Causes and Risk Factors of Pediatric Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage-A Systematic Review
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;12(6)
Previous studies suggest that the most common cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in children and adolescents is arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, an update containing recently published data on pediatric spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages is lacking. The aim of this study is to systematically analyze the published data on the etiologies and risk factors of pediatric spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. This systematic review was performed in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A search in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library was conducted aiming for articles published in year 2000 and later, containing data on etiology and risk factors of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in unselected cohorts of patients aged between 1 month and 18 years. As a result, forty studies were eligible for data extraction and final analysis. These included 7931 children and adolescents with 4009 reported etiologies and risk factors. A marked variety of reported etiologies and risk factors among studies was observed. Vascular etiologies were the most frequently reported cause of pediatric spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages (n = 1727, 43.08% of all identified etiologies or risk factors), with AVMs being the most common vascular cause (n = 1226, 70.99% of all vascular causes). Hematological and systemic causes, brain tumors, intracranial infections and cardiac causes were less commonly encountered risk factors and etiologies.
Accuracy of artificial intelligence for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage and chronic cerebral microbleeds: a systematic review and pooled analysis
La Radiologia medica. 2022
BACKGROUND Artificial intelligence (AI)-driven software has been developed and become commercially available within the past few years for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and chronic cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). However, there is currently no systematic review that summarizes all of these tools or provides pooled estimates of their performance. METHODS In this PROSPERO-registered, PRISMA compliant systematic review, we sought to compile and review all MEDLINE and EMBASE published studies that have developed and/or tested AI algorithms for ICH detection on non-contrast CT scans (NCCTs) or MRI scans and CMBs detection on MRI scans. RESULTS In total, 40 studies described AI algorithms for ICH detection in NCCTs/MRIs and 19 for CMBs detection in MRIs. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 92.06%, 93.54%, and 93.46%, respectively, for ICH detection and 91.6%, 93.9%, and 92.7% for CMBs detection. Some of the challenges encountered in the development of these algorithms include the laborious work of creating large, labeled and balanced datasets, the volumetric nature of the imaging examinations, the fine tuning of the algorithms, and the reduction in false positives. CONCLUSIONS Numerous AI-driven software tools have been developed over the last decade. On average, they are characterized by high performance and expert-level accuracy for the diagnosis of ICH and CMBs. As a result, implementing these tools in clinical practice may improve workflow and act as a failsafe for the detection of such lesions. REGISTRATION-URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ Unique Identifier: CRD42021246848.
Perihematomal Edema and Clinical Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2022
BACKGROUND Perihematomal edema (PHE) has been proposed as a radiological marker of secondary injury and therapeutic target in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prognostic impact of PHE on functional outcome and mortality in patients with ICH. METHODS We searched major databases through December 2020 using predefined keywords. Any study using logistic regression to examine the association between PHE or its growth and functional outcome was included. We examined the overall pooled effect and conducted secondary analyses to explore the impact of individual PHE measures on various outcomes separately. Study quality was assessed by three independent raters using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (per 1-unit increase in PHE) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were log transformed and entered into a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates of the effect. RESULTS Twenty studies (n = 6633 patients) were included in the analysis. The pooled effect size for overall outcome was 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.08; p < 0.00). For the following secondary analyses, the effect size was weak: mortality (1.01; 95% CI 0.90-1.14), functional outcome (1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07), both 90-day (1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.11), and in-hospital assessments (1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08). The effect sizes for PHE volume and PHE growth were 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.25), respectively. Heterogeneity across studies was substantial except for PHE growth. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrates that PHE volume within the first 72 h after ictus has a weak effect on functional outcome and mortality after ICH, whereas PHE growth might have a slightly larger impact during this time frame. Definitive conclusions are limited by the large variability of PHE measures, heterogeneity, and different evaluation time points between studies.
