Albumin therapy for acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2021
Human serum albumin has shown remarkable efficacy in rodent models of ischemic stroke, while results from relevant clinical research on albumin therapy remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to quantitatively analyze the neurofunctional outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke treated with albumin. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched in July 2020. A total of four studies and 1611 patients were included. The aggregated results indicated that there were 635 patients with good neurological outcomes, among which 321 patients were in the albumin group (39.8%) and 314 patients in the control group (39.1%), showing no statistically significant difference between the albumin and control groups (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.85-1.27). The results suggest that albumin therapy at the acute stage of ischemic stroke has no beneficial effect on the long-term neurological function of patients with ischemic stroke. Considering pulmonary edema and other complications are more likely to occur in such patients after albumin infusion, the administration of albumin therapy for acute ischemic stroke should be done with utmost caution.
Albumin-induced neuroprotection in focal cerebral ischemia in the ALIAS trial: does severity, mechanism, and time of infusion matter?
Neurocritical Care. 2017;28((1):):60-64
OBJECTIVE To determine whether there is any differential benefit of albumin administration within 2 h of onset of ischemia and in settings (severe ischemia with reperfusion in cardioembolic strokes with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≥15), most representative of experimental models of cerebral ischemia in which albumin was effective in reducing neurological injury. BACKGROUND High-dose intravenous (IV) albumin treatment for acute ischemic stroke (ALIAS) trial did not show overall clinical benefit in ischemic stroke patients in contrast to preclinical studies; however, models of preclinical studies were not completely followed. METHODS A total of 1275 patients combined from ALIAS trials I and II were included in our analysis. We analyzed preclinical studies and selected patients with large ischemic stroke (NIHSS ≥15) related to cardioembolic etiology (n = 189). Outcomes were then studied including time from onset to IV albumin administration. RESULTS The odds of excellent outcome (mRS 0-1) at 3 months was not different with high-dose IV albumin infusion (n = 100) compared with placebo (n = 89) ((odds ratio [OR]) 1.632 [0.719-3.708], p value 0.2419). When we further classified these subjects according to time of IV albumin administration, we observed significantly higher odds of excellent outcome at 3 months when patients received IV albumin within 2 h, OR 9.369 (CI 1.040-84.405), p value 0.0461, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline NIHSS score, and any therapeutic procedure. CONCLUSION A trend for benefit is noted in ischemic stroke patients with large cardioembolic stroke (NIHSS ≥15) when high-dose albumin was initiated within 2 h, suggesting that certain ischemic stroke subgroups of patients most representative of preclinical settings may benefit from such a treatment. Additional clinical trials maybe needed to stratify subjects and treatment assignments according to NIHSS severity and timely randomization to evaluate this concept further.
ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke) trials: analysis of the combined data From parts 1 and 2
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2016;47((9):):2355-9
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke) part 1 and 2 trials evaluated whether 25% human serum albumin improves clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke above and beyond standard of care using similar protocols. The part 1 trial ended prematurely because of safety concerns, and the part 2 trial terminated early because of futility of finding a statistically significant effect of albumin over saline (control) administration. We combine the subject-level data of the part 1 and 2 trials to reevaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes with the larger sample size. METHODS The combined data analyses closely follow those conducted in the part 2 trial. The primary outcome is the composite of the modified Rankin Scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale defined as a composite of modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 1 and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0 to 1 at 90 days from randomization. The unadjusted analyses use a simple Chi-square test, and those adjusting for baseline covariates use a generalized linear model with log link (to obtain relative risks). RESULTS The participant characteristics at baseline were generally similar between the treatment groups and between the trials; however, thrombolysis use was greater in part 2 (84% versus 75%), and the upper age limit imposed in part 2 resulted in a younger sample (mean age in part 1 was 69 versus 64 in part 2). In the combined sample, the proportions of good outcome in the 2 treatment groups were identical (41%). Similar results were observed in all secondary efficacy outcomes. Pulmonary edema was a consistent safety concern, with a 6-fold increase in the albumin arm (13%) compared with saline (2%; relative risk =7.76, 95% confidence interval 3.87-15.57). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with intravenous albumin 25% at 2 g/kg was not associated with improved outcome at 90 days and was associated with increased rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00235495.
Albumin administration in acute ischemic stroke: safety analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 multicenter trial
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 2015;10((9)):e0131390.
BACKGROUND Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. METHODS Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18-83 and a baseline NIHSS > 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. RESULTS Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01-5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3-26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495.
High-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (ALIAS) Part 2: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled trial
Lancet Neurology. 2013;12((11):):1049-58.
