Post COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis; a meta-analysis study
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2022;77:103590
Introduction; Pulmonary fibrosis is a frequently reported COVID-19 sequela in which the exact prevalence and risk factors are yet to be established. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis (PCPF) and the potential risk factors. Methods; CINAHL, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify English language studies published up to December 3, 2021. Results; The systematic search initially revealed a total of 618 articles - of which only 13 studies reporting 2018 patients were included in this study. Among the patients, 1047 (51.9%) were male and 971 (48.1%) were female. The mean age was 54.5 years (15-94). The prevalence of PCPF was 44.9%. The mean age was 59 years in fibrotic patients and 48.5 years in non-fibrotic patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the only comorbidity associated with PCPF. Fibrotic patients more commonly suffered from persistent symptoms of dyspnea, cough, chest pain, fatigue, and myalgia (p-value < 0.05). Factors related to COVID-19 severity that were associated with PCPF development included computed tomography score of ≥18, ICU admission, invasive/non-invasive mechanical ventilation, longer hospitalization period, and steroid, antibiotic and immunoglobulin treatments (p-value < 0.05). Parenchymal bands (284/341), ground-glass opacities (552/753), interlobular septal thickening (220/381), and consolidation (197/319) were the most common lung abnormalities found in fibrotic patients. Conclusion, About 44.9% of COVID-19 survivors appear to have developed pulmonary fibrosis. Factors related to COVID-19 severity were significantly associated with PCPF development.
Efficacy of Bovine Hydroxyapatite and Collagen Along With Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Scaffold and Human Chorion as a Membrane for Ridge Preservation: A Case-Control Study
AIM: The present study aims to determine the efficacy of bovine hydroxyapatite and collagen (G-graft) mixed with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) used as a scaffold and chorion membrane as a barrier in post-extraction sockets with extraction sites alone. METHODS AND MATERIAL Thirty individuals were randomly assigned into two groups. In the control group, after debridement of the extracted tooth socket, no additional treatment was done. In the test group, after debridement of the extracted tooth socket, the sockets were filled with bovine hydroxyapatite and collagen (G-graft) mixed with PRF. They were covered by a chorion membrane, and a non-absorbable suture material was used to secure the membrane in place. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index, gingival index, buccolingual width, buccal bone plate height, and lingual bone plate height at baseline and at six months. RESULTS Clinically, there was a more significant reduction in the buccolingual width of the control group than the test group after six months. A statistically significant difference between the two groups for vertical ridge height at the mesial and distal socket sites was observed. No statistically significant difference in buccal and lingual bone plate height was observed between the two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Both groups showed a significant reduction in the Buccolingual width, but it was less in the ridge preservation group. Thus, the use of G-graft with PRF and chorion membrane was highly effective in ridge preservation. Key messages: Natural bovine bone mineral, along with PRF and chorion as a membrane, can be utilized effectively for ridge preservation in extracted tooth sockets due to periodontal disease.
Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2022;215:107205
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a fatal and debilitating condition killing 2.7 million people each year worldwide. The most commonly used treatment modality for AIS is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase which is indicated for those presenting within 4.5 h of onset. Due to a lack of reliable evidence on harm or benefit, the 2019 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines consider a history of previous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) as potentially harmful and no longer an absolute contraindication for IVT in patients with AIS, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed chronic ICH as a specific contraindication for IVT from the label in 2015. Despite a shift in guidelines, physicians frequently face the dilemmatic choice whether to administer IVT in this subset of patients due to the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). The benefit of IVT in such patients has not been thoroughly investigated, and there are only a few studies on the subject in the literature to date. We conducted the present meta-analysis in an aim to provide solid evidence on the efficacy and safety of IVT for treating AIS in patients with a history of remote ICH. Our meta-analysis found that IVT improves functional outcomes in AIS patients with prior remote ICH without increasing SICH or all-cause mortality. These findings may contribute to the decision-making process for IVT administration in AIS patients.
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin use in immunoglobulin-naive patients with primary immunodeficiency: a systematic review
Aim: Identify and describe published literature on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) as initial immunoglobulin (IG)-replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Methods: We systematically identified and summarized literature in MEDLINE, Embase, BioSciences Information Service and Cochrane Library assessing efficacy/effectiveness, safety/tolerability, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and dosing regimens of SCIG for IG-naive patients with PID. Results: Sixteen studies were included. In IG-naive patients, SCIG managed/reduced infections and demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic parameters to IG-experienced patients; adverse events were mostly minor injection-site pain or discomfort. Three studies reported improvements in HRQoL. Quality of studies was difficult to assess due to limited reporting. Conclusion: Although studies were lacking, available data suggest IG-naive and IG-experienced patients initiating SCIG likely have similar outcomes.
Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of topical tranexamic acid in saving blood loss in patients undergoing prosthetic knee surgery
Revista espanola de cirugia ortopedica y traumatologia. 2022
OBJECTIVE Knee arthroplasty is a major surgery with potential significant blood loss. Assess the efficacy and safety of topical administration of 3 gr of tranexamic acid (TXA) in terms of reducing blood loss in knee arthroplasty. MATERIAL AND METHOD A randomized, phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been conducted. We included 150 patients in two parallel treatment groups (75 per arm). The solution was administered topically intra-articular after cementation and prior to capsular closure. Analytical determinations were made before and after surgery to quantify blood loss. RESULTS Total blood loss (TBL) for the placebo group was 831.5 ml and 662.3 ml for the TXA group. The difference between the two groups was 169.2 ml; which means a save of 20.4 per cent; this difference being statistically significant (p<0.001). There were no differences in terms of the onset of ambulation, days of admission or Visual Analogue Scale at one month of surgery. Ten patients were rejected for presurgical urinary tract infection, metal allergy, selection failure, patellar weakening, prosthetic instability, intrasurgical tibial fracture, change of indication to unicompartimental prosthesis and a loss of follow-up. There was only one complication unrelated to the investigational drug (bladder balloon). CONCLUSION The administration of TXA topically after cementation of the prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty in a single dose has demonstrated being safe and effective.