Can Artificial Intelligence Be Applied to Diagnose Intracerebral Hemorrhage under the Background of the Fourth Industrial Revolution? A Novel Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
International journal of clinical practice. 2022;2022:9430097
AIM: We intended to provide the clinical evidence that artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to assist doctors in the diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS Studies published in 2021 were identified after the literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used to perform the quality assessment of studies. Data extraction of diagnosis effect included accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under curve (AUC), and Dice scores (Dices). The pooled effect with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated by the random effects model. I-Square (I (2)) was used to test heterogeneity. To check the stability of the overall results, sensitivity analysis was conducted by recalculating the pooled effect of the remaining studies after omitting the study with the highest quality or the random effects model was switched to the fixed effects model. Funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias. To reduce heterogeneity, recalculating the pooled effect of the remaining studies after omitting the study with the lowest quality or perform subgroup analysis. RESULTS Twenty-five diagnostic tests of ICH via AI and doctors with overall high quality were included. Pooled ACC, SEN, SPE, PPV, NPV, AUC, and Dices were 0.88 (0.83∼0.93), 0.85 (0.81∼0.89), 0.90 (0.88∼0.92), 0.80 (0.75∼0.85), 0.93 (0.91∼0.95), 0.84 (0.80∼0.89), and 0.90 (0.85∼0.95), respectively. There was no publication bias. All of results were stable as revealed by sensitivity analysis and were accordant as outcomes via subgroups analysis. CONCLUSION Under the background of the fourth industrial revolution, AI might be an effective and efficient tool to assist doctors in the clinical diagnosis of ICH.
Relationship between annualized case volume and in-hospital motality in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Studies on the relationship between hospital annualized case volume and in-hospital mortality in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have shown conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further examine this relationship.The authors searched the PubMed and Embase databases from inception through July 2020 to identify studies that assessed the relationship between hospital annualized SAH case volume and in-hospital SAH mortality. Studies that reported in-hospital mortality in SAH patients and an adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing mortality between low-volume and high-volume hospitals or provided core data to calculate an adjusted OR were eligible for inclusion. No language or human subject restrictions were imposed.Five retrospective cohort studies with 46,186 patients were included for analysis. The pooled estimate revealed an inverse relationship between annualized case volume and in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.68, P < .0001). This relationship was consistent in almost all subgroup analyses and was robust in sensitivity analyses.This meta-analysis confirms an inverse relationship between hospital annualized SAH case volume and in-hospital SAH mortality. Higher annualized case volume was associated with lower in-hospital mortality.
Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis
European radiology. 2021
OBJECTIVES To assess whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), using conventional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging as a reference standard, is sufficiently accurate to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS On January 20, 2021, we searched the PubMed Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the risk of bias and applicability. Meta-analyses were performed using a bivariate random-effects model. To explore sources of heterogeneity, meta-regression analyses were performed. Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test was used to assess publication bias. RESULTS A total of 7 studies (269 patients, 269 focal areas) were included. The pooled mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DECT in identifying intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke were 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.96), 1 (95% CI 0.86 to 1), and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 1), respectively. This evidence was of moderate certainty due to the risk of bias. Higgin's I-squared for study heterogeneity was observed for the pooled sensitivity (I(2) = 78.88%) and pooled specificity (I(2) = 82.12%). Moreover, Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test revealed no publication bias (p = 0.38). CONCLUSION DECT shows excellent accuracy and specificity in differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, there was substantial and moderate heterogeneity among the studies. Future large-scale, prospective cohort studies are warranted to validate our findings. KEY POINTS • Dual-energy computed tomography shows excellent accuracy and specificity in differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. • Via meta-regression analysis, we found various possible covariates, including the publication date, image analysis, index test time, time of follow-up imaging, and reference standard judgment, that had an important effect on the heterogeneity. • There were no concerns regarding applicability in any of the included studies.
Noncontrast Computed Tomography Markers of Cerebral Hemorrhage Expansion: Diagnostic Accuracy Meta-Analysis
International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society. 2021;:17474930211061639
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Assess the diagnostic accuracy of noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers of hematoma expansion in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials with available data for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of NCCT markers for hematoma expansion (absolute growth >6 or 12.5 mL and/or relative growth >33%). The following NCCT markers were analyzed: irregular shape, island sign (shape-related features); hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, black hole sign, and swirl sign (density-related features). Pooled accuracy values for each marker were derived from hierarchical logistic regression models. RESULTS A total of 10,363 subjects from 23 eligible studies were included. Significant risk of bias of included studies was noted. Hematoma expansion frequency ranged from 7% to 40%, mean intracerebral hemorrhage volume from 9 to 27.8 ml, presence of NCCT markers from 9% (island sign) to 82% (irregular shape). Among shape features, sensitivity ranged from 0.32 (95%CI = 0.20-0.47) for island sign to 0.68 (95%CI = 0.57-0.77) for irregular shape, specificity ranged from 0.47 (95%CI = 0.36-0.59) for irregular shape to 0.92 (95%CI = 0.85-0.96) for island sign; among density features sensitivity ranged from 0.28 (95%CI = 0.21-0.35) for black hole sign to 0.63 (95%CI = 0.44-0.78) for hypodensity, specificity ranged from 0.65 (95%CI = 0.56-0.73) for heterogeneous density to 0.89 (95%CI = 0.85-0.92) for blend sign. CONCLUSION Diagnostic accuracy of NCCT markers remains suboptimal for implementation in clinical trials although density features performed better than shape-related features. This analysis may help in better tailoring patients' selection for hematoma expansion targeted trials.
