Clinical Effectiveness of Intraoperative Tranexamic Acid Use in Shoulder Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The American journal of sports medicine. 2021;:363546520981679
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used across surgical specialties to reduce perioperative bleeding. It has been shown to be effective in spinal surgery and lower limb arthroplasty. Among all languages, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses investigating its clinical effectiveness for all types of shoulder surgery. PURPOSE To investigate the clinical effectiveness of TXA in all types of shoulder surgery, including open and arthroscopic procedures. To investigate the effect of TXA on bleeding and non-bleeding-related outcomes. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS A protocol for the study was designed and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020185482). The literature search included the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. All randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of TXA against placebo, in all types of shoulder surgery, were included. Assessments were undertaken for risk of bias and certainty of evidence. The primary outcome was total blood loss. Secondary outcomes included those not directly related to bleeding. Data from comparable outcomes were pooled and analyzed quantitatively or descriptively, as appropriate. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, and data from 7 of these studies were pooled in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in 2 of 3 outcomes measuring perioperative bleeding with TXA compared with controls: estimated total blood loss (mean difference, -209.66 mL; 95% CI, -389.11 to -30.21; P = .02) and postoperative blood loss as measured by drain output (mean difference, -84.8 mL; 95% CI, -140.04 to -29.56; P = .003). Hemoglobin reduction was reduced but not statistically significant (mean difference, -0.33 g/dL; 95% CI -0.69 to 0.03; P = .07). This result became significant with sensitivity analysis excluding arthroscopic procedures. CONCLUSION This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that TXA was effective in reducing blood loss in shoulder surgery. Larger randomized controlled trials with low risk of bias for specific surgical shoulder procedures are required. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TXA can be used across shoulder surgery to reduced perioperative blood loss. The use of TXA may have other beneficial features, including reduced postoperative pain and reduced operative time.
Intravenous iron supplementation after liver surgery: Impact on anemia, iron, and hepcidin levels-a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND Anemia is a recognized risk factor for perioperative related morbidity and mortality and is frequently reported in liver surgeries with an estimated incidence of 32%. We aim to assess the impact of intravenous iron administration in the immediate postoperative period on anemia and iron status as well as to determine the kinetics of hepcidin after liver surgery. METHODS The HepciFer trial, a randomized controlled trial, included 50 patients undergoing liver surgery. In accordance with the randomization process, patients received either ferric carboxymaltose (15 mg/kg, maximum 1 g) or placebo 4 hours after surgery. RESULTS The mean hemoglobin level, 7 days after surgery, did not differ significantly between the intervention and control group (11.1 ± 1.8 g/dL and 10.4 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively) with a mean difference of +0.7 g/dL ([95% confidence interval, -0.3 to +1.7], P = .173). Within patients receiving intravenous iron supplementation, none presented biological signs of functional iron deficiency. Hepcidin levels remained significantly higher during the observation period in the intervention group. Inflammatory biomarkers, red blood cells transfusion rate and hospital duration of stay were similar between groups. CONCLUSION Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose administration did not result in a significant increase of hemoglobin levels 7 days after surgery. However, this study suggests that intravenous iron supplementation in the immediate postoperative settings prevents functional iron deficiency. Intravenous iron supplementation overcame the hepcidin-mediated blockade of iron absorption and should be considered as the preferred route of administration in the postoperative period.
Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Derisomaltose Compared to Iron Sucrose for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease With and Without Heart Failure
The American journal of cardiology. 2021
Ferric derisomaltose (FDI) is an intravenous (IV) high-dose iron formulation approved in the US for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adults who are intolerant of/have had an unsatisfactory response to oral iron, or who have non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD). FERWON-NEPHRO was a randomized, open-label, multicenter clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a single infusion of FDI 1,000 mg versus up to 5 doses of iron sucrose (IS) 200 mg (recommended cumulative dose, 1,000 mg) over 8 weeks in patients with NDD-CKD and iron deficiency anemia. Of 1,525 patients included in the safety analysis, 244 (16%) had a history of heart failure (HF). Overall, the rate of serious or severe hypersensitivity reactions was low and did not differ between treatment groups. Cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) were reported for 9.4% of patients who had HF and 4.2% who did not. Time to first cardiovascular AE was longer following administration of FDI compared with IS (hazard ratio: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.37, 0.92]; p=0.0185), a difference that was similar in patients with or without HF (p=0.908 for interaction). Patients achieved a faster hematological response (assessed by changes in hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations, and increase in transferrin saturation) with FDI versus IS. In conclusion, in patients with NDD-CKD, a single infusion of FDI was safe, well tolerated, and was associated with fewer cardiovascular AEs and a faster hematological response, compared to multiple doses of IS. These effects were similar for patients with and without HF.
Effect of 4DryField® PH on blood loss in hip bipolar hemiarthroplasty following intracapsular femoral neck fracture - a randomized clinical trial
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2021;22(1):113
BACKGROUND One of the most common complications of hip arthroplasty is excessive blood loss that could necessitate allogenic blood transfusion, which is further associated with other complications, such as infections, transfusion reactions or immunomodulation. In gynecology, 4DryField®PH, an absorbable polysaccharide-based formulation, is used for hemostasis and adhesion prophylaxis. In this study, we evaluated its hemostatic effect in patients undergoing hip bipolar hemiarthroplasty following intracapsular femoral neck fracture. METHODS We studied 40 patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures (Garden III or IV) admitted at our institution between July 2016 and November 2017. We included patients above 60 years with simple fracture and without pathologic fractures. Patients were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 5 g of 4DryField® PH (subfascially and subcutaneously) during wound closure. Three drainages were inserted in a standardized manner (submuscular, subfascial, and subcutaneous) and drainage volume was measured immediately before extraction. Total blood loss was calculated using Mercuriali's formula and standard hemograms upon admission and five days after surgery. Volume of postoperative hematoma was measured using point-of-care ultrasound seven days after surgery. RESULTS Volume of the postoperative hematoma was reduced by 43.0 mL. However, significant reduction of total blood loss and drainage volume was not observed. CONCLUSIONS We observed that 4DryField® PH had a local hemostatic effect, thereby reducing volume of the postoperative hematoma. However, this reduction was small and had no effect on the total blood loss. Further studies are warranted to improve the application algorithm. TRIAL REGISTRATION DRKS, DRKS00017452 , Registered 11 June 2019 - Retrospectively registered.
Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Bone Healing in Immediate Implants Analyzed by Cone Beam Computerized Tomography: A Randomized Controlled Trial
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:6685991
The possibility of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the improvement of bone and adjacent tissue recovery has previously been validated. However, there is insufficient data supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma to improve the healing of bone and adjacent tissues around an implant in the oral cavity. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to observe the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentrate on marginal bone loss and bone density around immediate implant placement using Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT). This clinical study was conducted over a period of six months on 12 subjects, who were equally categorized into two groups. Group I was the control, whereas the subjects in Group II received PRP therapy at the surgical site. All subjects were given a standard treatment with a single implant system (DIO UFII hybrid sandblasted acid-etched implants). Inserted implants were analyzed through CBCT, and records were registered at baseline, at the 12(th) week before functional loading and the 26(th) week after functional loading. The bone loss was calculated at the proximal (mesial and distal) side of the implant and bone density at baseline, 12(th) week, and 26(th) week after implant placement. SPSS version 23.0 was used for statistical analysis of data. The changes in bone levels were measured and compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney U test, with no significant difference. Bone density was analyzed by an independent sample t-test, p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Again, no significant difference in bone density was observed between both groups at all three instances. Therefore, it can be concluded that local injection of PRP after immediate implant placement did not show any decrease in marginal bone loss or improvement in bone density. This trial is registered with NCT04650763.
