Molidustat for Renal Anemia in Nondialysis Patients Previously Treated with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents: A Randomized, Open-Label, Phase 3 Study
American journal of nephrology. 2021;:1-10
INTRODUCTION Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the current standard of care for anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients not undergoing dialysis. Molidustat, an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, is being investigated as an alternative treatment for renal anemia. Molidustat was evaluated in five phase 3 studies, the molidustat once daily improves renal anemia by inducing erythropoietin (MIYABI) program. The present study investigated the safety and efficacy of molidustat in Japanese patients with renal anemia not undergoing dialysis and previously treated with ESAs. METHODS This was a 52-week, active-controlled, randomized (1:1), open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study in Japanese patients with anemia due to CKD (stages 3-5). Molidustat was initiated at 25 mg or 50 mg once daily according to previous ESA dose. The ESA darbepoetin alfa (darbepoetin) was initiated at a starting dose in accordance with the previous ESA dose and injected subcutaneously once every 2 or 4 weeks. Doses were regularly titrated to maintain hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the target range of 11.0-13.0 g/dL. The primary efficacy outcome was the mean Hb level and its change from baseline during the evaluation period (weeks 30-36). The safety outcomes included evaluation of all adverse events. RESULTS In total, 164 patients were randomized to receive molidustat (n = 82) or darbepoetin (n = 82). Baseline characteristics were well balanced. Mean (standard deviation) Hb levels at baseline were 11.31 (0.68) g/dL for molidustat and 11.27 (0.64) g/dL for darbepoetin. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) for mean Hb levels during the evaluation period for molidustat (11.67 [11.48-11.85] g/dL) and darbepoetin (11.53 [11.31-11.74] g/dL) was within the target range. Based on a noninferiority margin of 1.0 g/dL, molidustat was noninferior to darbepoetin regarding the change in mean Hb level during the evaluation period from baseline, with a least squares mean (95% CI) difference (molidustat-darbepoetin) of 0.13 (-0.15, 0.40) g/dL. The proportion of patients who reported at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) was 92.7% for molidustat and 96.3% for darbepoetin. TEAEs leading to death were reported in 2 patients (2.4%) in the molidustat group and none in the darbepoetin group; serious TEAEs were reported in 32.9% and 26.8% of patients, respectively. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION Molidustat was noninferior to darbepoetin and maintained Hb levels in the prespecified target range in patients with renal anemia not undergoing dialysis and previously treated with ESA. Molidustat was well tolerated, and no new safety signal was observed.
Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ferric carboxymaltose in restless legs syndrome patients with iron deficiency anemia
Sleep medicine. 2021;84:179-186
OBJECTIVE Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been shown to be efficacious in treating restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms in non-anemic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FCM in treating RLS symptoms in patients who also had an iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Subjects with RLS and IDA were enrolled. Subjects received an infusion of either 1500 mg FCM or placebo in Phase I. The primary outcomes were a change-from-baseline at week six on the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group scale (IRLS). Phase II of the study involved long-term (52 weeks) follow-up, for those who responded to treatment in the prior phase, with the potential for further treatment if symptoms returned. RESULTS We enrolled 29 RLS patients with IDA (15 FCM and 14 placebo). At week six post-infusion, FCM compared to placebo group showed significant improvement from baseline in IRLS score (-13.47 ± 7.38 vs. 1.36 ± 3.59). Among secondary outcome variables, quality of sleep showed significant improvement from baseline in the FCM group. 61% of subjects remained off RLS medications at the Phase II, week-52 endpoint. There were no serious adverse events observed in the study. CONCLUSION The study showed significant efficacy and safety of FCM 1500 mg treatment both in the short term (6 weeks) and long term (52 weeks) in RLS patients with IDA.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis: a phase 3, randomised, open-label, active-controlled study (DOLOMITES)