The impact of pathogen-reduced platelets in acute leukaemia treatment on the total blood product requirement: a subgroup analysis of an EFFIPAP randomised trial
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of pathogen-reduced (PR) platelet transfusions on blood products requirement for clinical practice. BACKGROUND PR platelets are increasing in use as standard blood products. However, few randomised trials have evaluated their impact on bleeding control or prevention. Furthermore, PR platelets recirculate less than untreated platelets. METHODS A subgroup study of the randomised clinical trial EFFIPAP compared three arms of platelet preparations (PR: P-PRP/PAS, additive solution: P-PAS and plasma P-P arms respectively). The subgroup of acute leukaemia patients, in their chemotherapy induction phase, included 392 patients (133 P-PRP/PAS arm, 132 P-PAS arm and 130 P-P arm). Blood requirements were analysed across over periods of 7 days. RESULTS The number of platelet transfusions per week was significantly higher in the P-PRP/PAS group 2.3 [1.6-3.3] compared to the control groups 1.9 [1.3-2.8] and 2.0 [1.3-3.0] for P-P and P-PAS groups respectively (p < 0.0001). However, the total number of platelets transfused per week was not different. The number of red blood cell concentrates (RBC) transfusion per week did not differ either. CONCLUSION In a homogeneous group of patients, platelet pathogen reduction resulted in an increased number of platelet units transfused per week while having no impact on the total number of platelets transfused or the number of RBC transfusion; resulting to an average requirement of 2 RBC and 2-3 platelets transfusions per week of marrow aplasia.
Comparison of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Bleeding and Leakage Rates in Four Staple-Line Reinforcement Methods: A Prospective Observational Study
Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A. 2022
Introduction: Staple-line bleeding and gastric leakage are the most serious complications of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Reinforcement of the staple line is reported to be a method to reduce these complications rates, but the question of which method is preferable is a matter of controversy in the literature. In this study, we compared different staple-line reinforcement methods to assess their efficiency in preventing staple-line bleeding and leakage. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients eligible for LSG were enrolled in the study and randomized into five groups based on the reinforcement method used during surgery: no reinforcement, oversewing using 3-0 polydioxanone (PDS) suture, oversewing using 4-0 barbed absorbable closure device (V-Lock), fibrin sealant glue, and buttress material. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. Differences were considered statistically significant for P < .05. Results: The no-reinforcement group showed higher bleeding rates (20%), although only 2.5% of the patients required reintervention. All groups using staple-line reinforcement showed better outcomes in bleeding rates (P < .05). No statistically significant differences were observed among the groups in terms of the leakage rate, reintervention rate, intraoperative complications, and operative times. Conclusion: The reinforcement of the staple line decreased the bleeding rate in sleeve gastrectomy but did not affect the gastric leakage rate.
A Comparison Between Enteral and Intravenous Nimodipine in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2022
Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and enteral nimodipine in preventing poor outcome from delayed cerebral ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a systematic search and a network meta-analysis using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess risk of bias of included studies. A ranking among methods was performed on the basis of the frequentist analog of the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Published studies that met the following population, intervention, comparison, outcomes and study (PICOS) criteria were included: patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage aged 15 years or older (P); nimodipine, intravenous and oral formulation (I); placebo or no intervention (C); poor outcome measured at 3 months (defined as death, vegetative state, or severe disability), case fatality at 3 months, delayed cerebral ischemia, delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, and vasospasm measured with transcranial Doppler or digital subtraction angiography (O); and randomized controlled trials (S). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Ten studies were finally included, with a total of 1527 randomly assigned patients. Oral and intravenous nimodipine were both effective in preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. Neither treatment was effective in improving case fatality. Evolving clinical protocols over a 30-year period and the risk of bias of the included studies may limit the strength of our results. Enteral and intravenous nimodipine may have a similar effectiveness in terms of preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. More research may be needed to fully establish the role of intravenous nimodipine in current clinical practice.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma vs standard management for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer wounds: A meta-analysis
International wound journal. 2022
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma vs standard management for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer wounds. A systematic literature search up to March 2022 was performed and 1435 subjects with diabetic foot ulcer wounds at the baseline of the studies; 723 of them were treated with platelet-rich plasma, and 712 used control. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated to assess the effect of platelet-rich plasma vs standard management for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer wounds using the dichotomous method with a random or fixed-effect model. The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma resulted in significantly higher complete-healed diabetic foot ulcer wounds compared with control (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.49-2.56, P < 0.001). The use of allogeneic platelet-rich plasma resulted in significantly higher complete-healed diabetic foot ulcer wounds compared with control (OR, 6.19; 95% CI, 2.32-16.56, P < 0.001). The use of autologous and allogeneic platelet-rich plasma resulted in significantly higher complete-healed diabetic foot ulcer wounds compared with control. Though, the analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low number of studies in certain comparisons, for example, allogeneic platelet-rich plasma compared with control.