Ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure: a multinational cost-effectiveness analysis utilising AFFIRM-AHF
European journal of heart failure. 2021
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure (HF). In AFFIRM-AHF, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of hospitalisations for HF (HHF) and improved quality of life vs. placebo in iron-deficient patients with a recent episode of acute HF. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of FCM compared with placebo in iron-deficient patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, stabilised after an episode of acute HF, using data from the AFFIRM-AHF trial from Italian, UK, US and Swiss payer perspectives. METHODS AND RESULTS A lifetime Markov model was built to characterise outcomes in patients according to the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Health states were defined using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). Subsequent HHF were incorporated using a negative binomial regression model with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporated via parametric survival analysis. Direct healthcare costs (2020 GBP/USD/EUR/CHF) and utility values were sourced from published literature and AFFIRM-AHF. Modelled outcomes indicated that treatment with FCM was dominant (cost saving with additional health gains) in the UK, USA and Switzerland, and highly cost-effective in Italy [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) EUR 1269 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Results were driven by reduced costs for HHF events combined with QALY gains of 0.43-0.44, attributable to increased time in higher KCCQ states (representing better functional outcomes). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses demonstrated data robustness, with the ICER remaining dominant or highly cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios, including increasing treatment costs and various patient subgroups, despite a moderate increase in costs for de novo HF and smaller QALY gains for ischaemic aetiology. CONCLUSION Ferric carboxymaltose is estimated to be a highly cost-effective treatment across countries (Italy, UK, USA and Switzerland) representing different healthcare systems.
Evaluation of pentoxifylline and ferrous sulfate for treatment of lower limb venous ulcers
Jornal vascular brasileiro. 2021;20:e2020167
BACKGROUND Venous ulcers (VU) are the most advanced stage of chronic venous disease (CVD) of the lower limbs. They are frequently associated with episodes of hemorrhage that can provoke chronic anemia (CA), delaying healing. There are no studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of CA among patients with VU of the lower limbs and few studies have analyzed use of pentoxifylline to treat VU of the lower limbs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of CA in patients with lower limb VU and responses to treatment with ferrous sulfate (SF) compared with a combination of SF plus pentoxifylline as adjuvant treatment for VU of the lower limbs. METHODS A total of 67 patients with lower limb VU were recruited from a Lymphedema and Angiodysplasia Clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas, Recife, PE, Brazil. After initial clinical and laboratory assessments, patients diagnosed with CA were randomized into one of two groups: a control group, given SF (900 mg/day oral route), or a study group, treated with SF (900 mg/day oral route) and pentoxifylline (1,200 mg/day). All were reassessed after 90 days. RESULTS Twenty-seven patients (40%) had CA. After treatment, increases were observed in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, iron kinetics had improved, and both depth and area of VU had reduced in both groups, without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of anemia was detected in the study population. The combination of SF and pentoxifylline was not more effective than SF alone for adjuvant treatment of VU of the lower limbs.
The effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on health-related quality of life in iron-deficient patients with acute heart failure: the results of the AFFIRM-AHF study
European heart journal. 2021
AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency experience poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the impact of intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) vs. placebo on HRQoL for the AFFIRM-AHF population. METHODS AND RESULTS The baseline 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12), which was completed for 1058 (535 and 523) patients in the FCM and placebo groups, respectively, was administered prior to randomization and at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52. The baseline KCCQ-12 overall summary score (OSS) mean ± standard error was 38.7 ± 0.9 (FCM group) and 37.1 ± 0.8 (placebo group); corresponding values for the clinical summary score (CSS) were 40.9 ± 0.9 and 40.1 ± 0.9. At Week 2, changes in OSS and CSS were similar for FCM and placebo. From Week 4 to Week 24, patients assigned to FCM had significantly greater improvements in OSS and CSS scores vs. placebo [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval, CI) at Week 4: 2.9 (0.5-5.3, P = 0.018) for OSS and 2.8 (0.3-5.3, P = 0.029) for CSS; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) at Week 24: 3.0 (0.3-5.6, P = 0.028) for OSS and 2.9 (0.2-5.6, P = 0.035) for CSS]. At Week 52, the treatment effect had attenuated but remained in favour of FCM. CONCLUSION In iron-deficient patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% who had stabilized after an episode of acute HF, treatment with IV FCM, compared with placebo, results in clinically meaningful beneficial effects on HRQoL as early as 4 weeks after treatment initiation, lasting up to Week 24.
