Effects of platelet-rich plasmapheresis during cardiovascular surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials
Zhai Q, Wang Y, Yuan Z, Zhang R, Tian A
Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2019;56:88-97
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasmapheresis (PRP) on the amount of postoperative blood loss and the requirements for allogeneic fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions during cardiovascular surgery. METHODS A literature search of 7 online databases was conducted. Randomized control trials (RCT) comparing intraoperative PRP or appropriate control groups were considered suitable for this current study. RESULTS Fifteen RCTs enrolling a total of 1002 patients, including 501 patients who received PRP and 501 control patients. Meta-analysis of the data from these trials showed that PRP reduced the total volume of postoperative blood loss (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.18 to -0.31; P<0.05), reduced postoperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion (SMD, -0.38; 95%CI, -0.69 to -0.08; P<0.05), reduced postoperative RBCs transfusion (SMD, -0.44; 95%CI, -0.77 to -0.10; P<0.05), and reduced the proportion of patients receiving postoperative allogeneic RBC transfusions (relative risk [RR], 0.44; 95%CI, 0.21-0.91, P<0.05) during cardiovascular surgery. CONCLUSION Conducting PRP before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and transfusing autologous platelet-rich plasma (aPRP) after reversal of heparin could reduce postoperative blood loss, the requirements for blood products transfusion during cardiovascular surgery. A higher mean platelet count in aPRP may improve the final outcome. However, there was a high degree of undetermined heterogeneity among the analyzed trials, and larger and more precise RCTs are needed to confirm these conclusions.
Platelet-rich-plasmapheresis for minimising peri-operative allogeneic blood transfusion
Carless PA, Rubens FD, Anthony DM, Connell D, Henry DA
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;((3):):CD004172.
BACKGROUND Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have generated considerable enthusiasm for the use of technologies intended to reduce the use of allogeneic blood (blood from an unrelated donor). Platelet-rich plasmapheresis (PRP) offers an alternative approach to blood conservation. OBJECTIVES To examine the evidence for the efficacy of PRP in reducing peri-operative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes such as mortality and re-operation rates. SEARCH STRATEGY We identified studies by searching MEDLINE (1950 to 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009), The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2009), the Internet (to March 2009) and the reference lists of published articles, reports, and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA Controlled parallel group trials in which adult patients, scheduled for non-urgent surgery, were randomised to PRP, or to a control group which did not receive the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Primary outcomes measured were: the number of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion, and the amount of RBC transfused. Other outcomes measured were: the number of patients exposed to allogeneic platelet transfusions, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate, blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, post-operative complications (thrombosis), mortality, and length of hospital stay. Treatment effects were pooled using a random-effects model. Trial quality was assessed using criteria proposed by Schulz et al (Schulz 1995). MAIN RESULTS Twenty-two trials of PRP were identified that reported data for the number of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion. These trials evaluated a total of 1589 patients. The relative risk (RR) of exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion in those patients randomised to PRP was 0.73 (95%CI 0.59 to 0.90), equating to a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 27% and a risk difference (RD) of 19% (95%CI 10% to 29%). However, significant heterogeneity of treatment effect was observed (p < 0.00001; I2 = 79%). When the four trials by Boldt are excluded, the RR is 0.76 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.93). On average, PRP did not significantly reduce the total volume of RBC transfused (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.69, 95%CI -1.93 to 0.56 units). Trials provided inadequate data regarding the impact of PRP on morbidity, mortality, and hospital length of stay. Trials were generally small and of poor methodological quality. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Although the results suggest that PRP is effective in reducing allogeneic RBC transfusion in adult patients undergoing elective surgery, there was considerable heterogeneity of treatment effects and the trials were of poor methodological quality. The available studies provided inadequate data for firm conclusions to be drawn regarding the impact of PRP on clinically important endpoints.
Intraoperative use of platelet-plasmapheresis in vascular surgery
Safwat AM, Bush R, Prevec W, Reitan JA
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2002;14((1):):10-4.
