Iron supplementation and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age newborns
Pediatric research. 2022
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iron exposure and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS A secondary analysis of the PENUT Trial dataset was conducted. The primary outcome was BPD at 36 weeks gestational age and primary exposures of interest were cumulative iron exposures in the first 28 days and through 36 weeks' gestation. Descriptive statistics were calculated for study cohort characteristics with analysis adjusted for the factors used to stratify randomization. RESULTS Of the 941 patients, 821 (87.2%) survived to BPD evaluation at 36 weeks, with 332 (40.4%) diagnosed with BPD. The median cohort gestational age was 26 weeks and birth weight 810 g. In the first 28 days, 76% of infants received enteral iron and 55% parenteral iron. The median supplemental cumulative enteral and parenteral iron intakes at 28 days were 58.5 and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively, and through 36 weeks' 235.8 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively. We found lower volume of red blood cell transfusions in the first 28 days after birth and higher enteral iron exposure in the first 28 days after birth to be associated with lower rates of BPD. CONCLUSIONS We find no support for an increased risk of BPD with iron supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01378273. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01378273 IMPACT Prior studies and biologic plausibility raise the possibility that iron administration could contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidant-induced lung injury and thus bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. For 24-27-week premature infants, this study finds no association between total cumulative enteral iron supplementation at either 28-day or 36-week postmenstrual age and the risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
No difference in myocardial iron concentration and serum ferritin with deferasirox and deferiprone in pediatric patients with hemoglobinopathies: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2022
OBJECTIVES Iron overload is a common complication experienced by transfusion-dependent children with hemoglobin disorders. Chelators such as deferasirox (DFX) and deferiprone (DFP) are effective in overcoming this problem. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of DFX compared to DFP in treating iron overload amongst pediatric patients with hemoglobin disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched from their inception until Dec 21 2021, for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies, which assessed the efficacy of DFX compared to DFP in the treatment of inherited hemoglobin disorders. The outcomes of interest included myocardial iron concentration (MRI T2*) at the end of the trial and change in mean serum ferritin (SF) levels at the 6 and 12 months mark. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous outcomes using random effects model. RESULTS A total of 5 studies comprising 607 children were included. The results of our analysis revealed no significant difference between DFX and DFP in MRI T2* at the end of treatment (WMD: -0.92;95% CI[-3.35,1.52]; p=0.46; I(2)=0). Moreover, there has been no significant difference noted in SF levels at both 6 months (WMD: 97.31; 95% CI[-236.16,430.77]; p=0.57; I(2)=0) and 12 months (WMD: 46.99; 95% CI[-191.42,285.40]; p=0.70; I(2)=0) respectively. CONCLUSION Our analysis shows no significant difference between the efficacy of DFX and DFP in the management of iron overload in children with inherited blood disorders. Future large-scale clinical trials are required to further validate our results.
Comparison of transfusion reactions in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2022;:e29842
BACKGROUND There are no international standards or normalizations for diagnosing and treating complications from blood transfusions. We comprehensively compared the incidence of adverse blood transfusions in children and adults. METHODS Available literature on blood transfusion adverse reactions in children and adults prior to November 27, 2021 was collected from several electronic databases. This meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 and Stata 15.1. RESULTS The incidence of transfusion reactions is higher in children than in adults. Children transfused with red blood cells and platelets exhibited a higher incidence of transfusion reaction than that of adults. Moreover, the incidence of allergic and febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions was significantly higher in children than in adults. The incidence of some rare transfusion reactions was also significantly higher in children than in adults. CONCLUSION The incidence of transfusion reactions in children and adults is varied. Guidelines for children are necessary.
Red blood cell alloimmunization among recipients of blood transfusion in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES There is a varied prevalence of red cell alloimmunization being reported from different parts of India. This study aimed to estimate the overall prevalence of alloimmunization in India by performing a systematic review of the literature and to establish the most suitable antigen-matching strategy to reduce the red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization rate among transfusion recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic search of all the original articles published in English on RBC alloimmunization among transfusion recipients from India in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted. After screening the articles as per inclusion/exclusion criteria, data extraction was done independently by two sets of investigators. Meta-analysis was performed by the binary random-effects model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. RESULTS A total of 44 studies on RBC alloimmunization, with a cumulative sample size of 309,986 patients, were grouped into hospital-based and multiply-transfused patients, which yielded a prevalence of 0.5 (95% confidence interval; 0.3-0.8) and 4.8 (95% confidence interval; 3.9-5.7) per 100 patients, respectively. As many as 1992 alloantibodies were identified among the 1846 alloimmunized patients. The most common antibody identified was anti-E (127; 31.99%), followed by anti-c (75; 18.89%) in multiply-transfused patients. CONCLUSION The rate of alloimmunization was 0.5 per 100 patients tested for antibodies and 4.8 per 100 patients receiving transfusion. Considering E- and c-antigen-matched red cells along with ABO and RhD matching may significantly reduce the overall occurrence of alloimmunization among Indian population who are transfusion-dependent.
