Evaluation of Direct Oral Anticoagulant Reversal Agents in Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA network open. 2022;5(11):e2240145
IMPORTANCE Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity and mortality. The safety and outcome data of DOAC reversal agents in ICH are limited. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and outcomes of DOAC reversal agents among patients with ICH. DATA SOURCES PubMed, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched from inception through April 29, 2022. STUDY SELECTION The eligibility criteria were (1) adult patients (age ≥18 years) with ICH receiving treatment with a DOAC, (2) reversal of DOAC, and (3) reported safety and anticoagulation reversal outcomes. All nonhuman studies and case reports, studies evaluating patients with ischemic stroke requiring anticoagulation reversal or different dosing regimens of DOAC reversal agents, and mixed study groups with DOAC and warfarin were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and abstracted data. Data were pooled using the random-effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was proportion with anticoagulation reversed. The primary safety end points were all-cause mortality and thromboembolic events after the reversal agent. RESULTS A total of 36 studies met criteria for inclusion, with a total of 1832 patients (967 receiving 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate [4F-PCC]; 525, andexanet alfa [AA]; 340, idarucizumab). The mean age was 76 (range, 68-83) years, and 57% were men. For 4F-PCC, anticoagulation reversal was 77% (95% CI, 72%-82%; I2 = 55%); all-cause mortality, 26% (95% CI, 20%-32%; I2 = 68%), and thromboembolic events, 8% (95% CI, 5%-12%; I2 = 41%). For AA, anticoagulation reversal was 75% (95% CI, 67%-81%; I2 = 48%); all-cause mortality, 24% (95% CI, 16%-34%; I2 = 73%), and thromboembolic events, 14% (95% CI, 10%-19%; I2 = 16%). Idarucizumab for reversal of dabigatran had an anticoagulation reversal rate of 82% (95% CI, 55%-95%; I2 = 41%), all-cause mortality, 11% (95% CI, 8%-15%, I2 = 0%), and thromboembolic events, 5% (95% CI, 3%-8%; I2 = 0%). A direct retrospective comparison of 4F-PCC and AA showed no differences in anticoagulation reversal, proportional mortality, or thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In the absence of randomized clinical comparison trials, the overall anticoagulation reversal, mortality, and thromboembolic event rates in this systematic review and meta-analysis appeared similar among available DOAC reversal agents for managing ICH. Cost, institutional formulary status, and availability may restrict reversal agent choice, particularly in small community hospitals.
Systematic review: 3-factor versus 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for warfarin reversal: Does it matter?
Adult patients with intracranial hemorrhage receiving treatment with a direct oral anticoagulant (36 studies, n= 1,832).
4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC), (n= 967).
Andexanet alfa (AA), (n= 525). Idarucizumab(n= 340).
For 4F-PCC, anticoagulation reversal was 77% (95% CI 72% to 82%; I2 = 55%); all-cause mortality, 26% (95% CI 20% to 32%; I2 = 68%), and thromboembolic events, 8% (95% CI 5% to 12%; I2 = 41%). For AA, anticoagulation reversal was 75% (95% CI 67% to 81%; I2 = 48%); all-cause mortality, 24% (95% CI 16% to 34%; I2 = 73%), and thromboembolic events, 14% (95% CI 10% to 19%; I2 = 16%). Idarucizumab for reversal of dabigatran had an anticoagulation reversal rate of 82% (95% CI 55% to 95%; I2 = 41%), all-cause mortality, 11% (95% CI 8% to 15%, I2 = 0%), and thromboembolic events, 5% (95% CI 3% to 8%; I2 = 0%). A direct retrospective comparison of 4F-PCC and AA showed no differences in anticoagulation reversal, proportional mortality, or thromboembolic events.
Thrombosis Research. 2012;130((6):):833-40.
INTRODUCTION Prothrombin complex concentrates are used for rapid reversal of vitamin K antagonists in patients with bleeding or those requiring surgery or invasive procedures. Current guidelines suggest 4-factor products are preferred over 3-factor prothrombin complex concentrates. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review comparing the effectiveness of 3-factor to 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates in normalizing the international normalized ratio to <=1.5 in patients with acquired coagulopathy due to vitamin K antagonist use. Studies reporting administration of prothrombin complex concentrates for emergent reversal of vitamin K antagonists that included results of baseline prothrombin time/international normalized ratio and follow-up testing within 60minutes of prothrombin complex concentrates administration were included. RESULTS A total of 18 studies were included representing 654 patients. The most common indications for prothrombin complex concentrate were intracerebral hemorrhage, urgent surgery or invasive procedure, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Baseline international normalized ratio values ranged from 3.3-5.1 in the 3-factor group and from 2.3 to greater than 20 in the 4-factor group. The international normalized ratio repeated within one hour of prothrombin complex concentrates administration ranged from 1.2-1.9 in the 3-factor group and 1.0-1.9 in the 4-factor group. International normalized ratio decreased to <=1.5 within one hour after prothrombin complex concentrates administration in 6 of 9 studies in the 3-factor group, and 12 of 13 studies in the 4-factor group. CONCLUSION More reliable correction of the international normalized ratio was seen with 4-factor compared to 3-factor prothrombin complex concentrates which may have clinical implications since 4-factor products are unavailable in some countries. Copyright Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.