Perioperative intravenous iron to treat patients with fractured hip surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Health science reports. 2022;5(3):e633
BACKGROUND Treatment of preoperative anemia with intravenous iron is common within elective surgical care pathways. It is plausible that this treatment may improve care for people with hip fractures many of whom are anemic because of pre-existing conditions, fractures, and surgery. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for intravenous iron administration on outcomes after hip fracture. DESIGN We followed a predefined protocol and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of intravenous iron to treat anemia before and after emergency hip fracture surgery. The planned primary outcome was a difference in length of stay between those treated with intravenous iron and the control group. Other outcomes analyzed were 30-day mortality, requirement for blood transfusion, changes in quality of life, and hemoglobin concentration on discharge from the hospital. DATA SOURCES EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, DARE) databases, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISRCTN trial registries. Date of final search March 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Adult patients undergoing urgent surgery for hip fracture. Studies considered patients who received intravenous iron and were compared with a control group. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials (RCT, 732 patients) and nine cohort studies (2986 patients) were included. The RCTs were at low risk of bias, and the nonrandomized studies were at moderate risk of bias. After metanalysis of the RCTs there was no significant difference in the primary outcome, length of hospital stay, between the control group and patients receiving intravenous iron (mean difference: -0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]; -1.20 to 0.03; I (2) = 30%, p = 0.23). Intravenous iron was not associated with a difference in 30-day mortality (n = 732, OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.62-2.1; I (2) = 0%, p = 0.50), nor with the requirement for transfusion (n = 732, OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1.14; I (2) = 0%, p < 0.01) in the analyzed RCTs. Functional outcomes and quality of life were variably reported in three studies. CONCLUSION The evidence on the use of intravenous iron in patients with hip fracture is low quality and shows no difference in length of acute hospital stay and transfusion requirements in this population. Improved large, multicentre, high-quality studies with patient-centered outcomes will be required to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this treatment.
Does the intramedullary femoral canal plug reduce blood loss during total knee arthroplasty?
Knee surgery & related research. 2022;34(1):31
INTRODUCTION The benefit of the femoral canal bone plug during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in reducing blood loss has never been proven. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether the femoral canal bone plug significantly reduces blood loss in primary TKA. METHOD All studies published before December 2021 were searched. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing blood loss between TKA with plugged and unplugged femoral intramedullary canal, respectively. The primary outcome was postoperative hemoglobin reduction. RESULTS Five studies with a total of 717 patients (361 in the plugged group, 356 in the unplugged group) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in hemoglobin level between the two groups was 0.92 g/dL, with significantly less hemoglobin reduction in the plugged group (95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.64 to - 0.21, p = 0.01). The patients in the plugged group also had a significantly lower risk of receiving a blood transfusion (risk ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.73, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrates that using a femoral canal bone plug can significantly reduce blood loss and lower the risk ratio of blood transfusion in patients undergoing TKA.
Intraoperative and Postoperative Iron Supplementation in Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2021
INTRODUCTION Postoperative anemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our primary objective was Postoperative anemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our primary objective was to determine whether perioperative iron supplementation improves postoperative hemoglobin levels in TJA. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects of perioperative iron on adverse events, quality of life, and functional measures in TJA. METHODS We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using six databases. We included English-language, randomized controlled trials investigating intraoperative or postoperative iron supplementation in elective TJA that reported postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients aged 18 years or older. Seven eligible studies were identified, among which substantial heterogeneity was noted. Bias risk was low in four studies, unclear in two studies, and high in one study. Three studies assessed oral iron supplementation, three assessed intravenous iron supplementation, and one compared oral and intravenous iron supplementation. All intravenous iron was administered intraoperatively, except in the oral