Adherence to Iron Chelation Therapy among Adults with Thalassemia: A Systematic Review
Iron chelation therapy (ICT) is essential to prevent complications of iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. However, the role that adherence to ICT plays in health-related outcomes is less well known. Our objectives were to identify adherence rates of ICT, and to assess methods of measurement, predictors of adherence, and adherence-related health outcomes in the literature published between 1980 and 2020. Of 543 articles, 43 met the inclusion criteria. Studies measured ICT adherence, predictors, and/or outcomes associated with adherence. Most studies were across multiple countries in Europe and North America (n = 8/43, 18.6%), recruited in clinics (n = 39/43, 90.7%), and focused on β-thalassemia (β-thal) (n = 25/43, 58.1%). Common methods of assessing ICT adherence included patient self-report (n = 24/43, 55.8%), pill count (n = 9/43, 20.9%), prescription refill history (n = 3/43, 7.0%), provider scoring (n = 3/43, 7.0%), and combinations of methods (n = 4/43, 9.3%). Studies reported adherence either in 'categories' with different levels of adherence (n = 24) or 'quantitatively' as a percentage of doses of medication taken out of those prescribed (n = 17). Adherence levels varied (median 91.7%, range 42.0-99.97%). Studies varied in sample size and methods of adherence assessment and reporting, which prohibited meta-analysis. Due to a lack of consensus on how adherence is defined, it is difficult to compare ICT adherence reporting. Further research is needed to establish guidelines for assessing adherence and identifying suboptimal adherence. Behavioral digital interventions have the potential to optimize ICT adherence and health outcomes.
A Systematic Review on the Management of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury in Transfusion-Dependent Sickle Cell Disease
The onset of respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI) following a blood transfusion is known as transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), although its pathophysiology remains unknown. Even though sickle cell disease (SCD) has been studied for more than a century, few therapeutic and management strategies adequately address the emergence of TRALI. TRALI, an immune-mediated transfusion response that can result in life-threatening consequences, is diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms. Early detection and treatment increase the chances of survival and, in most cases, result in a complete recovery. Our objective is to provide a firm grasp of the present status of SCD-related TRALI care and therapy. After exploring multiple databases, this study offers evidence-based guidelines to aid clinicians and other healthcare professionals make decisions concerning transfusion assistance for SCD and the management of transfusion-related complications. Other risk factors for acute lung injury including sepsis aspiration should be ruled out throughout the diagnostic process. Several recent studies have shown that immunotherapy or immunological targets can effectively prevent these complications. Red cell transfusions, red cell antigen matching optimization, and iron chelation can also help reduce negative consequences. It is to be noted that poor clinical outcomes can be avoided by early detection and treatment of hemolytic transfusion reactions. Finally, preventing the onset of TRALI may be the most effective therapeutic strategy for SCD patients who rely on blood transfusions for survival.
Efficacy and Tolerability of Twice-Daily Dosing Schedule of Deferasirox in Transfusion-Dependent Paediatric Beta-Thalassaemia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study
Journal of pharmacy practice. 2022;:8971900211038301
BACKGROUND Deferasirox has proved good efficacy and acceptable safety for the management of thalassaemia patients. However, some patients are unresponsive or intolerant to once-daily administration of deferasirox even at a high dose. The current study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of twice-daily dosing of deferasirox among transfusion-dependent paediatric beta-thalassaemia patients. METHODS This prospective randomized single-blinded parallel study included all transfusion-dependent paediatric beta-thalassaemia patients prescribed with deferasirox, who visit the study site for their regular blood transfusions and follow-up. The enrolled patients were randomized into intervention and control groups by using a simple block randomization method. In the intervention group, the once-daily dosing of deferasirox was changed to twice-daily dosing with the same total daily dose. Whereas, in the control group, the patients continued with the once-daily deferasirox dosing. The serum ferritin levels of both groups were determined on the enrolment day and after 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS Forty-one patients were included for analysis. A statistically significant mean decrease in serum ferritin levels was detected in the intervention group, while the serum ferritin levels of the control group significantly increased from baseline. The twice-daily dosing of deferasirox was better tolerated by the thalassaemia patients when compared to once-daily dosing. CONCLUSION This study concludes that twice-daily dosing of deferasirox with the same total daily dose significantly enhances the iron chelation efficacy and tolerability among transfusion-dependent paediatric beta-thalassaemia patients when compared to once-daily regimen.