Effect of 0.9% NaCl compared to plasma-lyte on biomarkers of kidney injury, sodium excretion and tubular transport proteins in patients undergoing primary uncemented hip replacement - a randomized trial
BMC nephrology. 2021;22(1):111
BACKGROUND Isotonic saline (IS) is widely used to secure perioperative cardiovascular stability. However, the high amount of chloride in IS can induce hyperchloremic acidosis. Therefore, IS is suspected to increase the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Biomarkers may have potential as indicators. METHODS In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 38 patients undergoing primary uncemented hip replacement were randomized to IS or PlasmaLyte (PL). Infusion was given during surgery as 15 ml/kg the first hour and 5 ml/kg the following two hours. Urinary samples were collected upon admission and the day after surgery. As surgery was initiated, urine was collected over the course of 4 h. Hereafter, another urine collection proceeded until the morning. Urine was analyzed for markers of AKI neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). Arterious and venous blood samples for measurements of pH and plasma electrolytes including chloride (p-Cl) were collected as surgery was initiated, at the end of surgery and the following morning. RESULTS IS induced an increase in p-Cl (111 ± 2 mmol/L after IS and 108 ± 3 after PL, p = 0.004) and a decrease in pH (7.39 ± 0.02 after IS and 7.43 ± 0.03 after PL, p = 0.001). Urinary NGAL excretion increased in both groups (ΔNGAL: 5.5 [4.1; 11.7] μg/mmol creatinine p = 0.004 after IS vs. 5.5 [2.1;9.4] μg/mmol creatinine after PL, p < 0.001). No difference was found between the groups (p = 0.839). Similarly, urinary KIM-1 excretion increased in both groups (ΔKIM-1: IS 115.8 [74.1; 156.2] ng/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001 vs. PL 152.4 [120.1; 307.9] ng/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001). No difference between the groups (p = 0.064). FE(Na) increased (1.08 ± 0.52% after IS and 1.66 ± 1.15% after PL, p = 0.032). ENaC excretion was different within groups (p = 0.019). CONCLUSION A significantly higher plasma chloride and a lower pH was present in the group receiving isotonic saline. However, u-NGAL and u-KIM-1 increased significantly in both groups after surgery despite absence of changes in creatinine. These results indicate that surgery induced subclinical kidney injury. Also, the IS group had a delayed sodium excretion as compared to the PL group which may indicate that IS affects renal sodium excretion differently from PL. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02528448 , 19/08/2015.
Efficacy of Intraoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation and Postoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Booster Injection for Rotator Cuff Healing: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(6):23259671211006100
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been applied as an adjuvant treatment for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) to enhance rotator cuff healing. However, it remains debatable whether PRP enhances tendon-to-bone healing. PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of intraoperative augmentation and postoperative injection of PRP that was prepared using the double-spin method and calcium activation without thrombin in patients with ARCR. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1; and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS A total of 58 patients underwent ARCR using intraoperative PRP augmentation. Half of the patients were randomly assigned to receive an additional ultrasound-guided PRP injection at the repair site at 2 weeks postoperatively (PRP-booster group); the other half did not receive the booster injection (PRP-only group). A control group that did not receive any PRP treatment was retrospectively matched using propensity score matching. Structural integrity was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year postoperatively, and healing rates were compared between patients with tear sizes ≤2 cm versus >2 cm. Functional outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; VAS for satisfaction; shoulder range of motion; and Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Simple Shoulder Test scores at minimum 2-year follow-up. RESULTS In patients with tears >2 cm, the rate of healing failure at 1-year follow-up was significantly less in the overall PRP group than in the control group (12.9% vs 35.7%, respectively; P = .040), however, the PRP-booster group did not present a better healing rate than did the PRP-only group. The overall PRP group had lower VAS for pain scores compared with the control group (0.5 ± 1.1 vs 1.3 ± 1.8, respectively; P = .016) and higher VAS for satisfaction scores (9.2 ± 1.2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7; P = .023) at the final follow-up, whereas no statistical difference was found between the PRP-only and PRP-booster groups in functional outcomes. CONCLUSION Intraoperative PRP augmentation during ARCR demonstrated superior anatomic healing results in patients with rotator cuff tears >2 cm as well as reduced pain and increased subjective satisfaction. PRP booster injection provided no additional benefit to tendon integrity or functional recovery.
