Comparative effectiveness and safety of 36 therapies or interventions for pregnancy outcomes with recurrent implantation failure: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics. 2023
PURPOSE To investigate the effectiveness and safety of 36 different therapies for recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients. METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) from inception to August 24, 2022, with language in both English and Chinese. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that provided data with one of pregnancy outcomes on RIF patients were included in the network meta-analysis (NMA). The odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible interval (CrI) on pregnancy outcomes were summarized by NMA with a random-effects model. We also analyzed data from only RCTs and compared whether the optimal treatment is the same for different failed embryo transfer attempts. RESULTS The total of 29,906 RIF patients from 154 clinical studies (74 RCTs and 80 non-RCTs) were included in the NMA. In terms of implantation rate (IR), growth hormone (GH) (OR: 3.32, 95% CrI: 1.95-5.67) is the best treatment in all included studies; IVIG+PBMC (5.84, 2.44-14.1) is the best for clinical pregnancy rate (CPR); hyaluronic acid (HA) (12.9, 2.37-112.0) for live birth rate (LBR); and aspirin combined with glucocorticoids (0.208, 0.0494-0.777) for miscarriage rate (MR). The two-dimensional graphs showed that GH could maximize IR and CPR simultaneously; HA and GH could simultaneously increase IR and LBR to a large extent; HA could maximize IR and minimize MR. CONCLUSION IVIG+PBMC, GH, and embryo medium enriched with HA could significantly improve pregnancy outcomes in patients with RIF. It appears that combination therapy is a potential administration strategy. TRIAL REGISTRATION This study has been registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022353423).
Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion: a systematic review and meta-analysis
American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989). 2022
OBJECTIVE we aimed to evalute the efficacy of IVIG in the treatment with patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHODS Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane library we searched for randomized controlled (RCTs) about effect of IVIG on RSA from inception to August 20, 2021. Values of standardized mean differences (SMD) were determined for continuous outcomes. RESULTS A total of fifteen articles involving 902 patients were included in meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, IVIG can increase the live birth rate of recurrent spontaneous abortion patients[OR = 3.06, 95%CI(1.23, 7.64, P = 0.02]. However, recurrent abortion was divided into primary and secondary abortion for subgroup analysis, and there was no statistical difference. Besides, IVIG can also increase the expression in peripheral blood CD3+[OR = 0.4, 95%CI(-2.47, 3.15, P = 0.81],CD4+[OR = 1.16, 95%CI(-4.60, 6.93, P = 0.69], and decrease the expression of CD8+[OR = -1.78, 95%CI(-5.30, 1.75, P = 0.32], but there is no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS IVIG can significantly increase the live birth rate of recurrent spontaneous abortion. However, the evidence needs further verification and the curative effect is uncertain. It is necessary to further explore the pathogenesis of recurrent abortion and the mechanism of IVIG in the treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Besides, more high-quality randomized controlled trials suitable for population, race, dosage and timing of IVIG in the treatment of recurrent abortion are needed to confirm its effectiveness, and effective systematic evaluation is also needed to evaluate its use benefit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Describing the impact of maternal hyperimmune globulin and valaciclovir on the outcomes of CMV infection in pregnancy: a systematic review
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2022
Cytomegalovirus is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Valaciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin may reduce vertical transmission and sequelae in neonates. A systematic review on valaciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin in preventing vertical transmission or reducing sequelae in neonates was conducted to 3 September 2021. Valaciclovir as a preventative strategy was supported by a well-conducted randomised controlled trial. Evidence supporting valaciclovir as a treatment strategy was limited to observational studies at moderate risk of bias. CMV hyperimmune globulin was not supported as a preventative strategy in two RCTs, which contrasted with observational studies. Evidence favouring CMV hyperimmune globulin as a treatment strategy was limited to observational studies at moderate risk of bias. The role of valaciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin in CMV infection in pregnancy is still being defined. Valaciclovir to prevent vertical transmission has the highest quality evidence in favour of use.
Treatment of Refractory/High-Risk Pregnancies With Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:849692
Different treatment protocols have been employed to manage heparin/low-dose aspirin refractory or high-risk pregnancies in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) pregnancies. A systematic review of the literature on additional treatments used in refractory and/or high-risk APS pregnancies was conducted. Records from February 2006 to October 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and the www.clinicaltrials.gov platform. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria. Live birth rate is this study's primary endpoint, while pregnancy complications and adverse events are secondary endpoints. A total of 434 pregnancies, 162 (37.3%) refractory and 272 (62.7%) high-risk/refractory pregnancies, were included. Both IVIG <2 gr/kg/monthly/HCQ/LDS and PEX/IA ± LDS led to 100% viable infants in refractory APS. Furthermore, HCQ 200-400 mg showed a higher live birth rate than HCQ + LDS (88.6% vs. 82.7%). Following treatment protocol with HCQ 200-400 mg and IVIG <2 gr/kg/monthly/HCQ/LDS, pregnancy complications rates of 16.7 and 83.3% were registered, respectively. Pravastatin 20 mg, IA weekly + IVIG 2 gr/monthly, and PEX weekly + IVIg 2 gr/kg/monthly showed higher live birth rates in high-risk APS pregnancies of 100, 100 and 92%, respectively, whereas the lower severe pregnancy complications were reported in pregnancies treated with PEX weekly + IVIg 2 gr/kg/monthly (11.1%). One (0.6%) case of dermatitis during treatment with HCQ was observed. The results of this study showed that HCQ 200-400 mg and PEX weekly + IVIG 2 gr/kg/monthly achieved a higher live birth rate in refractory APS and high-risk/refractory APS, respectively. The results presented provide clinicians with up-to-date knowledge in the management of APS pregnancies according to risk stratification.