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine, in a pilot study, whether pheresis of plasma and platelets before surgical blood loss, with reinfusion of the autologous plasma and platelets after completion of the aortic reconstruction, will result in decreased bleeding and decreased transfusion of allogenic blood components in patients undergoing elective aortic reconstruction. DESIGN Randomized study. SETTING University medical center. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to perioperative (acute) platelet plasmapheresis (APP group) versus conventional blood component therapy (control group). In the APP group, blood was withdrawn after induction of anesthesia, to sequester approximately 300 mL of platelet rich plasma (PRP); platelet poor plasma (PPP) and red blood cells (RBC) were sequestered as well. An autotransfusion device was used to collect and re-infuse autologous RBC during the course of the operation in both groups. After completion of the aortic reconstruction, autologous PRP and PPP were re-infused in the APP group. Blood loss, volume of blood component transfusions, and preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), platelet, international normalized ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were recorded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS There was no difference between groups in demographics, preoperative laboratory values, or surgical procedures, although more patients were treated for aneurysms (73% vs. 60%) and fewer for occlusive disease (20% vs. 40%) in the control versus APP group. Also, there were no differences between the control and APP groups in duration of operation, blood loss, volume of colloid infused, or volume of allogenic RBC and plasma transfused. Patients in the APP group received a greater volume of crystalloid solution (9.1 +/- 3.4 L vs. 6.8 +/- 3.0 L; p = 0.002), but fewer units of allogenic platelets than the control group (0.7 +/- 1.0 units vs. 0.2 +/- 0.4 units; p < 0.04). There were no differences in postoperative Hb, Hct, INR, aPTT, or fibrinogen. The platelet count was lower in the APP group than in the control group (123 +/- 40 x 10(3)/mm(3) vs. 182 +/- 51 x 10(3)/mm(3); p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Perioperative platelet plasmapheresis led to fewer allogenic platelet transfusions in patients undergoing elective aortic reconstruction. However, there was no decrease in blood loss and no reduction in transfusion of allogenic RBC or plasma. Perioperative platelet plasmapheresis is not recommended for routine use in elective aortic reconstruction.
Platelet-rich plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of the effect on transfusion requirements
Rubens FD, Fergusson D, Wells PS, Huang M, McGowan JL, Laupacis A
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 1998;116((4):):641-7.
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to determine whether intraoperative platelet-rich plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery is effective in reducing the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusions. METHODS A systematic search for prospective, randomized trials of platelet-rich plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery, using MEDLINE, HEALTHSTAR, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, and EMBASE/Excerpta Medica up to August 1997, was completed. Trials were included if they reported either the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic red cells or the units of allogeneic red cells transfused. Trials were abstracted by 2 independent investigators and the quality of trial design was assessed with the use of a validated scale. RESULTS Seventeen references met the inclusion criteria (1369 patients (675 control: 694 platelet-rich plasmapheresis)). Plateletrich plasmapheresis reduced the likelihood of exposure to allogeneic red cells in cardiac surgery (odds ratio 0.44; 95% confidence interval 0.27, 0.72, P = .001). Platelet-rich plasmapheresis had a small but statistically significant effect on both the volume of blood lost in the first 24 hours (weighted mean difference -102 mL; 95% confidence interval -148, -55 mL, P < .0001) and the mean units transfused (weighted mean difference -0.33 units; 95% confidence interval -0.43, -0.23, P < .0001). However, platelet-rich plasmapheresis was only marginally effective (odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.34, 2.01, P = .68) for good quality trials, whereas it appeared very effective in trials with poor methodologic quality (odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.17, 0.62, P = .0007). CONCLUSIONS Although platelet-rich plasmapheresis appeared effective in decreasing the proportion of patients receiving transfusions after cardiac operations, the quality of most of the supporting trials was low and the benefit was small in trials of good quality. Further clinical trials should be completed.
Intraoperative plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery
Armellin G, Sorbara C, Bonato R, Pittarello D, Dal Cero P, Giron G
Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia. 1997;11((1):):13-7.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of intraoperative plasmapheresis on total transfusion requirements, mediastinal drainage, and coagulation. DESIGN The trial was prospective, randomized, and controlled. SETTING Inpatient cardiac surgery at a university medical center. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred ninety-three consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS Intraoperative plasmapheresis (IP) was performed in 147 patients before heparinization; platelet-rich plasma was reinfused immediately after heparin reversal. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mediastinal chest tube drainage during the first 12 postoperative hours was significantly less in the IP group (p = 0.022), but no difference was noted in total postoperative blood loss between the two groups. The amount of packed red cells and fresh frozen plasma transfused to the IP group in the intensive care unit was significantly lower (p = 0.02, p = 0.002, respectively); 51.4% of patients required no transfusion compared with the control group (34.5%) (p = 0.006). No differences were noted for data collected in the intensive care unit in terms of the mean duration of chest tube drainage, ventilator time, or any hematologic variables at baseline or at any subsequent time in the study. CONCLUSIONS After cardiac surgery, intraoperative plasma-pheresis reduces early postoperative bleeding and decreases the need for homologous transfusions.
