The Impact of Time to Hemostatic Intervention and Delayed Care for Patients with Traumatic Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2023
BACKGROUND Uncontrolled bleeding is a common cause of preventable mortality in trauma. While intuitive that delays to hemostasis may lead to worse outcomes, the impacts of these delays remain incompletely explored. This systematic review aimed to characterize the extant definitions of delayed hemostatic intervention and to quantify the impacts of delays on clinical outcomes. METHODS We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science from inception to August 2022. Studies defining "delayed intervention" and those comparing times to intervention among adults presenting to hospital with blunt or penetrating injuries who required major hemostatic intervention were eligible. The co-primary outcomes were mortality and the definition of delay to hemostasis employed. Secondary outcomes included units of packed red blood cells received, length of stay in hospital, and length of stay in intensive care. RESULTS We identified 2,050 studies, with 24 studies including 10,168 patients meeting inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were retrospective observational cohort studies and most were at high risk of bias. A variety of injury patterns and hemostatic interventions were considered, with 69.6% of studies reporting a statistically significant impact of increased time to intervention on mortality. Definitions of delayed intervention ranged from ten minutes to four hours. Conflicting data were reported for impact of time on receipt of blood products, while one study found a significant impact on intensive care length of stay. No studies assessed length of stay in hospital. CONCLUSIONS The extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to injuries included, methods of hemostasis employed, and durations of delay examined. While the majority of the included studies demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between time to intervention and mortality, an evidence-informed definition of delayed intervention for bleeding trauma patients at large has not been solidified. Additional, standardized research is needed to establish targets which could reduce morbidity and mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level IV, Systematic Review.
Patients with traumatic haemorrhage (24 studies, n= 10,168).
Systematic review to characterize the extant definitions of delayed haemostatic intervention and to quantify the impacts of delays on clinical outcomes.
The majority of studies were retrospective observational cohort studies and most were at high risk of bias. A variety of injury patterns and haemostatic interventions were considered, with 69.6% of studies reporting a statistically significant impact of increased time to intervention on mortality. Definitions of delayed intervention ranged from ten minutes to four hours. Conflicting data were reported for impact of time on receipt of blood products, while one study found a significant impact on intensive care length of stay. No studies assessed length of stay in hospital.
Small-Volume Blood Collection Tubes to Reduce Transfusions in Intensive Care: The STRATUS Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Blood collection for laboratory testing in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is a modifiable contributor to anemia and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Most blood withdrawn is not required for analysis and is discarded. OBJECTIVE To determine whether transitioning from standard-volume to small-volume vacuum tubes for blood collection in ICUs reduces RBC transfusion without compromising laboratory testing procedures. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial in 25 adult medical-surgical ICUs in Canada (February 5, 2019 to January21, 2021). INTERVENTIONS ICUs were randomized to transition from standard-volume (n = 10 940) to small-volume tubes (n = 10 261) for laboratory testing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was RBC transfusion (units per patient per ICU stay). Secondary outcomes were patients receiving at least 1 RBC transfusion, hemoglobin decrease during ICU stay (adjusted for RBC transfusion), specimens with insufficient volume for testing, length of stay in the ICU and hospital, and mortality in the ICU and hospital. The primary analysis included patients admitted for 48 hours or more, excluding those admitted during a 5.5-month COVID-19-related trial hiatus. RESULTS In the primary analysis of 21 201 patients (mean age, 63.5 years; 39.9% female), which excluded 6210 patients admitted during the early COVID-19 pandemic, there was no significant difference in RBC units per patient per ICU stay (relative risk [RR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.79 to 1.05]; P = .19; absolute reduction of 7.24 RBC units/100 patients per ICU stay [95% CI, -3.28 to 19.44]). In a prespecified secondary analysis (n = 27 411 patients), RBC units per patient per ICU stay decreased after transition from standard-volume to small-volume tubes (RR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.00]; P = .04; absolute reduction of 9.84 RBC units/100 patients per ICU stay [95% CI, 0.24 to 20.76]). Median decrease in transfusion-adjusted hemoglobin was not statistically different in the primary population (mean difference, 0.10 g/dL [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.23]) and lower in the secondary population (mean difference, 0.17 g/dL [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.29]). Specimens with insufficient quantity for analysis were rare (≤0.03%) before and after transition. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Use of small-volume blood collection tubes in the ICU may decrease RBC transfusions without affecting laboratory analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03578419.
Adult patients in 25 medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU) in Canada (n= 21,201).
Small-volume vacuum tubes for blood collection (n= 10,261).
Standard-volume vacuum tubes for blood collection (n= 10,940).