Intravenous immunoglobulins improve live birth rate among women with underlying immune conditions and recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology : Official Journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2022;18(1):23
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is increasingly used as a treatment for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) despite lack of clear evidence on efficacy. Recent data suggest IVIG might be more effective in a subgroup of women with an aberrant immunological profile. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the effectiveness of IVIG treatment on pregnancy outcome among women with RPL and underlying immunological conditions (e.g., elevated NK cell percentage, elevated Th1/Th2 ratio, diagnosis with autoimmune disorders) was conducted. Eight non-randomized controlled trials, including 478 women (intervention: 284; control: 194), met eligibility criteria. Meta-analysis showed that treatment with IVIG was associated with a two-fold increase in live birth rate (RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.73, P < 0.0001). The effect of IVIG was particularly marked in the subgroup of studies including patients based on presence of elevated (> 12%) NK-cell percentage (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.77-3.02, P < 0.0001) and when starting intervention prior to or during cycle of conception (RR 4.47, 95% CI 1.53-13.05, P = 0.006). In conclusion, treatment with IVIG may improve live birth rate in women with RPL and underlying immune conditions. However, these results should be interpreted with caution as studies are limited by low number of participants and the non-randomized design, which represent seriously biases. Future randomized controlled trials in women with RPL and underlying immune conditions are needed before using IVIG in a clinical setting.
Application of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in Prelabor Rupture of Membranes: a Review of the Current Evidence
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2021
Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) is the main cause of preterm delivery, resulting in increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Several techniques have been studied for the healing of ruptured membranes, with some success. Before new techniques using tissue/organ engineering are applied in clinical practice, these techniques must be validated in clinical trials. To address this issue, the objective of this study was to summarize the current literature on interventions to seal or heal the amniotic membranes after PPROM. An electronic search was conducted using the keywords "fetal membranes," "premature rupture," "amnion," "tissue engineering," "fibrin tissue adhesive," "regenerative medicine," "tissue adhesive," "wound healing," and "fetoscopy" through the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, with the limitation of English-language studies. Through a review of the identified studies, it was found that spontaneous healing of the fetal membrane has not been successful. Several efforts have been made to seal membranes before or after rupture using different methods, including amniopatches, collagen, tissue patches, fibrin sealant, mussel-mimetic sealant, engineered cell matrix, and immunological supplements. However, most studies have been conducted in ex vivo or in vivo settings, so the safety and applicability of these techniques to spontaneous rupture of membranes in clinical settings have not been sufficiently tested. Overall, the current evidence is limited regarding the safety and effectiveness of interventions against PPROM.
Antenatal and postpartum prevention of Rh alloimmunization: A systematic review and GRADE analysis
PloS one. 2020;15(9):e0238844
BACKGROUND Existing systematic reviews of Rh immunoprophylaxis include only data from randomized controlled trials, have dated searches, and some do not report on all domains of risk of bias or evaluate the certainty of the evidence. Our objective was to perform an updated review, by including new trials, any comparative observational studies, and assessing the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE framework. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to November 26, 2019. Relevant websites and bibliographies of systematic reviews and guidelines were searched for studies published before 2000. Outcomes of interest were sensitization and adverse events. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane tool and ROBINS-I. The certainty of the evidence was performed using the GRADE framework. RESULTS Thirteen randomized trials and eight comparative cohort studies were identified, evaluating 12 comparisons. Although there is some evidence of beneficial treatment effects (e.g., at 6-months postpartum, fewer women who received RhIg at delivery compared to no RhIg became sensitized [70 fewer sensitized women per 1,000 (95%CI: 67 to 71 fewer); I2 = 73%]), due to very low certainty of the evidence, the magnitude of the treatment effect may be overestimated. The certainty of the evidence was very low for most outcomes often due to high risk of bias (e.g., randomization method, allocation concealment, selective reporting) and imprecision (i.e., few events and small sample sizes). There is limited evidence on prophylaxis for invasive fetal procedures (e.g. amniocentesis) in the comparative literature, and few studies reported adverse events. CONCLUSION Serious risk of bias and low to very low certainty of the evidence is found in existing RCTs and comparative observational studies addressing optimal effectiveness of Rh immunoprophylaxis. Guideline development committees should exercise caution when assessing the strength of the recommendations that inform and influence clinical practice in this area.