Effect of iron supplementation in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of cardiology. Heart & vasculature. 2021;36:100871
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of oral and intravenous iron supplementation in reducing the risk of mortality and hospitalizations in HF patients with iron deficiency is not well-established. METHODS A thorough literature search was conducted across 2 electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane Central) from inception through March 2021. RCTs assessing the impact of iron supplementation on clinical outcomes in iron deficient HF patients were considered for inclusion. Primary end-points included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. Evaluations were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analysis was performed using a random effects model. I(2) index was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS From the 2599 articles retrieved from initial search, 10 potentially relevant studies (n = 2187 patients) were included in the final analysis. Both oral (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.08-11.30; p = 0.951) and intravenous (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73-1.29; p = 0.840) iron supplementation did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality. However, intravenous iron supplementation significantly decreased the rates of overall (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; p = 0.004) and HF (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.80; p = 0.009) hospitalizations. In addition, intravenous ferric carboxymaltose therapy significantly reduced the time to first HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50-1.00; p = 0.048), but had no effect on time to first cardiovascular death (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.70-1.25; p = 0.655). CONCLUSION Oral or intravenous iron supplementation did not reduce mortality in iron deficient HF patients. However, intravenous iron supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in overall and HF hospitalizations.
Supplementation with Iron in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Two Randomized Crossover Trials
Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2021
RATIONALE Iron deficiency, in the absence of anaemia, is common in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by elevated circulating hepcidin levels. The safety and benefit of parenteral iron replacement in this patient population is unclear. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron replacement in pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS In two randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled 12 week crossover studies, 39 patients in Europe received a single infusion of ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject®) 1000 mg (or 15 mg/kg if weight < 66.7Kg) or saline as placebo and 17 patients in China received iron dextran (Cosmofer®) 20 mg iron/kg body weight or saline placebo. All patients had idiopathic or heritable PAH and iron deficiency at entry as defined by: a serum ferritin < 37 µg/l or iron < 10.3 µmol/l or transferrin saturations < 16.4%. RESULTS Both iron treatments were well tolerated and improved iron status. Analysed separately and combined, there was no effect on any measure of exercise capacity (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6 minute walk test) or cardio-pulmonary haemodynamics, as assessed by right heart catheterisation, cardiac magnetic resonance or plasma NT-proBNP, at 12 weeks. CONCLUSION Iron repletion by administration of a slow release iron preparation as a single infusion to PAH patients with iron deficiency without overt anaemia was well tolerated but provided no significant clinical benefit at 12 weeks. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01447628).
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis and Microscopic Polyangiitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Benefits and Harms of Common Treatments
ACR open rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The aim of this systemic review is to compare different treatments for patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) to inform evidence-based recommendations for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/Vasculitis Foundation (VF) Vasculitis Management Guidelines. METHODS A systemic review was conducted by searching articles in English using OVID Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were screened for suitability in addressing PICO questions, with studies presenting the highest level of evidence given preference. RESULTS A total of 729 full-text articles addressing GPA and MPA PICO questions were reviewed. For remission induction, rituximab was shown to be noninferior to cyclophosphamide (CYC) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55, moderate certainty of evidence). The addition of plasma exchange to induction therapy in severe disease did not improve the composite end point of death or end stage renal disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86 [95% confidence interval CI: 0.65, 1.13], moderate certainty of evidence). In nonsevere disease, methotrexate was noninferior to CYC for induction of remission (remission at 6 months of 90% vs. 94%). For maintenance of remission, methotrexate and azathioprine showed no difference in the risk of relapse over a mean follow-up of 29 months (HR: 0.92, [95% CI: 0.52, 1.65]low certainty of evidence). As maintenance therapy, rituximab was superior to a tapering azathioprine strategy in major relapse-free survival at 28 months (HR: 6.61, [95% CI: 1.56, 27.96], moderate certainty of evidence). In two randomized trials, longer-term azathioprine maintenance therapy (>24 months) is associated with fewer relapses without an increase in adverse events. CONCLUSION This comprehensive systematic review synthesizes and evaluates the benefits and toxicities of different treatment options for GPA and MPA.
Iron deficiency for prognosis in acute coronary syndrome - A systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of cardiology. 2020
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) is an important predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, however it is unclear whether ID also affects prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prognostic value of iron deficiency in patients with ACS. METHODS We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library and included cohort studies of patients with ACS that were stratified by ID status. There were no restrictions on definition of ACS or ID. Studies were systematically appraised and data extracted by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed where two or more studies reported on the same pre-determined outcome measure. RESULTS Seven studies with 2821 participants were identified, reporting a high prevalence of ID in the ACS population. Three studies reported worse long-term outcomes in the ID population, whereas short-term outcomes were heterogeneous across studies. CONCLUSIONS Patients with ID presenting with ACS may have a worse long-term prognosis but more studies are required for confirmation. A role for ID in prognosis of patients with ACS and as a potentially treatable condition may have implication for the current management of this patient population.
Ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency at discharge after acute heart failure: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial
Lancet (London, England). 2020
BACKGROUND Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING Vifor Pharma.
Meta-Analysis of Bleeding Scores Performance for Acute Coronary Syndrome
Heart Lung Circ. 2020
BACKGROUND Bleeding is a common and frequently devastating complication in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). It is critical to evaluate in the current era of ACS management involving invasive strategies and potent anti-thrombotics. Risk models remain under-utilised in this setting but may guide the choice and duration of therapy. We compared their performances for predicting bleeding in ACS patients in this meta-analysis. METHODS Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and Scopus were searched for relevant articles from 1980 to 31 December 2017 assessing external validation of risk scores for bleeding after ACS. Two (2) authors independently reviewed the searched studies for eligibility, followed by pooled analyses using random effects models. RESULTS Amongst 1,843 articles searched, 73 full-texts were reviewed and 17 studies totalling 18,155 patients were included for analysis. C-statistics (95% confidence interval) for predicting in-hospital major bleeding by risk model were Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines (CRUSADE) 0.714 (0.659-0.779), Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY (ACUITY) 0.711 (0.626-0.797), Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network (ACTION) 0.767 (0.737-0.797), Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) 0.689 (0.473-0.905) and HAS-BLED 0.636 (0.460-0.812). CRUSADE also predicted bleeding during medium-term follow-up c=0.704 (0.644-0.765). It performed better for radial versus femoral access (c=0.826 and 0.734), invasive versus non-invasive strategy (c=0.752 and 0.625) and similarly for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (c=0.791 and 0.760). Heterogeneities of studies and paucity of studies assessing risk scores beyond CRUSADE were important limitations. CONCLUSIONS Acute coronary syndrome-specific bleeding scores had moderate discrimination for bleeding, while the GRACE and HAS-BLED scores could not. The ACTION score had the highest pooled c-statistic, while the CRUSADE score was the most widely studied, and also performed better for invasive strategy and radial access subgroups.
Ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron-deficient heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ESC heart failure. 2020;7(6):3392-3400
AIMS: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been shown to improve functional capacity and quality of life in iron deficient heart failure patients. However, FCM's effect on hospitalizations and mortality remains unclear as previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and their meta-analyses have been underpowered to detect significant differences. We sought to conduct an updated meta-analysis using recently published RCT data. METHODS AND RESULTS Online databases were searched from inception until November 2020 for RCTs evaluating the effects of FCM on clinical outcomes in iron-deficient heart failure patients. Outcomes of interest included heart failure hospitalizations, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed-effect model and estimates were reported as odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios, or rate ratios (RRs) along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 1947 patients (n = 1062 in the FCM group; n = 885 in the placebo group) were included. FCM, compared with placebo, significantly reduced the risk of the composite endpoint of time to first heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death (hazard ratio = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.63-0.90; I(2) = 55%). FCM also significantly reduced the risk of recurrent heart failure hospitalizations (RR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.54-0.85; I(2) = 71%) and recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations (RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.59-0.86; I(2) = 56%). However, FCM had no significant effect on the risk of all-cause (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.73-1.28; I(2) = 0%) or cardiovascular mortality (OR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.69-1.27; I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSIONS Ferric carboxymaltose reduces heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular hospitalizations with no beneficial effect on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in iron-deficient heart failure patients. These findings reinforce the role of FCM as a therapeutic option in heart failure patients.