Spine Surgery and Preoperative Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and Hemoglobin A1c: A Systematic Review
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568220979821
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. OBJECTIVES Synthesize previous studies evaluating clinical utility of preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c in patients undergoing common spinal procedures: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar decompression (LD). METHODS We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for literature on preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c and post-operative outcomes in adult patients undergoing ACDF, PCF, PLF, or LD surgeries. RESULTS Total of 4,307 publications were assessed. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. PCF AND ACDF Decreased preoperative Hb/Hct were significant predictors of increased postoperative morbidity, including return to operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusions, and increased length of stay (LOS). For increased HbA1c, there was significant increase in risk of postoperative infection and cost of hospital stay. PLF: Decreased Hb/Hct was reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events, blood transfusion, and increased LOS. Elevated HbA1c was associated with increased risk of infection as well as higher visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. LD: LOS and total episode of care cost were increased in patients with preoperative HbA1c elevation. CONCLUSION In adult patients undergoing spine surgery, preoperative Hb/Hct are clinically useful predictors for postoperative complications, transfusion rates, and LOS, and HbA1c is predictive for postoperative infection and functional outcomes. Using Hct values <35-38% and HbA1c >6.5%-6.9% for identifying patients at higher risk of postoperative complications is most supported by the literature. We recommend obtaining these labs as part of routine pre-operative risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.
Total hip arthroplasty for sickle cell osteonecrosis: guidelines for perioperative management
EFORT open reviews. 2020;5(10):641-651
The prognosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) has greatly improved in recent years, resulting in an increased number of patients reporting musculoskeletal complications such as osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be utilized to alleviate the pain associated with this disease.Although it is well known that hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis (AVN) in SCD may represent a challenge for the surgeon, complications are frequent, and no guidelines exist to prevent these complications. Because patients with SCD will frequently undergo THA, we thought it necessary to fulfil the need for guidance recommendations based on experience, evidence and agreement from the literature.For all these reasons this review proposes guidelines that provide clinicians with a document regarding management of patients with SCD in the period of time leading up to primary THA. The recommendations provide guidance that has been informed by the clinical expertise and experience of the authors and available literature.Although this is not a systematic review since some papers may have been published in languages other than English, our study population consisted of 5,868 patients, including 2,126 patients with SCD operated on for THA by the senior author in the same hospital during 40 years and 3,742 patients reported in the literature. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:641-651. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190073.
A cluster-randomized controlled trial of a blood conservation algorithm in patients undergoing total hip joint arthroplasty
BACKGROUND The optimum strategy for reducing allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total hip joint arthroplasty (THJA) is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The effectiveness of a comprehensive blood conservation algorithm (BCA) was evaluated by means of a cluster randomization trial. Thirty hospitals performing primary THJA were randomly assigned to implement the algorithm or to continue with usual care (UC). Subsequently, the institutional rate of allogeneic transfusion was determined for 60 consecutive patients who underwent surgery at each site. The BCA consisted of patient and provider education, hemoglobin-based recommendations for specific blood conservation strategies (recombinant human erythropoietin [rHuEPO] or autologous blood donation [ABD]) and transfusion guidelines. The main outcome measure was the institutional allogeneic transfusion rate. RESULTS One hospital withdrew consent after randomization, resulting in 14 hospitals assigned to BCA and 15 to UC. In the BCA arm, the institutional rates of rHuEPO use and ABD participation were 20. 1 and 27. 1 percent compared to 0. 6 and 25. 8 percent, respectively, in the UC arm. The allogeneic transfusion rate was substantially reduced in hospitals assigned to the BCA group (p = 0. 02; absolute risk reduction, 9. 6% [26. 1% UC vs. 16. 5% BCA]). Multivariate analysis of patient-level data showed that assignment to the UC arm was an independent risk factor for allogeneic transfusion (p = 0. 037; odds ratio, 1. 8; 95% confidence interval, 1. 0-3. 1) when adjusted for other prognostic factors. No differences were observed in the use of autologous blood. CONCLUSION A comprehensive approach to blood conservation was superior to UC for reducing allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing THJA.
A prospective randomized trial of the surgical blood order equation for ordering red cells for total hip arthroplasty patients
BACKGROUND The majority of crossmatched blood is for surgical patients, and most of it is never transfused. An alternative system for ordering red cell (RBC) units, called the surgical blood order equation (SBOE), which incorporates specific patient variables for surgical patients, has been developed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective double-blind randomized trial compared the SBOE with the maximal surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) system for ordering allogeneic RBC units in 60 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Autologous RBCs were available for none of the patients. RESULTS There were no differences in patient demographic, surgical, or laboratory variables at any time. The median number (range) of allogeneic RBC units ordered was 2 (2-3) for the MSBOS and 0 (0-3) for the SBOE (p<0.0001). The SBOE ordered the correct number of RBC units for 58 percent of patients, while the MSBOS did so for 7 percent (p<0.0001). The SBOE had a lower crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio than the MSBOS (0.83 vs. 4.12). Costs were also lower with the SBOE. CONCLUSION Incorporation of patient factors in the use of the SBOE system resulted in increased efficiency of blood-ordering practices for total hip arthroplasty.
Calculation of the allowable blood loss before transfusion with a programmable pocket calculator . German
Der Anaesthesist. 1987;36((6):):306-12.
Introduction. The amount of blood loss during surgery that requires transfusion is frequently estimated with a linear formula (1) using blood volume--calculated on a volume per weight basis--, preoperative hemoglobin concentration, and an established minimum hemoglobin concentration. This formula, however, underestimates allowable pretransfusion blood loss, because it implies that all blood lost contains the initial hemoglobin concentration. In addition, hemodilution by infusion therapy prior to surgery is usually not taken into consideration. Methods. In order to estimate allowable pretransfusion blood loss more accurately and conveniently, a program was developed for a programmable pocket computer. This program calculates (number of equation in parenthesis): blood volume (2a, 2b) expansion of blood volume prior to surgery (3) hemodilution prior to surgery (4) allowable blood loss during isovolemic hemodilution (5). The applicability of the program to the situation during orthopedic operations was tested in a study in which allowable pretransfusion blood loss was estimated for one group of patients and was calculated with the computer program for another group of patients. Eighty patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery were studied. After preoperative evaluation the attending anesthetist established a minimum hemoglobin concentration and the type of cardiocirculatory monitoring to be used. Patients were divided at random into two groups: for one group blood volume was estimated on a volume per weight basis and allowable blood loss was calculated using equation (1); for the second group allowable blood loss was calculated with the computer program. During the evaluation of the data the computer calculations were also carrier out for group 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)