In the primary analysis of 21,201 patients, which excluded 6,210 patients admitted during the early COVID-19 pandemic, there was no significant difference in red blood cell (RBC) units per patient per ICU stay (relative risk [RR] 0.91; 95% CI [0.79, 1.05]; absolute reduction of 7.24 RBC units/100 patients per ICU stay 95% CI [-3.28, 19.44]). In a prespecified secondary analysis (n= 27,411 patients), RBC units per patient per ICU stay decreased after transition from standard-volume to small-volume tubes (RR 0.88; 95% CI [0.77, 1.00]; absolute reduction of 9.84 RBC units/100 patients per ICU stay 95% CI [0.24, 20.76]). Median decrease in transfusion-adjusted haemoglobin was not statistically different in the primary population (mean difference 0.10 g/dL; 95% CI [-0.04, 0.23]) and lower in the secondary population (mean difference 0.17 g/dL; 95% CI [0.05, 0.29]). Specimens with insufficient quantity for analysis were rare (≤0.03%) before and after transition.
The Effectiveness of Student-Led Ward Round Training on Knowledge Acquisition, Critical Thinking Ability, and Self-Confidence of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding for Nursing Students
Advances in medical education and practice. 2023;14:21-30
INTRODUCTION Nursing knowledge, critical thinking ability, and self-perceived confidence are imperative to nursing skills in professional nursing practice. Therefore, nurse educators are required to use teaching strategies that will help promote their knowledge, critical thinking, and self-confidence in complex contents such as the nursing of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PURPOSE This study compares the effect of student-led and instructor-led ward-round training methods on knowledge acquisition, critical thinking ability, and self-perceived confidence during AUGIB sessions. METHODS Forty nursing students in the first year of the Emergency Nursing Residency Program were randomly divided into a student-led ward round training group (SG) and an instructor-led ward round training group (IG) with a ratio of 1:1. A knowledge quiz, critical thinking ability test, and self-perceived confidence questionnaire were performed before and after the ward round training to assess both groups of students for their knowledge acquisition, critical thinking ability, and self-perceived confidence improvement. Feedback questionnaires were conducted after the training to evaluate students' perspectives and interests concerning the teaching module. RESULTS The scores of the post-training quiz were significantly higher than that of the pre-training quiz in both the SG (44.10±2.92 vs 31.10±4.27, p<0.001) and IG (32.35±2.21 vs 30.55±2.24, p=0.01). In the post-training quiz, scores achieved by the students from the SG (44.10±2.92) were significantly higher than those achieved by the students from the IG (32.35±2.21, p< 0.001). The level of self-perceived confidence improved significantly after ward round training in the SG (p< 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the IG with respect to the change from pre- to post-training (p=0.43).The students' critical thinking ability improved significantly in the SG (14.95±2.58 vs 7.10±1.79, p<0.001), while no significant improvement was found in the IG (7.91±2.28 vs 6.52±2.21, p=0.07) after ward round training. CONCLUSION The teaching method of SWRT improves nursing students' knowledge acquisition, critical thinking ability, and self-perceived confidence in AUGIB.
Effect of Early Equal-Proportional Infusion of Plasma and Red Blood Cells on the Prognosis of Emergency Patients with Traumatic Hemorrhage
Clinical laboratory. 2023;69(7)
BACKGROUND The goal was to study the effect of early equal-proportion transfusion on the prognosis of trauma patients with bleeding. METHODS Emergency hospital trauma patients were randomly divided into two groups, a group based on assessment of blood consumption (ABC) to assess whether need to start the massive blood transfusion patients, such as proportion of blood transfusion (fresh frozen plasma: suspended red blood cells = 1:1), and the other group using traditional methods of blood transfusion, namely according to routine blood and clotting function and hemodynamic parameters, to decide when and what blood constituents should be transfused. RESULTS The coagulation got better in the early equal-proportion transfusion group, there were significant differences of PT and APTT (p < 0.05). The amount of 24 hours RBC and plasma transfusion was decreased in the early equal-proportion transfusion group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05), the length of ICU stay was shortened, the 24-hours SOFA score was improved, and there was no significant difference in 24-hours mortality, in-hospital mortality and total length of in-hospital stay (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early transfusion can reduce the total amount of blood transfusion and shorten ICU time, but has no significant effect on mortality.