The influence of acute preoperative plasmapheresis on coagulation tests, fibrinolysis, blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery
Menges T, Welters I, Wagner RM, Boldt J, Dapper F, Hempelmann G
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 1997;11((3):):557-63.
OBJECTIVE Withdrawal of autologous plasma and reinfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) offers the opportunity of improving patients' haemostasis and reducing homologous blood consumption in cardiac surgery. The influence of acute, preoperative plasmapheresis (APP) on coagulation tests, fibrinolysis, blood loss and transfusion requirements was investigated in elective aortocoronary bypass patients. METHODS Forty patients were randomized to a control or pheresis group. The pheresis group had platelet-rich plasmapheresis (PRP-group, n = 20) performed before incision and the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was returned after CPB. The control group (n = 20) was managed without pheresis. All patients had serial coagulation studies, including prothrombin split products (F1/F2), fibrinopeptide A (FPA), protein C (PC), thrombomodulin (TM), tissue-plasminogen-activator (t-PA), plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI 1), fibrinopeptide B beta 15-42 (FPB beta 15-42), haemoglobin and platelet counts determined intra- and postoperatively. Chest tube drainage and transfusion requirements were recorded. RESULTS APP had no negative effects on the quality of PRP. The platelet count of the withdrawn autologous plasma was 239 +/- 33 x 10(9)/l. From the end of the operation (after retransfusion of autologous plasma) until the first postoperative day platelet counts were significant higher in the PRP-group (P > 0.05). Plasma concentrations of modified antithrombin III (ATM), F1/F2 and FPA increased (166-290% from baseline) and PC- and TM-antigen decreased (11-49% from baseline) to a different extent for both groups throughout CPB. t-PA-activity increased intraoperatively peaking at the end of CPB (PRP-group: 4.8 +/- 0.8 IU/ml, control-group: 8.1 +/- 2.3 IU/ml)(P > 0.05). With onset of CPB PAI-1 levels decreased and were further reduced after CPB in control patients in comparison to PRP-patients (P < 0.05). FPB beta 15-42 occurred in peak concentrations after neutralisation of heparin by protamine. Only PRP-patients showed baseline values of coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters on the next morning (P < 0.05). Total postoperative blood loss during the first 24 h was 503 +/- 251 ml (PRP-group) and 937 +/- 349 ml in the control-group (P < 0.05). None of the PRP-patients received allogeneic blood, whereas five control-patients received 11 units of packed red cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that in elective cardiac surgery heparin cannot prevent generation of both thrombin and fibrin, born throughout CPB and postoperatively. The use of PRP withdrawn immediately preoperatively is an attractive technique to reduce allogeneic blood usage and preoperative blood loss, especially in patients in whom withdrawal of autologous whole blood cannot be performed.
Plasmapheresis and intraoperative hemodilution. Comparison of 2 methods Italian
Sonzogni V, Bellavita P, Aceti M, Cossolini M, Lorini L
Minerva Anestesiologica. 1995;61((7-8):):293-7.
Fifty patients undergoing cardiac surgery suffering from coronary artery disease and valvular incompetence or stenosis, were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients to compare the plasmapheresis effects on bleeding, transfusion requirements, economicity and paramedical staff compliance versus intraoperative autotransfusion. Standardized anesthetics, perfusion, and surgical techniques were used. We used plasmapheresis with cell saver and haemodilution with bypass ultrafiltration. Platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, fibrinogen, bleeding times were evaluated at fixed times for the patients on plasmapheresis and after surgical homologous transfusion. It was that these parameters did not change significantly in the two groups. Intraoperative plasmapheresis is more expensive and less accepted into an operating room than autotransfusion. Intraoperative plasmapheresis will be a good alternative to haemodilution for selected patients.
Influence of acute preoperative plasmapheresis on platelet function in cardiac surgery
Boldt J, Zickmann B, Ballesteros M, Oehmke S, Stertmann F, Hempelmann G
Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia. 1993;7((1):):4-9.
