Post COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis; a meta-analysis study
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2022;77:103590
Introduction; Pulmonary fibrosis is a frequently reported COVID-19 sequela in which the exact prevalence and risk factors are yet to be established. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis (PCPF) and the potential risk factors. Methods; CINAHL, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify English language studies published up to December 3, 2021. Results; The systematic search initially revealed a total of 618 articles - of which only 13 studies reporting 2018 patients were included in this study. Among the patients, 1047 (51.9%) were male and 971 (48.1%) were female. The mean age was 54.5 years (15-94). The prevalence of PCPF was 44.9%. The mean age was 59 years in fibrotic patients and 48.5 years in non-fibrotic patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the only comorbidity associated with PCPF. Fibrotic patients more commonly suffered from persistent symptoms of dyspnea, cough, chest pain, fatigue, and myalgia (p-value < 0.05). Factors related to COVID-19 severity that were associated with PCPF development included computed tomography score of ≥18, ICU admission, invasive/non-invasive mechanical ventilation, longer hospitalization period, and steroid, antibiotic and immunoglobulin treatments (p-value < 0.05). Parenchymal bands (284/341), ground-glass opacities (552/753), interlobular septal thickening (220/381), and consolidation (197/319) were the most common lung abnormalities found in fibrotic patients. Conclusion, About 44.9% of COVID-19 survivors appear to have developed pulmonary fibrosis. Factors related to COVID-19 severity were significantly associated with PCPF development.
Efficacy of Bovine Hydroxyapatite and Collagen Along With Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Scaffold and Human Chorion as a Membrane for Ridge Preservation: A Case-Control Study
AIM: The present study aims to determine the efficacy of bovine hydroxyapatite and collagen (G-graft) mixed with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) used as a scaffold and chorion membrane as a barrier in post-extraction sockets with extraction sites alone. METHODS AND MATERIAL Thirty individuals were randomly assigned into two groups. In the control group, after debridement of the extracted tooth socket, no additional treatment was done. In the test group, after debridement of the extracted tooth socket, the sockets were filled with bovine hydroxyapatite and collagen (G-graft) mixed with PRF. They were covered by a chorion membrane, and a non-absorbable suture material was used to secure the membrane in place. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index, gingival index, buccolingual width, buccal bone plate height, and lingual bone plate height at baseline and at six months. RESULTS Clinically, there was a more significant reduction in the buccolingual width of the control group than the test group after six months. A statistically significant difference between the two groups for vertical ridge height at the mesial and distal socket sites was observed. No statistically significant difference in buccal and lingual bone plate height was observed between the two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Both groups showed a significant reduction in the Buccolingual width, but it was less in the ridge preservation group. Thus, the use of G-graft with PRF and chorion membrane was highly effective in ridge preservation. Key messages: Natural bovine bone mineral, along with PRF and chorion as a membrane, can be utilized effectively for ridge preservation in extracted tooth sockets due to periodontal disease.
Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin use in immunoglobulin-naive patients with primary immunodeficiency: a systematic review
Aim: Identify and describe published literature on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) as initial immunoglobulin (IG)-replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Methods: We systematically identified and summarized literature in MEDLINE, Embase, BioSciences Information Service and Cochrane Library assessing efficacy/effectiveness, safety/tolerability, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and dosing regimens of SCIG for IG-naive patients with PID. Results: Sixteen studies were included. In IG-naive patients, SCIG managed/reduced infections and demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic parameters to IG-experienced patients; adverse events were mostly minor injection-site pain or discomfort. Three studies reported improvements in HRQoL. Quality of studies was difficult to assess due to limited reporting. Conclusion: Although studies were lacking, available data suggest IG-naive and IG-experienced patients initiating SCIG likely have similar outcomes.
Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of topical tranexamic acid in saving blood loss in patients undergoing prosthetic knee surgery
Revista espanola de cirugia ortopedica y traumatologia. 2022
OBJECTIVE Knee arthroplasty is a major surgery with potential significant blood loss. Assess the efficacy and safety of topical administration of 3 gr of tranexamic acid (TXA) in terms of reducing blood loss in knee arthroplasty. MATERIAL AND METHOD A randomized, phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been conducted. We included 150 patients in two parallel treatment groups (75 per arm). The solution was administered topically intra-articular after cementation and prior to capsular closure. Analytical determinations were made before and after surgery to quantify blood loss. RESULTS Total blood loss (TBL) for the placebo group was 831.5 ml and 662.3 ml for the TXA group. The difference between the two groups was 169.2 ml; which means a save of 20.4 per cent; this difference being statistically significant (p<0.001). There were no differences in terms of the onset of ambulation, days of admission or Visual Analogue Scale at one month of surgery. Ten patients were rejected for presurgical urinary tract infection, metal allergy, selection failure, patellar weakening, prosthetic instability, intrasurgical tibial fracture, change of indication to unicompartimental prosthesis and a loss of follow-up. There was only one complication unrelated to the investigational drug (bladder balloon). CONCLUSION The administration of TXA topically after cementation of the prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty in a single dose has demonstrated being safe and effective.
