Evaluation of a novel Cardiac Peri-Operative Transfusion Trigger Scoring system in patients with coronary artery disease
BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2021;21(1):40
BACKGROUND A simple and accurate scoring system to guide perioperative blood transfusion in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac surgery is lacking. The trigger point for blood transfusions for these patients may be different from existing transfusion guidelines. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new scoring strategy for use in guiding transfusion decisions in patients with CAD. METHODS A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted at three third-level grade-A hospitals from January 2015 to May 2018. Data of 254 patients in a Cardiac Peri-Operative Transfusion Trigger Score (cPOTTS) group and 246 patients in a group receiving conventional evaluation of the need for transfusion (conventional group) were analysed. The requirements for transfusion and the per capita consumption of red blood cells (RBCs) were compared between groups. RESULTS Baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Logistic regression analyses revealed no significant differences between the two groups in primary outcomes (1-year mortality and perioperative ischemic cardiac events), secondary outcomes (shock, infections, and renal impairment), ICU admission, and ICU stay duration. However, patients in the cPOTTS group had significantly shorter hospital stays, lower hospital costs, lower utilization rate and lower per capita consumption of transfused RBCs than controls. Stratified analyses revealed no significant differences between groups in associations between baseline characteristics and perioperative ischemic cardiac events, except for hemofiltration or dialysis and NYHA class in I. CONCLUSIONS This novel scoring system offered a practical and straightforward guideline of perioperative blood transfusion in patients with CAD. Trial registration chiCTR1800016561(2017/7/19).
Systematic review of plasma to packed red blood cell ratio on survival in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms
Journal of vascular surgery. 2020
BACKGROUND The ideal perioperative fluid resuscitation for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) is unknown. It has been shown in the trauma literature that a higher ratio of plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells confers a mortality benefit. There remains controversy whether this is true also in the ruptured aneurysm population. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of higher ratio of plasma to packed red blood cells in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. METHODS A health sciences librarian searched four electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov using concepts for the terms fluid resuscitation, survival, and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Two reviewers independently screened the studies that were identified through the search strategy and read in full any study that was potentially relevant. Papers were included if they compared mortality of patients with rAAA who received a higher ratio of plasma to other component therapy to patients who received a lower ratio. Risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I validated tool and evidence quality was rated using the GRADE profile. No data synthesis or meta-analysis was planned or performed given the anticipated paucity of research on this topic and the high degree of heterogeneity of available studies. RESULTS Our search identified seven observational studies to be included in this review. Of these seven studies, three found an associated decrease in mortality with a higher ratio of plasma to packed red blood cells and the remaining four found no significant difference. The overall risk of bias was serious and the evidence quality was very low. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the available studies would suggest that for patients that have undergone open surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, mortality rates tend to decrease when the amount of plasma transfused perioperatively is similar to the amount of packed red blood cells. However, this is very low-quality evidence based solely off of highly heterogenous observational studies and further research is warranted.
Thromboelastometry and a hemostasis management system are most beneficial for guiding hemostatic therapy in cardiac surgery patients with a EuroSCORE II of >/=1.83%: a randomized controlled two-step trial
J Anesth. 2020
PURPOSE We evaluated the efficacy of hemostatic therapy based on point-of-care (POC) testing in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS This was a single-institution, prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. In step 1, 90 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery underwent complete blood count and fibrinogen measurements at baseline, after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation (CPB start), just after CPB end, and in the intensive care unit (ICU). In step 2, 72 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery underwent conventional laboratory coagulation tests (control group) or POC coagulation tests (POC group). Transfusions were prepared using the fibrinogen and platelet values at mainly "CPB start" for the control group, and using the ROTEM values at mainly "CPB end" for the POC group. Consequently, the step 2 patients were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups based on the EuroSCORE II by logistic regression analysis; transfusion data and bleeding volumes were compared between the control and POC groups within the high- and low-risk subgroups. RESULTS In step 1, all blood components were significantly decreased at CPB start compared with baseline, and platelet and fibrinogen levels remained almost constant from CPB start to end. In step 2, the transfusion rates and perioperative bleeding volumes did not significantly differ between the control and POC groups. Subgroup analysis suggested that only the high-risk subgroup significantly differed regarding perioperative red blood cell transfusion and total bleeding volume in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS POC testing is beneficial for cardiac surgery patients with a EuroSCORE II of ≥1.83%.