Withdrawal of autologous plasma offers the possibility of improving patients' hemostasis and of reducing homologous blood consumption in cardiac surgery. The influence of acute, preoperatively performed plasmapheresis (APP) on platelet function was investigated in elective aortocoronary bypass patients subjected to APP producing either platelet-poor plasma (PPP; group 1; n = 12) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP; group 2; n = 12). APP-treated patients were randomly compared to patients without APP (control group; n = 12). Platelet aggregation induced by ADP (concentration 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mumol/L), collagen (4 microL/mL), and epinephrine (25 mumol/L) was determined by the turbidometric method before and after APP, as well as before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) until the morning of the 1st postoperative day. APP had no negative effects on the patients' aggregation parameters (maximum aggregation and maximum gradient of aggregation). The platelet counts in the withdrawn plasma were 25 +/- 10 x 10(9)/L (PPP-group) and 250 +/- 30 x 10(9)/L (PRP-group). Platelet counts were highest in the PRP-group at the end of the operation (after retransfusion of autologous plasma). After CPB, maximum aggregation and maximum gradient of aggregation were reduced in all groups (ranging from -6% to -25% from baseline values). Retransfusion of autologous plasma improved platelet aggregability significantly only in the PRP-group. By the first postoperative day, maximum aggregation and maximum gradient of aggregation recovered in all groups (including the control group) or even exceeded baseline values (ranging from +8% to +42% from baseline values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hematological assessment of patients undergoing plasmapheresis during cardiac surgery
Stammers AH, Kratz J, Johnson T, Crumbley J, Merrill J
Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology. 1993;25((1):):6-14.
Methods of reducing patient exposure to homologous blood transfusions include the technique of intraoperative plasmapheresis for the production of platelet rich plasma (PRP). The present study was designed to determine the patient benefits of PRP by examining hemostatic changes in coagulation screens and viscoelastic whole blood monitoring (Thrombelastography, [TEG]). One hundred fifteen patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were prospectively randomized into a blinded study. Sixty-three patients had 20 percent of the circulating plasma volume sequestered prior to heparinization and pheresed into PRP, which was reinfused 10 minutes following heparin reversal with protamine. The control (CTR) group of 52 patients were exposed to no sequestration procedure. Patients were followed to discharge and 112 parameters, including anthropometric, operative, and postoperative factors, were measured. There were no significant differences between patient groups in preoperative, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), or surgical parameters. Average PRP volume was 600+/-100 ml with a total platelet yield of 1.1 billion platelets per patient. TEG indices were determined at four distinct times during the surgical procedure. The CTR group had significantly higher pre-CPB TEG indices of 2.3+/-1.2 and 2.1+/-1.2 (mean+/-SD), vs. 1.8+/-1.5 and 1.4+/-1.7 in the PRP group (p less than .04). Following heparin reversal, pre-PRP reinfusion TEG values were similar between groups, although both groups had significantly decreased indices when compared to pre-CPB values. Thirty minutes post-PRP infusion the treatment group had significantly improved TEG recovery when compared to the CTR group, 1.0+/-1.2 vs. 0.3+/-1.7 (p less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Preoperative plasmapheresis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery procedures
Boldt J, von Bormann B, Kling D, Jacobi M, Moosdorf R, Hempelmann G
Donor plasmapheresis that is carried out weeks before the operation has proven to be of benefit in elective orthopedic patients with regard to reducing homologous blood consumption and preserving coagulation. In this study acute preoperatively performed plasmapheresis (APP) was investigated in cardiac surgery patients. Forty-five patients scheduled for elective aortocoronary bypass surgery were randomly divided into three groups of 15 patients each: 1) removal of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 2) removal of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and 3) no plasmapheresis (control group). Plasma volume removed was 10 ml/kg in all APP patients, and plasma was replaced by the same amount of low-molecular weight hydroxyethylstarch solution (6% HES 200/0.5). Various laboratory data were investigated before, during, and after extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Blood loss in control patients was more pronounced than in the two APP groups; two of the control patients needed packed red cells. APP itself did not affect coagulation variables, free hemoglobin, or polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase. At the end of the operation, 5 h after ECC, and at the first postoperative day the number of platelets was significantly lower in the control group; PRP patients showed the highest values. Fibrinogen and AT-III levels were less compromised in APP patients than in the control group. Global coagulation parameters did not differ between the groups within the whole investigation period. PMN elastase increased significantly during ECC in all groups with the greatest increase in the control group (722%) and the smallest increase in PRP patients (280%), possibly due to the removal of cellular elements in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)