Health State Utilities for Sickle Cell Disease: A Catalog Prepared From a Systematic Review
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. 2022;25(2):276-287
OBJECTIVES Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex, chronic condition that impairs health-related quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. As curative therapies emerge, comprehensive cost-effectiveness models will inform their value. These models will require descriptions of health states and their corresponding utility values that accurately reflect health-related quality of life over the disease trajectory. The objectives of this systematic review were to develop a catalog of health state utility (HSU) values for SCD, identify research gaps, and provide future directions for preference elicitation. METHODS Records were identified through searches of PubMed and Embase, Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, reference lists of relevant articles, and consultation with SCD experts (2008-2020). We removed duplicate records and excluded ineligible studies. For included studies, we summarized the study characteristics, methods used for eliciting HSUs, and HSU values. RESULTS Five studies empirically elicited utilities using indirect methods (EQ-5D) (n = 3) and Short Form-6 Dimension (n = 2); these represent health states associated with general SCD (n = 1), SCD complications (n = 2), and SCD treatments (n = 3). Additionally, we extracted HSUs from 7 quality-adjusted life-years-based outcome research studies. The HSU among patients with general SCD without specifying complications ranged from 0.64 to 0.887. Only 36% of the HSUs used in the quality-adjusted life-year-based outcomes research studies were derived from individuals with SCD. No study estimated HSUs in caregivers. CONCLUSIONS There is a dearth of literature of HSUs for use in SCD models. Future empirical studies should elicit a comprehensive set of HSUs from individuals with SCD and their caregivers.
Transfusion-transmitted arboviruses: Update and systematic review
PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2022;16(10):e0010843
BACKGROUND The detection of the first cases of transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus in 2002 posed a new challenge for transfusion safety. Institutions like the World Health Organization have stated that blood transfusion centers need to know the epidemiology of the different emerging infectious agents and their impact on blood transfusion. The aim of the study is to review the published cases of arbovirus transmission through transfusion of blood or blood components and to analyze their main clinical and epidemiological characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus. Pairs of review authors selected a variety of scientific publications reporting cases of transfusion-transmitted arboviruses. Main clinical and epidemiological characteristics were reviewed of the cases described. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO CRD42021270355. RESULTS A total of 74 cases of transfusion-transmitted infections were identified from 10 arboviruses: West Nile virus (n = 42), dengue virus (n = 18), Zika virus (n = 3), yellow fever vaccine virus (n = 3), tick-borne encephalitis virus (n = 2), Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 2), Powassan virus (n = 1), St. Louis encephalitis virus (n = 1), Ross River virus (n = 1) and Colorado tick fever virus (n = 1). The blood component most commonly involved was red blood cells (N = 35, 47.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 35.9% to 58.7%). In 54.1% (N = 40; 95% CI: 42.7%-65.47%) of the cases, the recipient was immunosuppressed. Transmission resulted in death in 18.9% (N = 14; 95% CI: 10.0%-27.8%) of the recipients. In addition, 18 additional arboviruses were identified with a potential threat to transfusion safety. DISCUSSION In the last 20 years, the number of published cases of transfusion-transmitted arboviruses increased notably, implicating new arboviruses. In addition, a significant number of arboviruses that may pose a threat to transfusion safety were detected. In the coming years, it is expected that transmission of arboviruses will continue to expand globally. It is therefore essential that all responsible agencies prepare for this potential threat to transfusion safety.
Patients with suspected transfusion-transmitted infections (29 studies, n= 74).
Systematic review of the published cases of arbovirus transmission through the transfusion of blood or blood components.
A total of 74 cases of transfusion-transmitted infections were identified from 10 arboviruses: West Nile virus (n= 42), dengue virus (n= 18), Zika virus (n= 3), yellow fever vaccine virus (n= 3), tick-borne encephalitis virus (n= 2), Japanese encephalitis virus (n= 2), Powassan virus (n= 1), St. Louis encephalitis virus (n= 1), Ross River virus (n= 1) and Colorado tick fever virus (n= 1). The blood component most commonly involved was red blood cells (n= 35, 47.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.9% to 58.7%). In 54.1% (n= 40; 95% CI: 42.7%-65.47%) of the cases, the recipient was immunosuppressed. Transmission resulted in death in 18.9% (n= 14; 95% CI: 10.0%-27.8%) of the recipients. In addition, 18 additional arboviruses were identified with a potential threat to transfusion safety.
Comparison of the effects of calcium channel blockers plus iron chelation therapy versus chelation therapy only on iron overload in children and young adults with transfusion-dependent thalassemia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2022;:e29564
BACKGROUND Myocardial iron deposition is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). Amlodipine, L-type calcium channel blocker with regular chelation therapy may reduce myocardial iron overload. Lack of randomized trials prompted this study to assess the effect of calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) in combination with iron chelation therapy on iron overload in patients with TDT. METHODS Sixty-four eligible patients were randomized to receive either amlodipine and chelation (group A) or chelation alone (group B) in double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Myocardial iron concentration (MIC) using T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), liver iron concentration (LIC), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and serum ferritin were measured at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS In the amlodipine group, mean cardiac T2* value significantly increased from 18.11 ± 8.47 to 22.15 ± 7.61 (p = .002) at 12 months, whereas in control group, there was a nonsignificant increase (p = .62) in cardiac T2* value from 19.50 ± 8.84 to 20.03 ± 9.07. There was a significant decrease in MRI-derived MIC in the amlodipine group compared to control group (1.93 ± 1.61 to 1.29 ± 0.90, p = .01). Changes in the LVEF (p = .45), MRI-derived LIC (p = .09), and serum ferritin (p = .81) were not significant between the two groups. CONCLUSION Amlodipine is safe and when combined with chelation therapy appears to be more effective in reducing cardiac iron overload than chelation only in children and young adults with TDT.