Assessing deterioration using impairment and functional outcome measures in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a post-hoc analysis of the IOC trial
Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS It is unclear whether frequently used cut-off values for outcome measures defining minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) can accurately identify meaningful deterioration in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS We used data from the IOC trial, in which sixty clinically stable CIDP patients were randomized to IVIg withdrawal or continuation. We calculated change scores of the Inflammatory Rasch-Built Overall Disability Scale (I-RODS), grip strength, and MRC sum score (MRC-SS) and classified visits based on a treatment anchor (i.e. decision to restart/increase treatment after reaching a predefined early endpoint of deterioration). The variability of scores in patients without deterioration was calculated using the limits of agreement. We defined optimized MCIDs for deterioration and specific combinations of MCIDs from different outcome measures, and subsequently calculated the accuracies of the (combined) MCIDs. RESULTS Substantial variability was found in scores of the I-RODS, grip strength and MRC-SS in patients without deterioration over time, and most MCIDs were within the limits of the variability observed in patients without deterioration. Some MCID cut-offs were insensitive but highly specific for detecting deterioration, e.g. the MCID-SE of -1.96 of the I-RODS and -2 point on the MRC-SS. Others were sensitive, but less specific, e.g. -4 centiles of the I-RODS. Some combined MCIDs resulted in high specificities and moderate sensitivities. INTERPRETATION Our results suggest that clinically important deterioration cannot be distinguished from variability over time with currently used MCIDs on the individual level. Combinations of MCIDs might improve the accuracy of determining deterioration, but this needs validation.
Comparison of Clinical Efficacy and Safety between Misoprostol and Oxytocin in the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
Journal of healthcare engineering. 2022;2022:3254586
In order to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of misoprostol versus oxytocin in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, this paper provides evidence-based reference for clinical medication, computerized retrieval of Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM), PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and clinical trials. The retrieval period is from the establishment of each database to October 1, 2021. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTS) are included in this study. The literature is screened and evaluated according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and meta-analysis is performed using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 13 RCTS are included, with a total of 24754 parturients. The meta-analysis shows the average blood loss (SMD = 0.10, 95% CI (-0.11, 0.32), P=0.35), the time of the third stage of labor (SMD = 0, 95% CI (-0.07, 0.08), P=0.95), and blood transfusion rate (RR = 0.80, 95% CI (0.63, 1.02), P=0.07). However, the incidences of shivering (RR = 2.61, 95% CI (1.79, 0.81), P < 0.00001) and vomiting (RR = 2.78, 95% CI (1.85, 4.18), P < 0.00001) are significantly higher than those in oxytocin group. The effect of misoprostol on preventing postpartum hemorrhage is similar to that of oxytocin, but the incidence of adverse reactions is high, and the occurrence of adverse reactions should be closely watched in the use process. Due to the limitations of the included studies, multicenter, large-sample, and high-quality RCTS are still needed in the future to further verify this conclusion.
Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of female patients with chronic telogen effluvium: A randomised, controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2022;:1-9
BACKGROUND Chronic telogen effluvium is characterised by diffuse loss of hair of the scalp. One of the emerging lines of treatment is platelet-rich plasma. However, not much of published data exist. AIMS A pilot study was conducted on chronic telogen effluvium patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma, and to compare two different methods of platelet-rich plasma preparation. METHODS The study included 30 female patients with chronic telogen effluvium. Patients were randomised into three groups: Group (1): Special platelet-rich plasma tubes centrifuged at 3500 rpm; Group (2): Ordinary laboratory tubes centrifuged at 1000 rpm; Group (3): Normal saline as a placebo. Patients' evaluation was done with visual analog scale, hair pull test, trichoscopy, photos, satisfaction questionnaire, and safety. All patients received four monthly sessions. Patients were evaluated one month and three months after the last session. RESULTS The hair pull test,visual analogue scale, and patient satisfaction results showed a statistically significant difference between group 1 vs. group 3 and group 2 vs.group 3 at one and three months after the sessions, while there was no difference between group1 vs. group 2. Trichoscopy results (baseline, one and three months after treatment) showed a significant increase in hair density and thickness in the frontal area, temporal area, and the vertex in groups 1 and 2 only. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups with regards to side effects. LIMITATIONS The sample size was small with ten patients in each group. Furthermore, the follow-up of patients was for only three months. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma could be considered as a promising therapy for patients with chronic telogen effluvium with an excellent safety profile. The ordinary laboratory low-cost tubes might be a reliable alternative to the expensive special platelet-rich plasma kits tubes. The trial registry number is PACTR202006539654415.