Effects of restrictive red blood cell transfusion on the prognoses of adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Critical Care (London, England). 22(1):142, 2018 May 31.. 2018;22((1):):142
PURPOSE Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies remain controversial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic benefits of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS We identified randomized clinical trials through the 9th of December 2017 that investigated a restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy versus a liberal transfusion strategy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Individual patient data from each study were collected. Meta-analyses were performed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A trial sequential analysis (TSA)-adjusted random-effects model was used to pool the results from the included studies for the primary outcomes. RESULTS Seven trials involving a total of 8886 patients were included. The TSA evaluations suggested that this meta-analysis could draw firm negative results, and the data were sufficient. There was no evidence that the risk of 30-day mortality differed between the patients assigned to a restrictive blood cell transfusion strategy and a liberal transfusion strategy (odds ratio (OR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 1.24; p=0.87). Furthermore, the study suggested that the restrictive transfusion strategy was not associated with significant increases in pulmonary morbidity (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.34; p=0.44), postoperative infection (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.3; p=0.58), acute kidney injury (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.14; p=0.71), acute myocardial infarction (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27; p=0.78), or cerebrovascular accidents (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.30; p=0.66). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy was not inferior to the liberal strategy with respect to 30-day mortality, pulmonary morbidity, postoperative infection, cerebrovascular accidents, acute kidney injury, or acute myocardial infarction, and fewer red blood cells were transfused.
Drug, devices, technologies, and techniques for blood management in minimally invasive and conventional cardiothoracic surgery: a consensus statement from the International Society for Minimally Invasive Cardiothoracic Surgery (ISMICS) 2011
Innovations: Technology & Techniques in Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery. 2012;7((4):):229-41.
OBJECTIVE The objectives of this consensus conference were to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of perioperative drugs, technologies, and techniques in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion for adults undergoing cardiac surgery and to develop evidence-based recommendations for comprehensive perioperative blood management in cardiac surgery, with emphasis on minimally invasive cardiac surgery. METHODS The consensus panel short-listed the potential topics for review from a comprehensive list of potential drugs, devices, technologies, and techniques. The process of short-listing was based on the need to prioritize and focus on the areas of highest importance to surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, hematologists, and allied health care involved in the management of patients who undergo cardiac surgery whether through the conventional or minimally invasive approach. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched from their date of inception to May 2011, and supplemental hand searches were also performed. Detailed methodology and search strategies are outlined in each of the subsequently published systematic reviews. In general, all relevant synonyms for drugs (antifibrinolytic, aprotinin, [Latin Small Letter Open E]-aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid [TA], desmopressin, anticoagulants, heparin, antiplatelets, anti-Xa agents, adenosine diphosphate inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], factor VIIa [FVIIa]), technologies (cell salvage, miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits, biocompatible circuits, ultrafiltration), and techniques (transfusion thresholds, minimally invasive cardiac or aortic surgery) were searched and combined with terms for blood, red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, transfusion, and allogeneic exposure. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology system was used to label the level of evidence and class of each recommendation. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Database search identified more than 6900 articles, with 4423 full-text randomized controlled trials assessed for eligibility, and the final 125 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were used in the consensus conference. The results of the consensus conference, including the evidence-based statements and the recommendations, are outlined in the text, with references given for the relevant evidence that formed the basis for the statements and recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ANTIFIBRINOLYTICS The lysine analogs ?