BACKGROUND In animal models of ischaemic stroke, 25% albumin reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioural outcome. In a pilot clinical trial, albumin doses as high as 2 g/kg were safely tolerated. We aimed to assess whether albumin given within 5 h of the onset of acute ischaemic stroke increased the proportion of patients with a favourable outcome. METHODS We did a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3, placebo-controlled trial between Feb 27, 2009, and Sept 10, 2012, at 69 sites in the USA, 13 sites in Canada, two sites in Finland, and five sites in Israel. Patients aged 18-83 years with ischaemic (ie, non-haemorrhagic) stroke with a baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score of 6 or more who could be treated within 5 h of onset were randomly assigned (1:1), via a central web-based randomisation process with a biased coin minimisation approach, to receive 25% albumin (2 g [8 mL] per kg; maximum dose 750 mL) or the equivalent volume of isotonic saline. All study personnel and participants were masked to the identity of the study drug. The primary endpoint was favourable outcome, defined as either a modified Rankin scale score of 0 or 1, or an NIHSS score of 0 or 1, or both, at 90 days. Analysis was by intention to treat. Thrombolytic therapies were permitted. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00235495. FINDINGS 422 participants were randomly assigned to receive albumin and 419 to receive saline. On Sept 12, 2012, the trial was stopped early for futility (n=841). The primary outcome did not differ between patients in the albumin group and those in the saline group (186 [44%] vs 185 [44%]; risk ratio 096, 95% CI 084-110, adjusted for baseline NIHSS score and thrombolysis stratum). Mild-to-moderate pulmonary oedema was more common in patients given albumin than in those given saline (54 [13%] of 412 vs 5 [1%] of 412 patients); symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 24 h was also more common in patients in the albumin group than in the placebo group (17 [4%] of 415 vs 7 [2%] of 414 patients). Although the rate of favourable outcome in patients given albumin remained consistent at 44-45% over the course of the trial, the cumulative rate of favourable outcome in patients given saline rose steadily from 31% to 44%. INTERPRETATION Our findings show no clinical benefit of 25% albumin in patients with ischaemic stroke; however, they should not discourage further efforts to identify effective strategies to protect the ischaemic brain, especially because of preclinical literature showing convincing proof-of-principle for the possibility of this outcome. FUNDING National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, US National Institutes of Health; and Baxter Healthcare Corporation. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Albumin in Acute Stroke Part 1 Trial: an exploratory efficacy analysis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Part 2 Trial is directly testing whether 2 g/kg of 25% human albumin (ALB) administered intravenously within 5 hours of ischemic stroke onset results in improved clinical outcome. Recruitment into Part 1 of the ALIAS Trial was halted for safety reasons. ALIAS Part 2 is a new, reformulated trial with more-stringent exclusion criteria. Our aim was to explore the efficacy of ALB in the ALIAS Part 1 data and to assess the statistical assumptions underlying the ALIAS Part 2 Trial.METHODS ALIAS is a multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial. Data on 434 subjects, comprising the ALIAS Part 1 subjects, were analyzed. We examined both the thrombolysis and nonthrombolysis cohorts combined and separately in a target populationby excluding subjects who would not have been eligible for the ALIAS Part 2 Trial; the latter comprised patients >83 years of age, those with elevated baseline troponin values, and those with in-hospital stroke. We examined the differences in the primary composite outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 1 and/or a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 0 to 1 at 90 days after randomization.RESULTS In the combined thrombolysis plus nonthrombolysis cohorts of the target population, 44.7% of subjects in the ALB group had a favorable outcome compared with 36.0% in the saline group (absolute effect size=8.7%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 19.5%). Among thrombolyzed subjects of the target population, 46.7% had a favorable outcome in the ALB group compared with 36.6% in the saline group (absolute effect size=10.1%; 95% CI, -2.0% to 20.0%).CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results from the ALIAS Part 1 suggest a trend toward a favorable primary outcome in subjects treated with ALB and support the validity of the statistical assumptions that underlie the ALIAS Part 2 Trial. The ALIAS Part 2 Trial will confirm or refute these results.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ALIAS. Unique identifier: NCT00235495.
