identify key themes. RESULTS Thirty-two studies were included: 14 investigated patients' perceptions and 18 HCPs' perceptions. Surgical patients were the highest represented patient group. HCPs were from a wide range of professions. Transfusions were perceived by patients and HCPs as being of low-to-moderate risk. Risk and negative emotions were perceived to influence preference for alternatives. Five themes emerged from the synthesis, classified as Safety/risk, Negative emotions, Alternatives (e.g., autologous, monitoring), Health benefits, and Decision making. "Safety/risk" and "Negative emotions" were most frequently investigated over time, yet periods of research inactivity are apparent. CONCLUSIONS The literature has identified themes on how transfusions are perceived by patients and HCPs, which overlap with recognized discussion points for transfusion specialists. These themes may help HCPs when educating patients about transfusion or consenting patients. Theory-based qualitative methods may add an important dimension to this work.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion in China
Zhu C, Gao Y, Li Z, Li Q, Gao Z, Liao Y, Deng Z
The issue of the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion has become a focus of transfusion medicine worldwide. In China, irrational uses of blood have often been reported in recent years. However, to date there lacks a systematic review of the rational uses of blood.This study aimed to determine the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion in China.We searched PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database, WanFang Database, and Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and the retrieval cut-off date was June 31, 2015. SPSS 17.0 and MetaAnalyst 3.13 were employed as the statistics tools in this review. A pooled rate of clinical inappropriateness of transfusion was analyzed by DerSimonian-Laird method.In this study, a total of 39 observational studies were included, which related to 75,132 cases of blood transfusion. According to the meta-analysis results, the overall incidence of clinical inappropriateness of transfusion in China was estimated to be 37.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] [32.1, 42.8]). The subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled rates of clinical inappropriateness of transfusion of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, and platelets were 56.3% (95% CI [45.8, 66.2]), 30.9% (95% CI [27.1, 35.0]), 25.2% (95% CI [13.2, 42.7]), and 14.1% (95% CI [8.8, 21.9]), respectively. However, the pooled incidence of inappropriateness of transfusion in operative departments was 47.5% (95% CI [36.8, 58.3]), which was significantly higher than that in nonoperative departments, 25.8% (95% CI [18.7, 34.4], P < 0.05). The overall rates of inappropriate use were 36.7% (95% CI [30.2, 43.6]) in major cities and 37.5% (95% CI [31.2, 44.3]) in other cities, respectively; there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).In conclusion, China has suffered from a disadvantage in the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion, especially in plasma and RBC use. In future, comprehensive measures should be implemented in order to improve the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion.