Evaluating the costs and consequences of computerized clinical decision support systems in hospitals: a scoping review and recommendations for future practice
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2023
OBJECTIVE Sustainable investment in computerized decision support systems (CDSS) requires robust evaluation of their economic impacts compared with current clinical workflows. We reviewed current approaches used to evaluate the costs and consequences of CDSS in hospital settings and presented recommendations to improve the generalizability of future evaluations. MATERIALS AND METHODS A scoping review of peer-reviewed research articles published since 2010. Searches were completed in the PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases (last searched February 14, 2023). All studies reported the costs and consequences of a CDSS-based intervention compared with current hospital workflows. Findings were summarized using narrative synthesis. Individual studies were further appraised against the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation and Reporting (CHEERS) 2022 checklist. RESULTS Twenty-nine studies published since 2010 were included. Studies evaluated CDSS for adverse event surveillance (5 studies), antimicrobial stewardship (4 studies), blood product management (8 studies), laboratory testing (7 studies), and medication safety (5 studies). All studies evaluated costs from a hospital perspective but varied based on the valuation of resources affected by CDSS implementation, and the measurement of consequences. We recommend future studies follow guidance from the CHEERS checklist; use study designs that adjust for confounders; consider both the costs of CDSS implementation and adherence; evaluate consequences that are directly or indirectly affected by CDSS-initiated behavior change; examine the impacts of uncertainty and differences in outcomes across patient subgroups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Improving consistency in the conduct and reporting of evaluations will enable detailed comparisons between promising initiatives, and their subsequent uptake by decision-makers.
Patients in hospital settings – including those receiving inpatient, emergency, or ambulatory care (29 studies).
Computerized decision support systems (CDSS) based intervention.
Current hospital workflows.
Studies evaluated CDSS for adverse event surveillance (5 studies), antimicrobial stewardship (4 studies), blood product management (8 studies), laboratory testing (7 studies), and medication safety (5 studies). All studies evaluated costs from a hospital perspective but varied based on the valuation of resources affected by CDSS implementation, and the measurement of consequences.
Systematic Review of Artificial Intelligence for Abnormality Detection in High-volume Neuroimaging and Subgroup Meta-analysis for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection
Clinical neuroradiology. 2023;:1-14
PURPOSE Most studies evaluating artificial intelligence (AI) models that detect abnormalities in neuroimaging are either tested on unrepresentative patient cohorts or are insufficiently well-validated, leading to poor generalisability to real-world tasks. The aim was to determine the diagnostic test accuracy and summarise the evidence supporting the use of AI models performing first-line, high-volume neuroimaging tasks. METHODS Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and Web of Science were searched until September 2021 for studies that temporally or externally validated AI capable of detecting abnormalities in first-line computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) neuroimaging. A bivariate random effects model was used for meta-analysis where appropriate. This study was registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021269563. RESULTS Out of 42,870 records screened, and 5734 potentially eligible full texts, only 16 studies were eligible for inclusion. Included studies were not compromised by unrepresentative datasets or inadequate validation methodology. Direct comparison with radiologists was available in 4/16 studies and 15/16 had a high risk of bias. Meta-analysis was only suitable for intracranial hemorrhage detection in CT imaging (10/16 studies), where AI systems had a pooled sensitivity and specificity 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.94) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.95), respectively. Other AI studies using CT and MRI detected target conditions other than hemorrhage (2/16), or multiple target conditions (4/16). Only 3/16 studies implemented AI in clinical pathways, either for pre-read triage or as post-read discrepancy identifiers. CONCLUSION The paucity of eligible studies reflects that most abnormality detection AI studies were not adequately validated in representative clinical cohorts. The few studies describing how abnormality detection AI could impact patients and clinicians did not explore the full ramifications of clinical implementation.
A systematic review on viscoelastic testing in subarachnoid haemorrhage patients
World Neurosurgery. 2023
OBJECTIVES Bleeding and thromboembolic complications frequently occur following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and substantially contribute to poor outcome. Viscoelastic testing could be used for detection of coagulopathies following SAH. This review summarizes literature on the utility of viscoelastic testing to detect coagulopathy in SAH patients and explores whether viscoelastic parameters are associated with SAH-related complications and clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS PUBMED, EMBASE and Google Scholar were systematically searched on August 18(th), 2022. Two authors independently selected studies which performed viscoelastic testing in SAH patients and assessed the quality of studies using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale or a previously published framework for quality assessment. Data was meta-analysed if methodologically possible. RESULTS The search yielded 19 studies (1160 SAH patients). Pooling of data including all relevant studies was not possible for any of the outcome measurements due to methodological differences. Thirteen of 19 studies evaluated the association of coagulation profiles and SAH, of which 11 studies showed a hypercoagulable profile. Rebleeding was associated with platelet dysfunction, deep venous thrombosis was associated with faster clot initiation and both delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome were associated with increased clot strength. CONCLUSIONS This explorative review shows that SAH patients frequently have a hypercoagulable profile. TEG- and ROTEM-parameters are associated with rebleeding, delayed cerebral ischemia, deep venous thrombosis and poor clinical outcome after SAH, however more research on the subject is needed. Future studies should focus on determining the optimal time frame and cut-off values for TEG or ROTEM to predict these complications.
Role of Oral Iron Supplementation for Anemia Secondary to Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIM Although acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) can lead to anemia, evidence regarding the effects of oral iron supplementation on UGIB-induced anemia following discharge remains lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral iron supplementation on hemoglobin response and iron storage in patients with anemia secondary to nonvariceal UGIB. METHODS This randomized controlled trial included 151 patients with nonvariceal UGIB who had anemia at discharge. Patients were assigned to a 1:1 block in which they were either administered 6 weeks of 600 mg/d oral ferrous fumarate (treatment group, n=77) or treated without iron supplementation (control group, n=74). The primary outcome was composite hemoglobin response (hemoglobin elevation greater than 2 g/dL or no anemia at the end of treatment [EOT]). RESULTS The proportion of patients achieving composite hemoglobin response was greater in the treatment group than in the control group (72.7% vs. 45.9%; adjusted risk ratio [RR], 2.980; p=0.004). At EOT, the percentage change in the hemoglobin level (34.2 ± 24.8 % vs. 19.4 ± 19.9 %; adjusted coefficient, 11.543; p<0.001) was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group; however, the proportions of patients with a serum ferritin level <30 μg/L and a transferrin saturation <16% were lower in the treatment group (all p<0.05). No significant differences in treatment-associated adverse effects and adherence rates were observed between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Oral iron supplementation exerts beneficial effects on anemia and iron storage following nonvariceal UGIB without significantly impacting rates of adverse effects or adherence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION TCTR20190225002.
Patients with anaemia secondary to nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (n= 151).
Six weeks of 600 mg/d oral ferrous fumarate (treatment group, n= 77).
No iron supplementation (control group, n= 74).
The proportion of patients achieving composite haemoglobin response was greater in the treatment group than in the control group (72.7% vs. 45.9%; adjusted risk ratio [RR], 2.980). At end of treatment, the percentage change in the haemoglobin level (34.2 ± 24.8 % vs. 19.4 ± 19.9 %; adjusted coefficient, 11.543) was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group; however, the proportions of patients with a serum ferritin level <30 μg/L and a transferrin saturation <16% were lower in the treatment group. No significant differences in treatment-associated adverse effects and adherence rates were observed between the groups.
Effects of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors versus erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on iron metabolism and inflammation in patients undergoing dialysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) on iron metabolism and inflammation in dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (DD-CKD) patients. METHODS PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov websites were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating HIF-PHIs versus ESAs for DD-CKD patients. KEY FINDINGS Twenty studies with 14,737 participants were included in the meta-analysis, which demonstrated no significant difference in the effect of transferrin saturation and ferritin between HIF-PHIs and the ESAs group (MD, 0.65; 95%CI, -0.45 to 1.75; very low certainty; SMD, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.07; low certainty). However, HIF-PHIs significantly increased the iron (MD, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.40 to 3.20; low certainty), total iron-binding capacity (SMD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.98; low certainty), and transferrin (SMD, 0.90; 95%CI, 0.74 to 1.05; moderate certainty) levels when compared with the ESAs group. In contrast, the hepcidin level and dosage of intravenous iron were significantly decreased in the HIF-PHIs group compared with the ESAs group (MD, -15.06, 95%CI, -21.96 to -8.16; low certainty; MD, -18.07; 95% CI, -30.05 to -6.09; low certainty). The maintenance dose requirements of roxadustat were independent of baseline CRP or hsCRP levels with respect to the effect on inflammation. SIGNIFICANCE HIF-PHIs promote iron utilization and reduce the use of intravenous iron therapy. Furthermore, HIF-PHIs, such as roxadustat, maintain the erythropoietic response independent of the inflammatory state. Thus, HIF-PHIs may be an alternative treatment strategy for anemia in DD-CKD patients, where ESA is hyporesponsive due to iron deficiency and inflammation.
Viscoelastic Testing in the Clinical Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2022
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are both debilitating and life-threatening incidents calling for immediate action and treatment. This review focuses on the applicability of viscoelastic testing (rotational thromboelastometry or thromboelastography [TEG]) in the management of SAH and ICH. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. Studies including patients with SAH or ICH, in which viscoelastic testing was performed, were identified. In total, 24 studies were included for analysis, and further subdivided into studies on SAH patients investigated prior to stenting or coiling (n = 12), ICH patients (n = 8) and studies testing patients undergoing stenting or coiling, or ischemic stroke patients undergoing thrombolysis or thrombectomy and developing ICH as a complication (n = 5). SAH patients had increased clot firmness, and this was associated with a higher degree of early brain injury and higher Hunt-Hess score. SAH patients with delayed cerebral ischemia had higher clot firmness than patients not developing delayed cerebral ischemia. ICH patients showed accelerated clot formation and increased clot firmness in comparison to healthy controls. Patients with hematoma expansion had longer clot initiation and lower platelet aggregation than patients with no hematoma expansion. During stent procedures for SAH, adjustment of antiplatelet therapy according to TEG platelet mapping did not change prevalence of major bleeding, thromboembolic events, or functional outcome. Viscoelastic testing prior to thrombolysis showed conflicting results in predicting ICH as complication. In conclusion, viscoelastic testing suggests hypercoagulation following SAH and ICH. Further investigation of the predictive value of increased clot firmness in SAH seems relevant. In ICH, the prediction of hematoma expansion and ICH as a complication to thrombolysis might be clinically relevant.
Perihematomal Edema and Clinical Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2022
BACKGROUND Perihematomal edema (PHE) has been proposed as a radiological marker of secondary injury and therapeutic target in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prognostic impact of PHE on functional outcome and mortality in patients with ICH. METHODS We searched major databases through December 2020 using predefined keywords. Any study using logistic regression to examine the association between PHE or its growth and functional outcome was included. We examined the overall pooled effect and conducted secondary analyses to explore the impact of individual PHE measures on various outcomes separately. Study quality was assessed by three independent raters using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (per 1-unit increase in PHE) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were log transformed and entered into a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates of the effect. RESULTS Twenty studies (n = 6633 patients) were included in the analysis. The pooled effect size for overall outcome was 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.08; p < 0.00). For the following secondary analyses, the effect size was weak: mortality (1.01; 95% CI 0.90-1.14), functional outcome (1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07), both 90-day (1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.11), and in-hospital assessments (1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08). The effect sizes for PHE volume and PHE growth were 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.25), respectively. Heterogeneity across studies was substantial except for PHE growth. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrates that PHE volume within the first 72 h after ictus has a weak effect on functional outcome and mortality after ICH, whereas PHE growth might have a slightly larger impact during this time frame. Definitive conclusions are limited by the large variability of PHE measures, heterogeneity, and different evaluation time points between studies.
Accuracy of artificial intelligence for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage and chronic cerebral microbleeds: a systematic review and pooled analysis
La Radiologia medica. 2022
BACKGROUND Artificial intelligence (AI)-driven software has been developed and become commercially available within the past few years for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and chronic cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). However, there is currently no systematic review that summarizes all of these tools or provides pooled estimates of their performance. METHODS In this PROSPERO-registered, PRISMA compliant systematic review, we sought to compile and review all MEDLINE and EMBASE published studies that have developed and/or tested AI algorithms for ICH detection on non-contrast CT scans (NCCTs) or MRI scans and CMBs detection on MRI scans. RESULTS In total, 40 studies described AI algorithms for ICH detection in NCCTs/MRIs and 19 for CMBs detection in MRIs. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 92.06%, 93.54%, and 93.46%, respectively, for ICH detection and 91.6%, 93.9%, and 92.7% for CMBs detection. Some of the challenges encountered in the development of these algorithms include the laborious work of creating large, labeled and balanced datasets, the volumetric nature of the imaging examinations, the fine tuning of the algorithms, and the reduction in false positives. CONCLUSIONS Numerous AI-driven software tools have been developed over the last decade. On average, they are characterized by high performance and expert-level accuracy for the diagnosis of ICH and CMBs. As a result, implementing these tools in clinical practice may improve workflow and act as a failsafe for the detection of such lesions. REGISTRATION-URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ Unique Identifier: CRD42021246848.
Can Artificial Intelligence Be Applied to Diagnose Intracerebral Hemorrhage under the Background of the Fourth Industrial Revolution? A Novel Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
International journal of clinical practice. 2022;2022:9430097
AIM: We intended to provide the clinical evidence that artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to assist doctors in the diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS Studies published in 2021 were identified after the literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used to perform the quality assessment of studies. Data extraction of diagnosis effect included accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under curve (AUC), and Dice scores (Dices). The pooled effect with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated by the random effects model. I-Square (I (2)) was used to test heterogeneity. To check the stability of the overall results, sensitivity analysis was conducted by recalculating the pooled effect of the remaining studies after omitting the study with the highest quality or the random effects model was switched to the fixed effects model. Funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias. To reduce heterogeneity, recalculating the pooled effect of the remaining studies after omitting the study with the lowest quality or perform subgroup analysis. RESULTS Twenty-five diagnostic tests of ICH via AI and doctors with overall high quality were included. Pooled ACC, SEN, SPE, PPV, NPV, AUC, and Dices were 0.88 (0.83∼0.93), 0.85 (0.81∼0.89), 0.90 (0.88∼0.92), 0.80 (0.75∼0.85), 0.93 (0.91∼0.95), 0.84 (0.80∼0.89), and 0.90 (0.85∼0.95), respectively. There was no publication bias. All of results were stable as revealed by sensitivity analysis and were accordant as outcomes via subgroups analysis. CONCLUSION Under the background of the fourth industrial revolution, AI might be an effective and efficient tool to assist doctors in the clinical diagnosis of ICH.
A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.