The albumin in acute stroke (ALIAS) multicenter clinical trial: safety analysis of part 1 and rationale and design of part 2
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE enrollment in the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trial was suspended in late 2007 due to a safety concern. We present the safety data of that Trial (Part 1) and the rationale for the design of Part 2.METHODS ALIAS Part 1 was designed to assess whether 25% albumin (ALB) started within 5 hours of stroke onset would confer neuroprotection in subjects with acute ischemic stroke and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of >=6. Exclusion criteria included recent or current congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, or cardiac surgery. The study comprised 2 cohorts: subjects who received thrombolysis and those who did not, each with 1:1 randomization to ALB or placebo. The primary outcome was the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scales at 90 days. The intended sample size was 1800.RESULTS four hundred thirty-four subjects were enrolled, and 424 were used in the safety analysis (ALB 207, saline 217). There were 36 deaths within the first 30 days in the ALB group and 21 in the saline group. In contrast, death rates after 30 days were similar by treatment. Large strokes were the predominant cause of early death in both groups. In subjects >83 years of age, 90-day death rates were 2.3-fold higher with ALB than with saline (95% CI, 1.04 to 5.12). Similarly, 90-day deaths in subjects receiving excessive fluids were 2.10-fold greater with ALB than with saline (CI, 1.10 to 3.98).CONCLUSIONS The ALIAS Part 2 Trial, which started in early 2009, was modified as follows to enhance safety: upper age limit of 83 years; requirement for normal baseline serum troponin level; restriction of total intravenous fluids in the first 48 hours to <= 4200 mL; mandatory diuretic at 12 to 24 hours; and detailed site retraining. Because of insufficient nonthrombolysed subjects (22%) in Part 1, the 2-cohort design was eliminated. The Data Safety Monitoring Board has reviewed the safety data of Part 2 3 times and has approved continuation of the trial.
The albumin in acute stroke trial (ALIAS); design and methodology
International Journal of Stroke : Official Journal of the International Stroke Society. 2007;2((3):):214-9.
UNLABELLED Stroke is a serious global illness. Human albumin has emerged as a putative therapy for ischaemic stroke based on strong evidence from animal models. Following confirmation of the safety and feasibility of high-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke in a pilot study, the Albumin in Acute Stroke trial, a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose albumin compared to saline control within 5 h of ischaemic stroke onset. METHODS The trial will enrol 1800 patients in two cohorts--a thrombolytic and a nonthrombolytic arm. High-dose (2 g/kg) human albumin will be administered in a 2-h straight intravenous infusion to ischaemic stroke patients, within 5 h of symptom onset. The primary outcome will be an NIH stroke scale score of 0-1 or a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1 at 90 days. Safety outcomes will include the incidence of congestive heart failure after study-drug administration. RESULTS Enrolment opened at 40 sites in August 2006; new sites continue to be added. Recruitment is ongoing and is projected to be completed by 2010. CONCLUSIONS The trial will continue through 2010. The study is proceeding as planned.
Albumin therapy in acute stroke patients
Journal of Neurology. 2007;254((7):):870-8.
Preclinical studies have recently shown that albumin has neuroprotective effects for stroke in animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effects of albumin therapy in patients with acute cerebral infarcts. We prospectively studied 49 patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral infarcts within the middle cerebral arterial territory into one of two groups: the control group (N = 18) received saline, whereas the albumin group (N = 31) received either 40 g or 80 g of albumin within 24 h from symptom onset. The modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were serially checked. There was no adverse effect related to albumin therapy. Although there was no significant difference in both baseline mNIHSS score and DWI lesion volume on admission, the mNIHSS scores at the 14(th) day after treatment and the increase in DWI lesion volume 72-96 h after treatment were significantly reduced in patients of the albumin group (p = 0. 001 and 0. 012, respectively); these effects were dose- and time- related. The outcome on the 90(th) day after stroke onset was more favorable in the albumin group than in the control group. Within the albumin group, patients who had patent or recanalized vessels showed more significant improvement than patient without recanalization (p = 0. 046). Our results indicate that albumin therapy is a safe and effective modality in patients with acute cerebral infarction. This study also suggests that the effects of albumin therapy may vary depending on vessel status of the patient.
The ALIAS (ALbumin In Acute Stroke) Phase III randomized multicentre clinical trial: design and progress report
Biochemical Society Transactions. 2006;34((Pt 6):):1323-6.
High-dose human ALB (albumin) therapy is highly neuroprotective in animal models of ischaemic stroke. A recently completed 82-subject pilot-phase dose-escalation trial has shown that ALB is safe, with strong preliminary suggestions of possible efficacy. We are now proceeding to a large randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicentre trial funded by the NIH (National Institutes of Health), the ALIAS (Albumin In Acute Stroke) Phase III Trial, which is designed to ascertain definitively whether high-dose ALB therapy confers neuroprotection in subjects with acute ischaemic stroke treated within 5 h of stroke onset. The primary efficacy outcome measure is a favourable outcome, defined as an NIHSS (NIH Stroke Scale) score of 0-1 or a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 at 3 months post-randomization. Separate randomization (1:1) to ALB or placebo therapy will be carried out in two cohorts of 900 subjects each, one that receives standard-of-care thrombolytic therapy and the other that does not. Approx. 60 North American clinical sites will participate. Subject enrollment is expected to commence in July 2006.