-aminocaproic acid (Amicar) and tranexamic acid (TA) reduce exposure to allogeneic blood inpatients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. These agents are recommended to be used routinely as part of a blood conservation strategy especially in patients at risk of undergoing onpump cardiac surgery (Class I, Level A). It is important not to exceed maximum TA total dosages (50Y100mg/kg) because of potential neurotoxicity in the elderly and open-heart procedures (Class IIb, Level C). Aprotinin is not recommended in adult cardiac surgery until further studies on its safety profile have been performed (Class III, Level A). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TA IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS Tranexamic acid may be recommended as part of a blood conservation strategy in high risk patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery (Class I, Level A).Tranexamic acid dosing in OPCAB surgery needs further study particularly with regard to possible neurotoxicity such as seizures.In addition, the benefit-risk ratio in OPCAB needs further eludication because of the lower inherent risk for bleeding in this group (Class IIb, Level C). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DDAVP DDAVP can be considered for prophylaxis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, in particular, for patients onASA within 7 days or prolonged CPB more than 140 minutes (Class IIa, Level A). Caution should be used with the DDAVP infusion rate to avoid significant systemic hypotension (Class I, Level A). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TOPICAL HEMOSTATICS The routine use of topical antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery is
A randomized controlled pilot study of adherence to transfusion strategies in cardiac surgery
BACKGROUND It is important to determine the optimal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery because increased mortality has been associated with the severity of anemia and exposure to RBCs. Because a definitive trial will require thousands of patients, and because there is variability in transfusion practices, a pilot study was undertaken to determine adherence to proposed strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A single-center parallel randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted in high-risk cardiac patients to assess adherence to two transfusion strategies. Fifty patients were randomly assigned either to a "restrictive" transfusion strategy (RBCs if their Hb concentration was 70 g/L or less intraoperatively during cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB] and 75 g/L or less postoperatively) or a "liberal" transfusion strategy (RBCs if their Hb concentration was 95 g/L or less during CPB and less than 100 g/L postoperatively). RESULTS The percentage of adherence overall was 84% in the restrictive arm and 41% in the liberal arm. Twenty-two (88%) patients were transfused 99 units of RBCs in the liberal group compared to 13 patients who were transfused 50 units in the restrictive group (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in individual adverse outcomes; however, more adverse events occurred in the restrictive group (38 vs. 15, p<0.01). CONCLUSION Adherence to the evaluated interventions is vital to all randomized controlled trials as it has the potential to affect outcomes. Further pilot studies are required to optimize enrollment and transfusion adherence before a definitive study is conducted. 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Point-of-care testing: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of efficacy in coagulopathic cardiac surgery patients
INTRODUCTION The current investigation aimed to study the efficacy of hemostatic therapy guided either by conventional coagulation analyses or point-of-care (POC) testing in coagulopathic cardiac surgery patients. METHODS Patients undergoing complex cardiac surgery were assessed for eligibility. Those patients in whom diffuse bleeding was diagnosed after heparin reversal or increased blood loss during the first 24 postoperative hours were enrolled and randomized to the conventional or POC group. Thromboelastometry and whole blood impedance aggregometry have been performed in the POC group. The primary outcome variable was the number of transfused units of packed erythrocytes during the first 24 h after inclusion. Secondary outcome variables included postoperative blood loss, use and costs of hemostatic therapy, and clinical outcome parameters. Sample size analysis revealed a sample size of at least 100 patients per group. RESULTS There were 152 patients who were screened for eligibility and 100 patients were enrolled in the study. After randomization of 50 patients to each group, a planned interim analysis revealed a significant difference in erythrocyte transfusion rate in the conventional compared with the POC group [5 (4;9) versus 3 (2;6) units [median (25 and 75 percentile)], P<0.001]. The study was terminated early. The secondary outcome parameters of fresh frozen plasma and platelet transfusion rates, postoperative mechanical ventilation time, length of intensive care unit stay, composite adverse events rate, costs of hemostatic therapy, and 6-month mortality were lower in the POC group. CONCLUSIONS Hemostatic therapy based on POC testing reduced patient exposure to allogenic blood products and provided significant benefits with respect to clinical outcomes.
Thromboelastometrically guided transfusion protocol during aortic surgery with circulatory arrest: a prospective, randomized trial
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2010;140((5):):1117-24.e2.