versus intravenous comparison. RESULTS Postoperative oral iron supplementation had no effect on postoperative hemoglobin levels. Intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation was associated with higher postoperative hemoglobin levels and greater increases in hemoglobin levels. Two studies reported rates of anemia and found that intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation reduced rates of postoperative anemia at postoperative day 30. No adverse events were associated with iron supplementation. One study found that intravenous iron improved quality of life in TJA patients with severe postoperative anemia compared with those treated with oral iron. Perioperative iron had no effects on functional outcomes. DISCUSSION We found no evidence that postoperative oral iron supplementation improves hemoglobin levels, quality of life, or functional outcomes in elective TJA patients. However, intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation may accelerate recovery of hemoglobin levels in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Association of iron supplementation with risk of transfusion, hospital length of stay, and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgeries: a meta-analysis
European geriatric medicine. 2021;12(1):5-15
AIMS: To assess the efficacy and safety of iron supplementation for perioperative anemia in geriatric patients with hip fracture. METHODS A systematic search was conducted for studies published using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Databases that compared iron supplementation with placebo in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The outcomes were blood transfusion rate and volume, length of stay, infection and mortality (last follow-up). Sub-group and sensitivity analyses were performed in cases of substantial heterogeneity. RESULTS The meta-analysis (6 studies: 1201 patients) indicated that iron supplements were not associated with reducing blood transfusion rate (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.60-1.41; P = 0.69), but high heterogeneity (I(2) = 61%) was detected and a significant association was found in sensitivity analysis of four studies (n = 637; OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.95; P = 0.02). A significant reduction was detected in transfusion volume (two studies: n = 234; MD - 0.45 units/patient, 95% CI - 0.74 to - 0.16; P = 0.002), hospital stay (five studies: n = 998; MD - 1.42, 95% CI - 2.18 to - 0.67; P = 0.0002) and caused no increased risk of mortality (five studies: n = 937; OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36; P = 0.76) and infection (four studies: n = 701; OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.90; P = 0.01). Sub-group analyses of four studies showed that the preoperative intravenous use of iron at 200-300 mg (two studies) may be the beneficial option for hip fractures patients. CONCLUSIONS Iron supplementation, especially preoperative intravenous use of 200-300 mg iron, is safe and associated with reducing transfusion requirement and hospital stay. Unfortunately, data were too limited to draw a definite conclusion. Further evaluation is required before recommending iron supplementation for older patients with hip fracture surgeries.
Spine Surgery and Preoperative Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and Hemoglobin A1c: A Systematic Review
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568220979821
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. OBJECTIVES Synthesize previous studies evaluating clinical utility of preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c in patients undergoing common spinal procedures: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar decompression (LD). METHODS We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for literature on preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c and post-operative outcomes in adult patients undergoing ACDF, PCF, PLF, or LD surgeries. RESULTS Total of 4,307 publications were assessed. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. PCF AND ACDF Decreased preoperative Hb/Hct were significant predictors of increased postoperative morbidity, including return to operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusions, and increased length of stay (LOS). For increased HbA1c, there was significant increase in risk of postoperative infection and cost of hospital stay. PLF: Decreased Hb/Hct was reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events, blood transfusion, and increased LOS. Elevated HbA1c was associated with increased risk of infection as well as higher visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. LD: LOS and total episode of care cost were increased in patients with preoperative HbA1c elevation. CONCLUSION In adult patients undergoing spine surgery, preoperative Hb/Hct are clinically useful predictors for postoperative complications, transfusion rates, and LOS, and HbA1c is predictive for postoperative infection and functional outcomes. Using Hct values <35-38% and HbA1c >6.5%-6.9% for identifying patients at higher risk of postoperative complications is most supported by the literature. We recommend obtaining these labs as part of routine pre-operative risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.
Liberal blood transfusion strategies and associated infection in orthopedic patients: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.
