Sero-epidemiology and associated factors of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):778
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) remain a major public health problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, comprehensive information about sero-epidemiology of major TTIs is lacking at the national level. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at providing the pooled estimate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS Relevant studies published until May 31, 2019 were searched through PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, HINARI, Cochrane database library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Google. The methodological quality of articles was assessed using Joanna Brigg's Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence and analytical studies. The pooled sero-epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were determined using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using the I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's statistics. RESULTS A total of 7921 articles were retrieved, and 7798 were screened for eligibility after duplicates removed. Forty-nine full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; of which 45 were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis: categorized as 36, 34, 31 and 23 studies for estimations of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis, respectively. In the random-effects model, the pooled sero-epidemiology of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis was 5.20, 2.83, 0.93 and 1.50%, respectively. Moreover, being a male blood donor was significantly associated with HBV and syphilis infection, whereas being a replacement blood donor was significantly associated with a high burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. CONCLUSION The pooled sero-epidemiology of major TTIs among blood donors was high. Therefore, there is a need to design prevention and control strategies in a comprehensive approach to reduce the burden.
ABO blood groups and risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Reviews in medical virology. 2021;:e2298
The last few decades have seen a pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. ABO blood groups are anthropological and genetic characteristics of a population whose associations with HIV infection are still controversial. This systematic review with meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate whether certain blood groups may have associations with HIV infection. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were systematically searched as of 6 September 2021. Grey literature was identified through screening Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant studies. All observational studies providing data on ABO blood group distribution among HIV-infected and uninfected participants were included. Using a random effect model, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to quantify this relationship. Fifty eligible studies with a total of 3,068,244 participants and 6508 HIV-infected cases were included. The overall analysis found that blood group AB increased the risk of HIV infection by 19% as compared with non-AB blood groups (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.39, p = 0.02). Pooled estimates for other blood groups failed to reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses identified a positive relationship between AB blood group and HIV infection within Asia, patient populations (as opposed to blood donors and general populations), studies with lower sample sizes, high-income countries and studies with a moderate quality score. The sequential omission and re-analysis of studies within sensitivity analyses produced no change in the overall pooled effect. In conclusion, this study identified that blood group AB carriers were more susceptible to HIV infection. Future investigations should be directed toward clarification of the exact role of ABO blood groups in HIV infection and the possible underlying mechanisms.
The Order of Draw during Blood Collection: A Systematic Literature Review
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(4)
Blood collection is one of the most common nursing procedures and is not devoid of complications. The order of draw during blood collection is a controversial theme. We aimed to define the efficacy of the order of draw during blood collection to guarantee an exact biochemical result. We carried out a systematic literature review on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Articles written in English and published from 2000 to 2020 were considered suitable. The analysis of the 11 articles included highlighted different opinions; however, the most recent evidence declares that the cross-contamination caused by the incorrect order of draw is a trait only in the open system of drawing. The most recent evidence affirms the negligible effect of the order of draw during blood collection when using the closed blood collection system, while it is recommended when using the open collection system.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):131
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P < 0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.
Prevalence of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses in blood donors: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion centres should understand the epidemiology of emerging diseases that are transmissible through the transfusion of blood components. The risk of transmission of arboviruses through this route has become apparent in recent years. The aim of our study is to summarise the reported prevalence (viraemic rate, seroprevalence and/or antigen detection) of Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in blood donors according to screening test used and world region. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis having searched for information in the main bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus). The prevalence for each of the viruses was calculated according to the screening test used and geographic location. RESULTS We included 18 records on CHIKV, 71 on DENV, and 27 on ZIKV. The highest prevalences of RNA for CHIKV were 1.9% in Puerto Rico (2014), 1.0% in Thailand (2009), and 1.0% in French Polynesia (2014-15). The highest prevalences of RNA for DENV were 5.5% in Saudi Arabia (2015-16), 2.3% in Madeira, Portugal (2012-13), and 0.6% in Brazil (2012). The highest prevalences of RNA for ZIKV were 2.8% in French Polynesia (2013-14), 2.7% in Brazil (2015-16), and 1.8% in Martinique (2016). Overall seroprevalence, as assessed by IgG antibodies, was 21.6% for CHIKV, 24.0% for DENV, and 5.1% for ZIKV. DISCUSSION Our study shows a high proportion of donors who are viraemic and asymptomatic, especially during outbreaks, with prevalences surpassing 5% for DENV, 1% for CHIKV, and 2% for ZIKV. These data confirm a clear threat to blood transfusion safety. The elevated seroprevalence for these three arboviruses is also indicative of their wide circulation in populations, correlating with an increased risk of infected but asymptomatic donors. Health centres and institutions must address this threat, especially in tropical regions where the biggest outbreaks occur.
Prevalence of positivity to antibodies to hepatitis C virus among volunteer blood donors in China: a meta-analysis
Public health. 2021;199:87-95
OBJECTIVES Safe blood transfusion plays an important role in the prevention of transfusion-transmissible infections, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major problems associated with this procedure. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Chinese blood donors. STUDY DESIGN The study design of this study is a meta-analysis. METHODS Eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database and Wanfang literature databases from 2010 to 2020. The effect measure was presented as HCV prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Q test was used to assess the heterogeneity, and the I(2) statistics was determined to decide whether a random effects model or a fixed effects model should be used as the pooling method. Subgroup analyses were also conducted. RESULTS A total of 62 eligible studies, including 9,007,220 HCV blood donors, were analysed. Of the total blood donors, 35,017 were infected with HCV. The pooled HCV prevalence was 0.415% (95% CI: 0.371-0.458). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV antibodies was significantly different in each year (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in HCV prevalence in terms of sex. Moreover, the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV was remarkably higher in first-time blood donors than in repeat blood donors (P < 0.05), and the rate of HCV infection among university students was significantly lower than that among soldiers (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The rate of HCV infection showed a downward trend from 2010 to 2014, increased in 2015-2016, and finally decreased in 2017-2018. Thus, the prevalence of HCV infection has decreased in Chinese blood donors after comprehensive prevention and treatment.
Seroprevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus infection in blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Arch Virol. 2020
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted during blood donation. This study estimated the pooled prevalence of hepatitis B and associated risk factors in blood donors in Ethiopia. The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. PubMed, African Journals Online (AJOL), the Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and JSTOR were accessed. Articles were searched from the Addis Ababa University research repository. The core search terms and phrases were "Hepatitis", "Hepatitis B", "Blood Donation", "Blood Donor", "Transfusion", "Transfusion Transmissible Infections", "Ethiopia", "Addis Ababa", "Adama", "Bahirdar", "Dire Dawa", "Gondar", "Mekelle", "Hawassa". The data were analyzed based on a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model using STATA 14 and Review Manager version 5.3. I(2) was used to quantify between-study heterogeneity. Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was done. Twenty-seven articles with 308,188 samples were included in the meta-analysis. The studies used HBsAg to diagnose hepatitis B. The pooled prevalence of HBV infection among blood donors was 4.91% (95% CI: 4.21-5.60; I(2) = 99%). Male sex (p < 0.001), replacement donors (p = 0.007), history of tooth extraction (p < 0.001), and sharp material sharing (p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk, while being a repetitive blood donor was associated with a decreased risk of being infected with HBV (p = 0.02).
Dental care as a risk factor for transfusion transmissible infections in blood donors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of evidence-based healthcare. 2020
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The deferral policy for blood donation after dental care is based on the precautionary principle. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of the scientific evidence concerning the risk of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) after dental care. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four databases were searched: Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science. Screening was independently performed by two reviewers. The quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation principle. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between dental treatment and TTI markers. RESULTS A total of 22 studies were included. Meta-analysis of 16 studies showed an increased association of TTIs with dental treatment, however with large heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant increased association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with dental treatment [odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval (1.48; 2.18)]. There was conflicting evidence concerning the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV). One study could not demonstrate a statistically significant increased association of human T-lymphotropic virus type I with dental treatment. Three studies showed a significant increased association of HCV with tooth extraction [odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval (1.11; 1.97)]. Finally, there is conflicting evidence concerning the risk of HBV or HCV after dental cleaning. One study could not demonstrate an association between HIV and dental cleaning. All evidence is of very low certainty and results cannot be considered precise. CONCLUSION Studies of high quality concerning the risk of TTI after dental care in blood donors are scarce. An association of HBV after dental treatment and HCV after tooth extraction was demonstrated but evidence is of very low certainty. The currently identified studies are of too low certainty to make any suggestions regarding the value of deferral or deferral times.
Incidence of adverse reaction in blood donation: a systematic review
American journal of blood research. 2020;10(5):145-150
There are a lot of reports related to adverse reactions post blood donation. The present study is designed to investigate the incidence of adverse reactions in blood donation around the world. This research was conducted through searching databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EmBase, Ovid, as well as the specialized journal of TRANSFUSION without any time limit by using the keywords including "Adverse Event", "Adverse Effect", "Adverse Reaction", "Complication", "Side Effect", "Vasovagal Reaction", "Local Reaction", "General Reaction", "Allergic Reaction", "Blood Donor", and "Blood Donation". In the initial search, 7054 documents were found, of which 2517 duplicates were excluded. After screening the remaining 4,537 documents, 97 one were reviewed for quality assessment, of which 30 with the appropriate quality were selected for the review process. The results of the study showed that the reactions caused by blood donation are very different. Most reactions were systemic, and ranged from 0.08 to 13 percent in different countries. The incidence of adverse reactions in blood donation differ across the countries which might be related to the donors' characteristics. The difference did even existed in studies conducted in the same country and the same year. This suggests that many factors can cause adverse reactions in blood donation, and that a wide range of them investigated in one study, most of which were systemic.
Overall prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donors in mainland China: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(17):e19832
BACKGROUND Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection exhibits a broad range of clinical outcomes. Blood transfusion is a common route of B19V transmission. However, information about the overall prevalence of B19V infection and B19V genotypes among blood donors in mainland China is lacking. METHODS This meta-analysis was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature search for studies reporting the B19V prevalence among blood donors in mainland China from 2000 to 2018 was performed. The prevalence of B19V was estimated through a meta-analysis of the relevant literature. A comprehensive meta-analysis program was used for data processing and statistical analysis. RESULTS Twenty-one eligible articles were included, involving 48,923 participants assessed for B19V-DNA, 12,948 participants assessed for anti-B19V immunoglobulin M (IgM), and 8244 participants assessed for anti-B19V immunoglobulin G (IgG). The analysis revealed the pooled estimates of the prevalence rates of B19V-DNA, anti-B19V IgM, and anti-B19V IgG among blood donors to be 0.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-2.4%), 2.7% (95% CI 1.7-4.3%), and 33.6% (95% CI 28.2-39.4%), respectively. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses indicated that 142 of 169 (84.0%) B19V isolates belonged to Genotype 1. CONCLUSIONS The overall prevalence of B19V among blood donors is not high in mainland China, and most isolates belong to Genotype 1.