Perioperative Management of Hemophilia A Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Literature Review of Published Cases
Lin PS, Yao YT
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2020
OBJECTIVE To investigate the perioperative management of patients with hemophilia A (HA) who undergo cardiac surgery. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of the published literature. SETTING University hospital. PARTICIPANTS HA patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, CNKI, VIP, and WANFANG databases were searched with the terms "hemophilia A," "cardiac surgery," "cardiopulmonary bypass," "coronary artery bypass graft," "valve disease," and "congenital heart disease" to identify relevant articles. Data regarding patient characteristics, perioperative management protocols, and clinical outcomes were extracted and analyzed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Fifty articles, with 72 patients aging from 12 days to 80 years, were included. The analyzed population consisted of 36 (50%) mild HA, 10 (14%) moderate HA, and 25 (35%) severe HA patients. Factor VIII inhibitors were detected in 7 cases. Surgical procedures included 27 coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, 15 valve surgeries, 8 combined coronary artery bypass grafting with valve surgery procedures (1 with left ventricular assist device), 1 ventricular aneurysm resection with valve surgery, 11 corrections of congenital heart disease, 7 adult aortic surgeries, 3 heart transplantations, and 1 repair of heart injury. Factor VIII concentrates were used as a substitution therapy to ensure normalization of perioperative coagulation function. Although an uneventful clinical outcome was achieved in the majority of cases, 20% of patients developed complications with different severities. CONCLUSIONS Execution of a perioperative management strategy with a multidisciplinary approach, a thorough factor replacement protocol, and careful monitoring of factor levels facilitate an optimal outcome for HA patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Hydroxyethyl starch: an alternative to plasma for postoperative volume expansion after cardiac surgery
Munsch CM, MacIntyre E, Machin SJ, Mackie IJ, Treasure T
British Journal of Surgery. 1988;75((7):):675-8.
Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a recently developed synthetic volume expander. Forty patients undergoing coronary artery surgery were randomized to receive either HES or plasma protein fraction (PPF) as non-blood volume replacement according to standard haemodynamic criteria. The two groups were comparable in all respects. The median colloid use in the first 24 h was 950 ml (range 500-1500) in the HES group and 975 ml (350-2000) in the PPF group (not significant). There was no difference in blood use, urine output or blood loss between the two groups. Tests of coagulation showed the postoperative changes usual in cardiac surgical patients. There was no difference between the two groups in thrombin time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, or fibrinogen concentration. Similarly, tests of platelet function and Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor activity showed no difference between the two groups. We conclude that HES is a safe and effective volume expander, and its relative lack of expense and ease of availability make its routine use after cardiac surgery an attractive proposition.