Methods of Quantifying Intraoperative Blood Loss in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery: A Systematic Review
Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 2021
OBJECTIVES To collect and present recently published methods of quantifying blood loss in orthopaedic trauma. DATA SOURCES A systematic review of English-language literature in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines on articles describing methods of determining blood loss in orthopaedic trauma published since 2010. STUDY SELECTION English, full-text, peer-reviewed articles documenting intraoperative blood loss in an adult patient population undergoing orthopaedic trauma surgery were eligible for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION Two authors independently extracted data from included studies. Articles were assessed for quality and risk of bias using Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and ROBINS-I. DATA SYNTHESIS The included studies proved to be heterogeneous in nature with insufficient data to make data pooling and analysis feasible. CONCLUSIONS Eleven methods were identified: 6 unique formulas with multiple variations, changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, measured suction volume and weighed surgical gauze, transfusion quantification, cell salvage volumes, and hematoma evacuation frequency. Formulas included those of Gross, Mercuriali, Lisander, Sehat, Foss, and Stahl, with Gross being the most common (25%). All formulas used blood volume estimation, determined by equations from Nadler (94%) or Moore (6%), and measure change in pre- and post-operative blood counts. This systematic review highlights the variability in blood loss estimation methods published in current orthopaedic trauma literature. Methods of quantifying blood loss should be taken into consideration when designing and evaluating research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Use of preoperative erythropoietin therapy to facilitate autologous blood donation in orthopedic surgery: A meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Autologous blood transfusion helps to avoid or reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing major surgery. We examined the value of erythropoietin therapy to support preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis, Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched from October 26th, 1989 until September 30th, 2017. Primary outcomes were percentages of patients able to donate ≥4 units of blood for autologous transfusion, amount of allogeneic blood transfused, changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels from before PABD to immediately before surgery, and adverse events. RESULTS Of 256 studies identified, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 1914 patients (mean age 51-69 years), of whom 1153 were treated with erythropoietin. Erythropoietin was associated with a greater percentage of patients able to donate ≥4 units of blood for autologous use compared to controls (OR = 6.00, 95% CI = 3.97 to 9.09, P < .001). Patients receiving preoperative erythropoietin had significantly less of a reduction in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels from before PABD to immediately before surgery compared with controls (hematocrit: mean differences = -1.438, 95% CI = -2.14 to -0.73, P < .001; hemoglobin: mean differences = -1.426, 95% CI = -1.78 to -1.07, P < .001). No significant differences were observed in the amount of allogenic blood transfused between patients receiving erythropoietin and controls (difference in means = -0.220, 95% CI = -0.536 to 0.097, P = .174). Patients who received erythropoietin were less likely to experience dizziness than controls, but the incidence of nausea or fatigue were similar between groups. CONCLUSION Erythropoietin therapy during the PABD period results in less of a reduction in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and an increase in the percentage of patients able to donate blood preoperatively.
Effectiveness of iron supplementation in the perioperative management of total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review
Knee surgery & related research. 2020;32(1):44
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation during total knee arthroplasty (TKA): (1) Is the iron supplementation necessary during TKA? (2) When is the optimal timing of iron supplementation? (3) Which is better, between orally and intravenously administered iron supplementation? And (4) What is the optimal dose of iron supplementation? MATERIALS AND METHODS A rigorous and systematic approach was used and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality. Data about study design, total number of cases enrolled, iron administration method, timing, and dose were extracted. Change in hemoglobin and transfusion rates were extracted to evaluate the effectiveness of iron supplementation. RESULTS Eleven studies were included in the final analysis. Most of studies reported that hemoglobin change between iron and control group did not show any difference. Only one study reported that iron supplementation could reduce the decrease in hemoglobin. However, transfusion rate showed a decrease in the iron supplementation group compared with the control group. There was no clear consensus on the optimum timing and dose of iron supplementation and intravenously administered iron was more effective than orally administered iron, especially in anemic patients. CONCLUSION Iron supplementation is not clear as a way to raise hemoglobin levels after TKA, but an effective treatment for lowering transfusion rate, especially in patients with anemia. We could not determine the optimal timing and dose of the iron. Intravenously administered iron was similar to, or better than, orally administered iron for improving hemoglobin levels and transfusion rate.
Preoperative Anemia Treatment With Intravenous Iron in Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery: A Systematic Review
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil. 2020;11:2151459320935094
Introduction: Based upon the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, iron deficiency anemia is the cause of at least 20% of cases of anemia in adults over the age of 65. This is especially relevant in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery as substantial perioperative blood loss is possible, leading to a high rate of allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip replacements, total knee replacements, and hip fracture repairs. Significance: The results of this systematic review may be of interest to clinicians and hospital administrators evaluating the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of intravenous (IV) iron administration prior to major orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: The original studies considered for this review included patients who were over 18 years of age, undergoing major orthopedic surgery, and who received an IV iron treatment in the preoperative setting. A total of 1083 articles were identified and reviewed. After removing duplicates, 1031 publications were screened, and 105 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility. A total of 98 were excluded and 7 articles remained which met the criteria for this review. The primary outcome examined in the included studies was the allogeneic blood transfusion rate. The secondary areas of interest were changes in serum hemoglobin, morbidity and mortality, length of stay, and cost effectiveness. Results: This systematic review found little evidence that IV iron therapy is effective at reducing transfusion in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Conclusions: We do not recommend preoperative IV iron therapy for all patients scheduled for major orthopedic surgery.