Detection of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy by Viscoelastic Haemostatic Assays Compared to Standard Laboratory Tests: A Systematic Review
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2023;50(4):334-347
INTRODUCTION The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether viscoelastic haemostatic assays (VHAs) offer comparative diagnostic ability of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) compared to the standard laboratory coagulation tests (SLCT). ATC is a complication of major trauma characterized by dysfunctional blood clotting, leading to an increased bleeding risk. Additionally, we aimed to analyse the association of VHA with blood product use and health outcomes. METHODS The search protocol was pre-published and completed on December 2, 2020, assessing manuscripts from 2000 until the present. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central, BIOSIS, Emcare, CINAHL, and additional online resources and referenced lists. Included were manuscripts that quantitatively reported the detection of ATC using VHAs and SLCTs. A meta-analysis was undertaken including observational studies that reported on patients with injuries to all body regions and results analysed using a random-effects model and reported using pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS There were 14 observational studies and one randomized control trial involving 2,715 participants that satisfied inclusion criteria. We observed significant heterogeneity in the definitions of ATC, study design, setting, and patient population. Among observational studies that reported on patients with injuries to all body regions, VHAs were associated with higher odds of diagnosing ATC compared to SLCT (pooled OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.1). There was inadequate evidence to suggest VHAs were associated with reduced blood product usage or lower mortality. CONCLUSION VHAs detected more patients with ATC compared to SLCTs. However, the clinical significance and applicability of this finding remains unknown as translation to management was not adequately reported.
Study on the Effectiveness and Value of Evidence-Based Nursing and Predictive Nursing in Emergency Treatment of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Alternative therapies in health and medicine. 2023
OBJECTIVE To study the effectiveness and value of evidence-based nursing and predictive nursing in emergency treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS A total of 100 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our hospital were selected. The period was from January 2020 to June 2022. They were grouped according to the double color ball method, 50 cases in the control group were given routine nursing, and 50 cases in the observation group were given evidence-based nursing combined with predictive nursing. The key points of evidence-based nursing are to identify the evidence-based question, search for relevant literature, identify scientifically effective nursing measures, and develop nursing care plans that are tailored to the patient's specific situation based on evidence and clinical experience. Predictive nursing requires nurses to have a high level of awareness and risk prevention consciousness to provide care for early signs of bleeding and prevent the occurrence of complications. The psychological state scores, clinical-related indicators, clinical efficacy, incidence of complications, nursing satisfaction, and quality of life scores of the two groups were compared. RESULTS After the intervention, the SAS score (42.25 ± 1.67) and SDS score (43.59 ± 1.86) of the observation group were lower than those of the control group, the bleeding times (2.41 ± 0.45) of the observation group were less than those of the control group, the hemostasis time (30.12 ± 5.38d) and hospitalization time (5.01 ± 1.11d) of the observation group were shorter than those of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (all P < .05). The total effective rate of hemostasis (96.00%), patient satisfaction (98.00%), and scores of physical health (88.98 ± 5.59), psychological function (91.08 ± 5.11), material life state (90.54 ± 6.46) and social function (89.59 ± 5.78) in GQOLI-74 scores in the observation group were higher than those in the control group. The incidence of complications (6.00%) in the observation group was lower than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (all P < .05). CONCLUSION Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency in gastroenterology, characterized by rapid onset, severe symptoms, and quick changes. Therefore, in order to expedite the recovery of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ensure their safety, it is necessary to provide effective clinical emergency nursing care. Evidence-based nursing can help nurses take appropriate nursing measures based on the best and latest evidence, to meet the reasonable individualized needs of patients. Predictive nursing is a nursing model that predicts potential nursing risks in advance and takes corresponding preventive measures. It can timely and systematically address risks in nursing and promote improvements in the effectiveness of disease treatment. The combined application of evidence-based nursing and predictive nursing can improve the hemostatic efficiency of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, improve the psychological state and quality of life, reduce the incidence of complications, and obtain higher satisfaction. The combined application of these two nursing models has positive implications for improving nursing efficiency, enhancing patient cooperation during emergency care, improving hemostasis effectiveness, enhancing quality of life, and fostering a harmonious nurse-patient relationship.
Use of Cognitive Aids to Augment Point of Care Hemorrhage Control Skills in Laypersons
Disaster medicine and public health preparedness. 2023;17:e428
OBJECTIVE The Stop the Bleed course aims to improve bystander hemorrhage control skills and may be improved with point-of-care aids. We sought to create and examine a variety of cognitive aids to identify an optimal method to augment bystander hemorrhage control skills in an emergency scenario. METHODS Randomized trial of 346 college students. Effects of a visual or visual-audio aid on hemorrhage control skills were assessed through randomization into groups with and without prior training or familiarization with aids compared with controls. Tourniquet placement, wound packing skills, and participant comfortability were assessed during a simulated active shooter scenario. RESULTS A total of 325 (94%) participants were included in the final analyses. Participants who had attended training (odds ratio [OR], 12.67; P = 9.3 × 10(-11)), were provided a visual-audio aid (OR, 1.96; P = 0.04), and were primed on their aid (OR, 2.23; P = 0.01) were superior in tourniquet placement with less errors (P < 0.05). Using an aid did not improve wound packing scores compared with bleeding control training alone (P > 0.05). Aid use improved comfortability and likelihood to intervene emergency hemorrhage scenarios (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Using cognitive aids can improve bystander hemorrhage control skills with the strongest effects if they were previously trained and used an aid which combined visual and audio feedback that they were previously introduced to during the course training.