How outcomes are measured after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A systematic scoping review
PloS one. 2021;16(6):e0253964
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recovery after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is often slower than ischemic stroke. Despite this, ICH research often quantifies recovery using the same outcome measures obtained at the same timepoints as ischemic stroke. The primary objective of this scoping review is to map the existing literature to determine when and how outcomes are being measured in prospective studies of recovery after ICH. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science from inception to November 2019, for prospective studies that included patients with ICH. Two investigators independently screened the studies and extracted data around timing and type of outcome assessment. RESULTS Among the 9761 manuscripts reviewed, 395 met inclusion criteria, of which 276 were observational studies and 129 were interventional studies that enrolled 66274 patients. Mortality was assessed in 93% of studies. Functional outcomes were assessed in 85% of studies. The most frequently used functional assessment tool was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (60%), followed by the National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Scale (22%) and Barthel Index (21%). The most frequent timepoint at which mortality was assessed was 90 days (41%), followed by 180 days (18%) and 365 days (12%), with 2% beyond 1 year. The most frequent timepoint used for assessing mRS was 90 days (62%), followed by 180 days (21%) and 365 days (17%). CONCLUSION While most prospective ICH studies report mortality and functional outcomes only at 90 days, a significant proportion do so at 1 year and beyond. Our results support the feasibility of collecting long-term outcome data to optimally assess recovery in ICH.
Is physical activity a trigger factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage?
INTRODUCTION Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious pathology, associated with 43% mortality and significant disability. In the absence of relevant guidelines, some teams advocate that patients harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (ICA) abstain from all sports activity, as a prophylactic precaution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of physical activity as a risk factor for SAH, through a review of the literature. METHOD A systematic literature review was performed for the period 2000 to 2020 in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Prospective and retrospective articles reporting more than 50 patients whose physical activity was associated with onset of SAH were included. The main end-point was prevalence of SAH occurring after physical activity. For comparison purposes, the prevalences of other circumstances were calculated to establish a range of frequency. RESULTS Physical activity appeared to be quite rarely associated with onset of SAH, with a prevalence of 3%, compared to 30% at rest, 7.3% in association with defecation and 4.5% in association with sexual activity. Age under 60 years, male gender (M/F ratio 1.38) and smoking (67.1%) were associated with onset of SAH during physical activity. CONCLUSION Physical activity appears to be a rare trigger factor for SAH. These results are in contrast to the idea that physical activity should, as a precaution, be avoided in patients with unruptured ICA. There is at present no scientific evidence of an association with aneurysmal SAH.
Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review on Additional Knowledge from Dynamic Assays and Potential Treatment Targets
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2021
Mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is augmented by rebleeding and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). A range of assays evaluating the dynamic process of blood coagulation, from activation of clotting factors to fibrinolysis, has emerged and a comprehensive review of hemostasis and fibrinolysis following aSAH may reveal targets of treatment. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature assessing coagulation and fibrinolysis following aSAH, but prior to treatment. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched on November 18, 2020, without time boundaries. In total, 45 original studies were eventually incorporated into this systematic review, divided into studies presenting data only from conventional or quantitative assays (n = 22) and studies employing dynamic assays (n = 23). Data from conventional or quantitative assays indicated increased platelet activation, whereas dynamic assays detected platelet dysfunction possibly related to an increased risk of rebleeding. Secondary hemostasis was activated in conventional, quantitative, and dynamic assays and this was related to poor neurological outcome and mortality. Studies systematically investigating fibrinolysis were sparse. Measurements from conventional or quantitative assays, as well as dynamic fibrinolysis assays, revealed conflicting results with normal or increased lysis and changes were not associated with outcome. In conclusion, dynamic assays were able to detect reduced platelet function, not revealed by conventional or quantitative assays. Activation of secondary hemostasis was found in both dynamic and nondynamic assays, while changes in fibrinolysis were not convincingly demonstrable in either dynamic or conventional or quantitative assays. Hence, from a mechanistic point of view, desmopressin to prevent rebleeding and heparin to prevent DCI may hold potential as therapeutic options. As changes in fibrinolysis were not convincingly demonstrated and not related to outcome, the use of tranexamic acid prior to aneurysm closure is not supported by this review.