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2021
BACKGROUND Roxadustat, an orally administered hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, is being evaluated for treatment of anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS This randomised, open-label, active-controlled phase 3 study compared roxadustat versus darbepoetin alfa (DA) in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients with anaemia for ≤104 weeks. Doses were titrated to correct and maintain haemoglobin within 10.0-12.0 g/dL. The primary endpoint was haemoglobin response in the full analysis set (FAS), defined as haemoglobin ≥11.0 g/dL and haemoglobin change from baseline (CFB) ≥1.0 g/dL in patients with baseline haemoglobin >8.0 g/dL or CFB ≥2.0 g/dL in patients with baseline haemoglobin ≤8.0 g/dL during the first 24 weeks of treatment without rescue therapy (noninferiority margin, -15%). Key secondary endpoints included change in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), time to first intravenous iron use, change in mean arterial pressure (MAP), and time to hypertension occurrence. Adverse events were assessed. RESULTS Of 616 randomised patients (roxadustat, 323; DA, 293), 424 completed treatment (roxadustat, 215; DA, 209). Haemoglobin response with roxadustat was noninferior to DA (roxadustat: 256/286, 89.5% vs. DA: 213/273, 78.0%, difference 11.51%, 95% confidence interval, 5.66-17.36%). Roxadustat maintained haemoglobin for up to 2 years. Roxadustat was noninferior to DA for change in MAP and time to occurrence of hypertension and superior for change in LDL and time to first intravenous iron use. Safety profiles were comparable between groups. Findings suggest that there was no difference between groups regarding the composite endpoints major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MACE + (MACE: 0.81 [0.52, 1.25], P = 0.339; MACE+: 0.90 [0.61, 1.32], P = 0.583). CONCLUSION Roxadustat is a viable option to treat anaemia in NDD CKD patients maintaining haemoglobin levels for up to 104 weeks.
Role of Intravenous Ascorbic Acid in the Management of Anemia in Hemodialysis Patients
Indian journal of nephrology. 2021;31(3):230-234
INTRODUCTION Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) suffer from functional iron deficiency where despite the presence of sufficient iron stores in the body, adequate iron is unavailable for heme synthesis. This study hypothesis was that in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), administration of intravenous (IV) ascorbic acid (AA) exerts a good effect on the management of anemia, either by increasing the mobilization of iron from tissue stores or acting as an antioxidant to overcome the inflammatory block and increase the erythropoietin sensitivity. METHODS Fifty patients with ESRD who were on regular HD were included in the study. Patients' ferritin levels ranged from 500 to 1200 ng/mL with transferrin saturation of 30% or more. However, all patients were anemic and received erythropoietin therapy. Iron therapy was discontinued in the first group, whereas it was continued in the second group that received IV AA. RESULTS A significant increase in the levels of Hb was observed in the second group after 6 months despite the decrease in ferritin levels in both the groups. Transferrin saturation decreased in both groups, the decrease being more in the first group. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased in the second group, whereas these increased in the first group. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous AA as an adjuvant therapy with iron exerts a favorable and significant effect on the Hb, serum ferritin, and CRP levels in patients with ESKD having anemia. The discontinuation of iron therapy only decreases the serum ferritin levels and does not improve the Hb or CRP levels.
Incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding after transesophageal echocardiography in patients with gastroesophageal varices: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2021
BACKGROUND Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is useful for cardiac assessment and intraoperative monitoring. However, the safety of TEE in cirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices has remained uncertain. This meta-analysis aims to determine the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding after TEE in patients with varices. The secondary objectives are to compare the bleeding risks between patients with and without varices; and to determine the incidences of TEE-related esophageal perforation and mortality. METHODS Systematic literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database using the terms "Transesophageal echocardiography", "Varices", "Bleeding", and related terms. Articles describing the incidence of post-TEE bleeding in patients with varices were included. Non-English articles were excluded. Risk of bias and level of evidence were assessed through validated scales. Pooled weighted incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and risk difference in bleeding were calculated with a random effects model. RESULTS 569 articles were identified initially, and 10 articles (comprising of 908 patients) were included. The incidence of post-TEE bleeding in patients with varices was 0.84% (95% CI 0.34%-1.56%). When stratified by TEE indication, the pooled incidence of bleeding was 0.68% (95% CI 0.11%-1.63%) in intraoperative TEE; and 1.03% (95% CI 0.23%-2.29%) in diagnostic TEE. No cases of esophageal perforation or mortality were reported. Six studies included a comparator group of patients without varices, and the bleeding risk was comparable between patients with and without varices (risk difference 0.26%; 95% CI -0.80%-1.32%; I2=0%, p=0.88). Eight studies had moderate or high risk of bias, and overall level of evidence was low. CONCLUSION TEE appears to be associated with low gastrointestinal bleeding incidence in patients with gastroesophageal varices. Nonetheless, results should be treated with caution due to bias and low level of evidence. Large-scale high-quality studies will be required to confirm the safety of TEE in patients with gastroesophageal varices.
Heart Failure Hospitalization in Adults Receiving Hemodialysis and the Effect of Intravenous Iron Therapy
JACC. Heart failure. 2021
OBJECTIVES The study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients. BACKGROUND Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat. METHODS The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial. RESULTS Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event. CONCLUSION Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).
Haemodialysis patients enrolled in the PIVOTAL trial (n= 2,141).
Intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen (n= 1,093).
Low-dose regimen administered reactively (n= 1,048).
A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group. There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group. Most patients presented with pulmonary oedema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
Standard-volume plasma-exchange improves outcomes in patients with acute liver failure - A Randomized Controlled Trial
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2021
BACKGROUND High volume plasma-exchange (HVPE) improves survival in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), but apprehension regarding volume overload and worsening of cerebral edema remain. METHODS In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 40 consecutive patients of ALF were randomized 1:1 to either standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT with standard-volume plasma-exchange (SVPE). SVPE was performed using centrifugal apheresis [target volume of 1.5 to 2.0 plasma volumes per session] until desired response was achieved. Cerebral edema was assessed by brain imaging. Results were analyzed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Primary outcome was 21-day transplant-free survival. The levels of cytokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and endotoxins were analyzed at baseline and day 5. RESULTS ALF patients [aged 31.5±12.2 years, 60% male, 78% viral, 83% hyperacute, 70% with SIRS were included. At day 5, SVPE [mean sessions 2.15±1.42, median plasma volume replaced 5.049 L] compared to SMT alone, resulted in higher lactate clearance (p=0.02), amelioration of SIRS (84% vs. 26%; P=0.02), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5±96.9) vs.(439±385.6) μg/dl, P=0.02) and SOFA scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8); P=0.001]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival [75% vs. 45%; P=0.04, HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.01-0.88]. A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and DAMPs was seen with SVPE. CONCLUSION In ALF patients with cerebral edema, SVPE is safe and effective and improves survival possibly by a reduction in cytokine storm and ammonia. ClinicalTrial.gov (identifier: NCT02718079).