Prevention of recurrent miscarriage in women with antiphospholipid syndrome: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
OBJECTIVES To compare and rank currently available pharmacological interventions for the prevention of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS A search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, CNKI, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the UK National Research Register on December 15, 2019. Studies comparing any types of active interventions with placebo/inactive control or another active intervention for the prevention of RM in patients with APS were considered for inclusion. The primary outcomes were efficacy (measured by live birth rate) and acceptability (measured by all-cause discontinuation); secondary outcomes were birthweight, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth retardation. The protocol of this study was registered with Open Science Framework (DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/B9T4E). RESULTS In total, 54 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprising 4,957 participants were included. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) alone, aspirin plus LMWH or unfractionated heparin (UFH), aspirin plus LMWH plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), aspirin plus LMWH plus IVIG plus prednisone were found to be effective pharmacological interventions for increasing live birth rate (ORs ranging between 2.88 to 11.24). In terms of acceptability, no significant difference was found between treatments. In terms of adverse perinatal outcomes, aspirin alone was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth than aspirin plus LMWH (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.16 to 16.44) and with lower birthweight than LMWH (SMD -808.76, 95% CI -1596.54 to -5.07). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the use of low-dose aspirin plus heparin as the first-line treatment for prevention of RM in women with APS, and support the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine, IVIG, and prednisone when added to current treatment regimens. More large-scale, high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm these findings, and new pharmacological options should be further evaluated.
Early Use of Fibrinogen Replacement Therapy in Postpartum Hemorrhage-A Systematic Review
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2020
Fibrinogen levels drop early in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and low fibrinogen levels predict outcomes. There is increasing interest in replacing fibrinogen early in severe PPH and this systematic review's aim was to assess if early fibrinogen replacement therapy improves outcomes in severe PPH. We searched the following databases from inception to June 2019: CDSR and CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, Transfusion Evidence Library, LILACS, Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Portal. We included randomized (RCT) and well-designed controlled observational studies where fibrinogen replacement therapy was given early (within 90 minutes of bleeding) compared with standard protocol in pregnant women > 24 weeks' gestation who developed PPH, defined as estimated blood loss ≥500 mL up to 24 hours post-delivery. Two independent reviewers extracted and reviewed the data on the primary outcome of allogeneic blood transfusion at 24 hours after intervention and secondary outcomes including all-cause mortality, rate of thrombosis, and the need for surgical and non-surgical interventions. We identified 5 eligible studies: 2 completed (total of 299 women) RCTs comparing fibrinogen concentrate with placebo, and 3 ongoing RCTs. There was no completed study assessing cryoprecipitate transfusion. There was variation of: timings of intervention administration; severity of PPH; fibrinogen doses and use of tranexamic acid. There was insufficient evidence that early administration of fibrinogen in PPH reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion at 24 hours (risk ratio 0.83 (95% CI 0.54-1.26), P = 0.38) (2 trials, 299 participants) or improves other outcomes. Both studies were underpowered to answer our outcomes. There is a lack of evidence that early fibrinogen replacement therapy improves outcomes in PPH. Future studies are needed to address this, underpinned by data on the optimal fibrinogen dose, protocol-driven approaches versus targeted therapy, and cost-effectiveness of cryoprecipitate versus fibrinogen concentrate therapy in PPH.
Endometriosis with infertility: a comprehensive review on the role of immune deregulation and immunomodulation therapy
American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989). 2020;:e13384
BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a multifactorial pathology dependent on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, but the immune deregulation seems to play a pivotal role. In endometriosis-associated infertility this could raise the benefit of immunomodulatory strategies to improve the results of ART. In this review, we will describe (1) sera and peritoneal fluid cytokines and immune markers; (2) autoantibodies; (3) immunomodulatory treatments in endometriosis with infertility. METHODS The literature research was conducted in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library with keywords: "endometriosis", "unexplained miscarriage", "implantation failure", "recurrent implantation failure » and « IVF-ICSI », « biomarkers of autoimmunity", "TNF-α", "TNF-α antagonists", "infliximab", "adalimumab", "etanercept", "immunomodulatory treatment", "steroids", "intralipids", "intravenous immunoglobulins", "G-CSF", "pentoxyfylline". RESULTS Several studies analyzed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in sera and peritoneal fluid of endometriosis-associated infertility, in particular TNF-α. Various autoantibodies have been found in peritoneal fluid and sera of infertile endometriosis women even in the absence of clinically defined autoimmune disease, as antinuclear, anti-SSA and antiphospholipid autoantibodies. In few uncontrolled studies, steroids and TNF-α antagonists could increase the pregnancy rates in endometriosis-associated infertility, but well-designed trials are lacking. CONCLUSION Endometriosis is characterized by increased levels of cytokines and autoantibodies. This suggests the role of inflammation and immune cell deregulation in infertility associated to endometriosis. The strategies of immunomodulation to regulate these immune deregulations are poorly studied and well-designed studies are necessary.