Perioperative intravenous iron to treat patients with fractured hip surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Health science reports. 2022;5(3):e633
BACKGROUND Treatment of preoperative anemia with intravenous iron is common within elective surgical care pathways. It is plausible that this treatment may improve care for people with hip fractures many of whom are anemic because of pre-existing conditions, fractures, and surgery. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for intravenous iron administration on outcomes after hip fracture. DESIGN We followed a predefined protocol and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of intravenous iron to treat anemia before and after emergency hip fracture surgery. The planned primary outcome was a difference in length of stay between those treated with intravenous iron and the control group. Other outcomes analyzed were 30-day mortality, requirement for blood transfusion, changes in quality of life, and hemoglobin concentration on discharge from the hospital. DATA SOURCES EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, DARE) databases, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISRCTN trial registries. Date of final search March 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Adult patients undergoing urgent surgery for hip fracture. Studies considered patients who received intravenous iron and were compared with a control group. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials (RCT, 732 patients) and nine cohort studies (2986 patients) were included. The RCTs were at low risk of bias, and the nonrandomized studies were at moderate risk of bias. After metanalysis of the RCTs there was no significant difference in the primary outcome, length of hospital stay, between the control group and patients receiving intravenous iron (mean difference: -0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]; -1.20 to 0.03; I (2) = 30%, p = 0.23). Intravenous iron was not associated with a difference in 30-day mortality (n = 732, OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.62-2.1; I (2) = 0%, p = 0.50), nor with the requirement for transfusion (n = 732, OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1.14; I (2) = 0%, p < 0.01) in the analyzed RCTs. Functional outcomes and quality of life were variably reported in three studies. CONCLUSION The evidence on the use of intravenous iron in patients with hip fracture is low quality and shows no difference in length of acute hospital stay and transfusion requirements in this population. Improved large, multicentre, high-quality studies with patient-centered outcomes will be required to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this treatment.
Safety and efficacy of Ninjin'yoeito along with iron supplementation therapy for preoperative anemia, fatigue, and anxiety in patients with gynecological disease: an open-label, single-center, randomized phase-II trial
BMC women's health. 2022;22(1):229
BACKGROUND Preoperative anemia affects perioperative outcomes and often causes fatigue and psychological disorders. Therefore, anemia should be treated before a patient undergoes surgery. Ninjin'yoeito (NYT), a Japanese Kampo medicine composed of ginseng and Japanese angelica root with the other 10 herbs, is administered for anemia, fatigue and anxiety; however, there are a few reports that have prospectively examined the effects of NYT before surgery for gynecological diseases. Hence, we tended to investigate its efficacy and safety. METHODS In this open-label randomized trial, women with gynecological diseases accompanied by preoperative anemia (defined as < 11.0 g/dL Hemoglobin [Hb]) were randomly assigned (1:1) into the iron supplementation and NYT groups. Patients of the iron supplementation group and the NYT group received 100 mg/day iron supplementation with and without NYT (7.5 g/day) for at least 10 days before surgery. The primary endpoint was improvement in Hb levels before and after treatment, and Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) and Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) scores between groups. Statistical analyses were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher's exact test as appropriate. RESULTS Forty patients were enrolled of whom 30 patients were finally analyzed after allocating 15 to each group. There was no difference in the characteristics between both groups. Hb significantly increased in both groups (iron supplementation group, 9.9 ± 0.8 g/dL vs. 11.9 ± 1.6 g/dL; NYT group, 9.8 ± 1.0 g/dL vs. 12.0 ± 1.0 g/dL); the difference in the elevations in Hb between both groups was statistically insignificant (P = 0.72). Contrarily, CFS (17.9 ± 10.2 vs. 8.1 ± 5.2) and VAS-A (56 mm (50-70) vs. 23 mm (6-48)) scores were significantly decreased only in the NYT group and these changes were greater in the NYT group (∆CFS, P = 0.015; ∆VAS-A, P = 0.014). Liver dysfunction occurred in one patient of the NYT group. CONCLUSIONS For treating preoperative anemia in women with gynecological conditions, NYT administration along with iron supplementation safely and efficiently improved the preoperative fatigue and anxiety in addition to the recovery from anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION jRCT1051190012 (28/April/2019, retrospectively registered).