OBJECTIVE Aortic surgical procedures requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest are associated with altered hemostasis and increased bleeding. In a randomized clinical trial, we evaluated effects of thromboelastometrically guided algorithm on transfusion requirements. METHODS Fifty-six consecutive patients (25 with acute type A dissection) undergoing aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest were enrolled in a randomized trial during a 6-month period. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment group (n = 27) with thromboelastometrically guided transfusion algorithm or control group (n = 29) with routine transfusion practices (clinical judgment-guided transfusion followed by transfusion according to coagulation test results). Primary end point was cumulative allogeneic blood units (red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, and platelets) transfused. RESULTS Transfusion of allogeneic blood was significantly reduced in the thromboelastometry group: median 9. 0 units (interquartile range, 2. 0-30. 0 units) versus. 16. 0 units (9. 0-23. 0 units, P = . 02). Most significant decrease was in the use of fresh-frozen plasma (3. 0 units, 0-12. 0 units, vs 8. 0 units, 4. 0-18. 0 units, P = . 005). Postoperative blood loss (890 mL/d, 600-1250 mL/d vs 950 mL/d, 650-1400 mL/d, p = 0. 5) and rate of surgical re-exploration (19% vs 24%, P = . 7) were similar between groups. Thromboelastometrically guided algorithm significantly decreased need for massive perioperative transfusion (odds ratio, 0. 45; 95% confidence interval, 0. 2-0. 9; P = . 03) in multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Thromboelastometrically guided transfusion is associated with a decreased use of allogeneic blood units and reduced incidence of massive transfusion in patients undergoing aortic surgery with circulatory arrest.
Perioperative monitoring of thromboelastograph on blood protection and recovery for severely cyanotic patients undergoing complex cardiac surgery
Artificial Organs. 2010;34((11):):955-60.
In this study, we assessed the clinical effect of a new transfusion therapy guided by thromboelastograph (TEG) on blood protection. Thirty-one children with severe cyanosis (hematocrit ≥ 54%), who were diagnosed as having transposition of the great arteries or double outlet right ventricle with or without pulmonary valve stenosis, and underwent arterial switch operation or double roots transplantation, were involved and were divided into two groups. In group F (n=17), the transfusion therapy after cardiopulmonary bypass was performed with fibrinogen administration combined with traditional transfusion, guided by TEG. In group C (n=14), traditional transfusion guided by clinical experiences only was performed. We observed the blood protection effects and recovery conditions of these patients. In surgery, compared with group C, the chest closure time, fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), and platelet (PLT) volume used at closure time had no significant reductions in group F (P>0. 05, respectively), and the patients in group F had no significant reductions in the amount of chest drainage (P>0. 05). The total PLT and total red blood cells usage were also the same (P>0. 05). But during the first 24h, FFP usage in the intensive care unit (ICU) and total perioperative FFP usage had significantly dropped in group F (P<0. 05); the mechanical ventilator time, ICU stay, and hospitalization time in group F were much shorter than those in group C (P<0. 05). So, TEG was effective in perioperative blood protection. Fibrinogen could be a substitute for FFP to restore hemostasis and improve the prognosis for these patients.
Protocol based on thromboelastograph (TEG) out-performs physician preference using laboratory coagulation tests to guide blood replacement during and after cardiac surgery: a pilot study
Heart, Lung & Circulation. 2009;18((4):):277-88.
BACKGROUND Allogenic blood transfusion may affect clinical outcomes negatively. Up to 20% of blood transfusions in the United States are associated with cardiac surgery and so strategies to conserve usage are of importance. This study compares administration according to physician's choice based on laboratory coagulation tests with application of a strict protocol based on the thromboelastograph (TEG). METHODS Sixty-nine patients presenting for cardiac surgery were randomised to either study or control groups. In the study group a strict protocol was followed covering usage of all blood products according to TEG patterns. In the control group, the physician directed product administration with reference to activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalised ratio (INR), fibrinogen and platelet count. Bleeding, re-sternotomy, minimum haemoglobin, intubation time, and ICU stay were documented. RESULTS TEG-based management reduced total product usage by 58. 8% in the study group but this was not statistically significant. This was associated with a statistically insignificant trend towards better short-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study suggests that a strict protocol for blood product replacement based on the TEG might be highly effective in reducing usage without impairing short-term outcome.