Assessment of Hemostatic Profile in Neonates with Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Systematic Review of Literature
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2023
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects nearly 10 to 15% of pregnancies and is responsible for many short- and long-term adverse consequences, including hemostatic derangement. Both thrombotic and hemorrhagic events are described in the perinatal period in these neonates. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the laboratory studies used to evaluate the hemostatic system of the IUGR small for gestational age neonate. We reviewed the current literature via PubMed and Scopus until September 2022. Following our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we finally included 60 studies in our review. Thrombocytopenia, characterized as hyporegenerative and a kinetic upshot of reduced platelet production due to in utero chronic hypoxia, was the main finding of most studies focusing on growth-restricted neonates, in most cases is mild and usually resolves spontaneously with the first 2 weeks of life. In regard to coagulation, growth-restricted newborns present with prolonged standard coagulation tests. Data regarding coagulation factors, fibrinolytic system, and anticoagulant proteins are scarce and conflicting, mainly due to confounding factors. As thromboelastography/rotational thromboelastometry (TEG/ROTEM) provides a more precise evaluation of the in vivo coagulation process compared with standard coagulation tests, its use in transfusion guidance is fundamental. Only one study regarding TEG/ROTEM was retrieved from this population, where no difference in ROTEM parameters compared with appropriate for gestational age neonates was found. Despite the laboratory aberrations, no correlation could be achieved with clinical manifestations of bleeding or thrombosis in the studies included. More studies are needed to assess hemostasis in IUGR neonates and guide targeted therapeutic interventions.
Comparison of anticoagulation monitoring strategies for adults supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A systematic review
Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. 2023;61:72-83
BACKGROUND Anticoagulation is critical in patients supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The appropriate monitoring strategies for heparin remain unclear. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to compare the accuracy and safety of various monitoring strategies for patients supported on ECMO. METHODS The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for articles in March 2023 without restrictions on publication date. Anticoagulation monitoring strategies for adults supported on ECMO were compared across all included studies. The incidence of bleeding, thrombosis, mortality, blood transfusion, correlation between tests and heparin dose, and the discordance between different tests were discussed in the included studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Cochrane Collaboration's tool. RESULTS Twenty-six studies, including a total of 1,684 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The monitoring of anticoagulation by activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) resulted in less blood product transfusion than that by activated clotting time (ACT). Moreover, the monitoring of anticoagulation by anti-factor Xa (Anti-Xa) resulted in a more stable anticoagulation than that by aPTT. Anti-Xa and aPTT correlated with heparin dose better than ACT, and the discordance between different monitoring tests was common. Finally, combined monitoring showed some advantages in reducing mortality and blood product transfusion. CONCLUSION Anti-Xa and aPTT are more suitable for anticoagulation monitoring for patients supported on ECMO than ACT. Thromboelastography and combination strategies are less applied. Most of the studies were retrospective, and their sample sizes were relatively small; thus, more appropriate monitoring strategies and higher quality research are needed.
Trial-related blood sampling and red-blood-cell transfusions in preterm infants
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2023
AIM: To determine if trial-related blood sampling increases the risk of later red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusion in very preterm infants, we compared the volume of clinical- and trial-related blood samples, in a specific trial and correlated to subsequent RBC transfusion. METHODS For 193 very preterm infants, participating in the FortiColos trial (NCT03537365), trial-related blood volume drawn was in accordance to ethical considerations established by the European Commission. Medical records were reviewed to assess the number and cumulated volume (mL/kg) of blood samples (both clinical- and trial-related). Data were compared with need of RBC transfusions during the first 28days of life. RESULTS Mean (SD) gestational age and bith weight was 28 ± 1 weeks and 1168 ± 301 g. In total, 11% of total blood volume was drawn for sampling (8.1 ± 5.1 mL/kg) and trial-related sampling accounted for 1.6 ± 0.6 mL/kg. Trial-related blood sampling had no impact on RBC transfusion (p=0.9). CONCLUSION Clinical blood sampling in very preterm infants is associated with blood loss and subsequent need for RBC transfusions. In a specific trial requiring blood samples, we found no additional burden of trial-related blood sampling. The study suggest that trial-related sampling is safe if European criteria are followed.