Efficacy and Cardiovascular Safety of Roxadustat for Treatment of Anemia in Patients with Non-Dialysis-Dependent CKD: Pooled Results of Three Randomized Clinical Trials
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 2021;16(8):1190-1200
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES We evaluated the efficacy and cardiovascular safety of roxadustat versus placebo by analyzing data pooled from three phase 3 studies of roxadustat in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and CKD-related anemia. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS In the three phase 3, double-blind studies of roxadustat versus placebo evaluating the treatment of CKD-related anemia in patients not requiring dialysis, the primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline in hemoglobin averaged over weeks 28-52, regardless of rescue therapy. The primary cardiovascular safety end point was a composite measure of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke). MACE plus (MACE+; MACE plus unstable angina and heart failure requiring hospitalization) and all-cause mortality were key secondary safety end points. These safety end points were adjudicated. RESULTS A total of 4277 patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD were randomized (roxadustat, n=2391; placebo, n=1886). Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups; the mean (SD) hemoglobin was 9.1 (0.7) g/dl and mean eGFR was 20 (12) ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Patients treated with roxadustat versus those treated with placebo showed a mean change from baseline in hemoglobin averaged over weeks 28-52, regardless of rescue therapy, of 1.9 versus 0.2 g/dl, a treatment difference of 1.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.7 to 1.8). Roxadustat reduced the need for red blood cell transfusion in the first 52 weeks versus placebo (6.1 versus 20.4 per 100 patient-exposure years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.32). There were no increased risks of MACE (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.27), MACE+ (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.21), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.26), or individual MACE+ components in patients treated with roxadustat versus those treated with placebo. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat was more effective than placebo at increasing hemoglobin in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and anemia, while decreasing transfusion rate and being noninferior to placebo with respect to risk of MACE. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER A Study of FG-4592 for the Treatment of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not Receiving Dialysis, NCT01750190; Roxadustat in the Treatment of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not Requiring Dialysis (ALPS), NCT01887600; Safety and Efficacy Study of Roxadustat to Treat Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Not on Dialysis, NCT02174627.
Patients with non–dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CKD-related anaemia from the three trials: ALPS, ANDES, and OLYMPUS (n= 4,277).
Roxadustat (n= 2,391).
Placebo (n= 1,886).
Patients treated with roxadustat versus those treated with placebo showed a mean change from baseline in haemoglobin averaged over weeks 28-52, regardless of rescue therapy, of 1.9 versus 0.2 g/dl, a treatment difference of 1.7. Roxadustat reduced the need for red blood cell transfusion in the first 52 weeks versus placebo (6.1 versus 20.4 per 100 patient-exposure years, respectively). There were no increased risks on the measures of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), MACE and unstable angina and heart failure requiring hospitalization (MACE+), all-cause mortality, or individual MACE+ components in patients treated with roxadustat versus those treated with placebo.
A multicentre prospective double blinded randomised controlled trial of intravenous iron (ferric Derisomaltose (FDI)) in Iron deficient but not anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease on functional status
BMC nephrology. 2021;22(1):115
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Intravenous (IV) iron in heart failure leads to improvement in exercise capacity and improvement in quality-of-life measurements; however, data in patients with CKD are lacking. METHODS The Iron and the Heart Study was a prospective double blinded randomised study in non-anaemic CKD stages 3b-5 patients with ID which investigated whether 1000 mg of IV iron (ferric derisomaltose (FDI)) could improve exercise capacity in comparison to placebo measured at 1 and 3 months post infusion. Secondary objectives included effects on haematinic profiles and haemoglobin, safety analysis and quality of life questionnaires (QoL). RESULTS We randomly assigned 54 patients mean (SD) age for FDI (n = 26) 61.6 (10.1) years vs placebo (n = 28; 57.8 (12.9) years) and mean eGFR (33.2 (9.3) vs. 29.1 (9.6) ml/min/1.73m(2)) at baseline, respectively. Adjusting for baseline measurements, six-minute walk test (6MWT) showed no statistically significant difference between arms at 1 month (p = 0.736), or 3 months (p = 0.741). There were non-significant increases in 6MWT from baseline to 1 and 3 months in the FDI arm. Haemoglobin (Hb) at 1 and 3 months remained stable. There were statistically significant increases in ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TSAT) at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001). There was a modest numerical improvement in QoL parameters. There were no adverse events attributable to IV iron. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated a short-term beneficial effect of FDI on exercise capacity, but it was not significant despite improvements in parameters of iron status, maintenance of Hb concentration, and numerical increases in functional capacity and quality of life scores. A larger study will be required to confirm if intravenous iron is beneficial in iron deficient non-anaemic non-dialysis CKD patients without heart failure to improve the 6MWT. TRIAL REGISTRATION European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) No: 2014-004133-16 REC no: 14/YH/1209 Date First Registered: 2015-02-17 and date of end of trail 2015-05-23 Sponsor ref R1766 and Protocol No: IHI 141.