Therapeutic Application of Fibrinogen in Spine Surgery: A Review Article
International journal of spine surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND The aim of this review is to investigate current uses of fibrinogen as a tool to reduce operative and postoperative blood loss in different surgical fields especially orthopedic spine surgery. This is a systematic review. METHODS MEDLINE (via Ovid 1946 to June 1, 2020) and Embase (via Ovid 1947 to June 1, 2020) were searched using the keywords "fibrinogen", "surgery", and "spine" for relevant studies. The search strategy used text words and relevant indexing to identify articles discussing the use of fibrinogen to control surgical blood loss. RESULTS The original literature search yielded 407 articles from which 68 duplications were removed. Three hundred thirty-nine abstracts and titles were screened. Results were separated by surgical specialties. CONCLUSIONS Multiple studies have looked at the role of fibrinogen for acute bleeding in the operative setting. The current evidence regarding the use of fibrinogen concentrate in spine surgery is promising but limited, even though this is a field with the potential for severe hemorrhage. Further trials are required to understand the utility of fibrinogen concentrate as a first-line therapy in spine surgery and to understand the importance of target fibrinogen levels and subsequent dosing and administration to allow recommendations to be made in this field.
Epidemiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy in systemic sclerosis
The Journal of rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The epidemiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments of peripheral neuropathy in SSc. METHODS A systematic review of Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for literature reporting peripheral neuropathy in SSc was performed. Studies evaluating incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments were synthesized. Meta-analysis using a random effects model was used to evaluate the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS 113 studies reported 949 subjects with at least one type of peripheral neuropathy out of 2143 SSc patients studied. The mean age was 48.5 years. The mean time between SSc onset and detection of peripheral neuropathy was 8.85 years. The pooled prevalence of neuropathy was 27.4% (95%CI 22.4% - 32.7%). Risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in SSc included advanced diffuse disease, anticentromere antibodies, calcinosis cutis, ischemia of the vasa nervosum, iron deficiency anemia, metoclopramide, pembrolizumab, silicosis and uremia. There were 73 subjects with successful treatments (n=36 restoring sensation, n=37 restoring motor or sensorimotor function). Treatments included decompression surgery, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, carbamazepine, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, tricyclic antidepressants and IVIG. CONCLUSION All-cause peripheral neuropathy is not uncommon in SSc. Compression neuropathies can be treated with decompression surgery. Observational data reporting immunosuppressive and anticonvulsants to treat peripheral neuropathy in SSc is limited and conflicting. This data provides the signal of effect to justify RCT to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions.
Evaluation of the Histomorphometric and Micromorphometric Performance of a Serum Albumin-Coated Bone Allograft Combined with A-PRF for Early and Conventional Healing Protocols after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;14(7)
The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of augmented bone following maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA) after healing periods of 3 (test) and 6 (control) months using the combination of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) and a serum albumin-coated bone allograft (SACBA). Twenty-six patients with 30 surgical sites who required two-stage MSA were enrolled and grafted with the combination of A-PRF and SACBAs. The surgical sites were randomly allocated to the test or control group. During implant site preparation, 17 bone core biopsy samples were collected from each study group for histological, histomorphometric and micromorphometric analysis. Resonance frequency analysis was performed at the time of implant placement and 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The percentage of newly formed bone was 44.89 ± 9.49% in the test group and 39.75 ± 8.15% in the control group (p = 0.100). The results of the µCT analysis showed no significant differences in morphometric parameters between the study groups. The implant stability quotient was not significantly different between the two groups at 10 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Based on these findings, the total treatment time may be reduced by 3 months with the use of A-PRF and SACBAs for two-stage MSA.