Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain in the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Literature Review
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:4439867
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to review the literature regarding the blood loss and postoperative pain in the isolated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Investigating the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, articles were selected from 1970 to 2021 in the English published databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Article retrieval and selection were performed by two authors, and they independently evaluated them based on the eligibility criteria. The articles meeting the search criteria had especially at least 30 patients. RESULTS In the review of intraoperative blood loss, a total of 139 articles were retrieved and restricted to 6 articles (SSRO: 4; IVRO 2). In the review of postoperative pain, a total of 174 articles were retrieved and restricted to 4 articles (SSRO: 3; IVRO 1). The mean blood loss of SSRO and IVRO was ranged from 55 to 167 mL and 82 to 104 mL, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the first postoperative day were 2 to 5.3 in SSRO and 2.93 to 3.13 in IVRO. The mean VAS scores of the second postoperative day were 1 to 3 in SSRO and 1.1 to 1.8 in IVRO. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional SSRO, IVRO had a significantly lower amount of blood loss. However, the blood transfusion is not necessary in a single-jaw operation (SSRO or IVRO). Postoperative pain was similar between SSRO and IVRO.
Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Single and Multiple Coronally Advanced Flap for Type 1 Recession: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2021;57(2)
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in addition to coronally advanced flap (CAF) for the treatment of both single and multiple gingival recessions (GRs) compared to the CAF alone and to the adjunct of connective tissue graft (CTG). Root coverage outcomes using platelet concentrates have gained increased interest. In particular, it has been suggested that adding L-PRF to CAF may provide further benefits in the treatment of GRs. Materials and Methods: An electronic and manual literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RTCs) investigating root coverage outcomes with CAF + L-PRF. The outcomes of interest included mean root coverage (mRC), recession reduction, keratinized tissue width (KTW) gain, gingival thickness (GT) gain, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROms) such as pain perception and discomfort. Results: A total of 275 patients and 611 surgical sites were analyzed. L-PRF in adjunct to single CAF seems to show statistically significant results regarding clinical attachment level (CAL) with a weighted means (WM) 0.43 95% CI (-0.04,0.91), p < 0.0001, GT (WM 0.17 95% CI (-0.02,0.36), p < 0.0001, and mRC (WM 13.95 95% CI (-1.99,29.88) p < 0.0001, compared to single CAF alone. Interesting results were obtained from the adjunct of PRF to multiple CAF with respect to multiple CAF alone with an increase in the mRC WM 0.07 95% CI (-30.22,30.35), p = 0.0001, and PPD change WM 0.26 95% CI (-0.06,0.58), p < 00001. On the other hand, no statistically significant data were obtained when L-PRF was added to single or multiple CAF combined with CTG according to the included outcomes such as mRC (p = 0.03 overall). Conclusions: L-PRF is a valid alternative to CAF alone. L-PRF compared to CTG in single and multiple CAF showed statistically significant results regarding pain perception and discomfort PROms (p < 0.0001). However, CTG remains the gold standard for treating gingival recession.
Use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin in the Treatment of Periodontal Intrabony Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:6669168
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a kind of autologous platelet concentrate which is easy to obtain and cheap. In recent years, it has been studied to improve the effect of periodontal regeneration. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the complementary effect of PRF in the treatment of intrabony defects. The present review is aimed at systematically assessing the effects of PRF on clinical and radiological outcomes of the surgical treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. METHODS The protocol was registered at PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) as CRD42020206056. An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Only randomized clinical trials were selected. Systematically healthy patients with two or three walls of intrabony defects were considered. Intrabony defect (IBD) depth reduction and bone fill (BF) % were set as primary outcomes while probing depth (PD) reduction, clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, and gingival margin level (GML) gain were considered as the secondary outcome. When possible, a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS Eighteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and seventeen studies were quantitatively analyzed. Of 17 studies, four were rated as high risk of bias and thirteen as the moderate risk of bias. Two comparisons were set: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) combined with PRF and OFD alone and (2) bone grafting (BG) combined with PRF and BG alone. Compared to OFD alone, OFD+PRF showed significantly greater in all primary and secondary outcomes. Compared to BG alone, BG+PRF showed significantly greater in IBD depth reduction, PD reduction, CAL gain, and GML gain. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF was significantly effective in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. The benefit of OFD+PRF may be greater than BG+PRF. PRF can promote early wound healing in periodontal surgery. As all included studies were not at low risk of bias, well-designed RCTs having a high methodological quality are needed to clarify the additional effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of intrabony defects in the future.
Complications and Management of Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders During Dental Extractions: a Systematic Literature Review
Journal of oral & maxillofacial research. 2021;12(2):e1
OBJECTIVES The systematic literature review aims to assess patients' dental extraction with inherited bleeding disorders, to understand the type, dosage, and modality of administration of the haemostatic agents for safe intra- and postoperational results. MATERIAL AND METHODS The search was undertaken in MEDLINE (PubMed) databases and Cochrane library for articles published in English from 1 January, 2010 till 31 October, 2020. Before the full-text articles were considered, titles and abstracts were screened. RESULTS A total of 78 articles were screened, from which 3 met the necessary criteria and were used for the review. Minor complications, such as postoperative bleedings from the socket and epistaxis, were observed, but they were resolved with proper medical care. No major fatal complications were reported. Generally, all the articles provided evidence of successful extractions with correct treatment plans made by haematologists and surgeons. CONCLUSIONS Available clinical trials demonstrate that local and systemic haemostatic therapies in combination are effective in preventing bleeding during dental extractions in patients with coagulopathies.
The clinical implications of platelet-rich fibrin on periodontal regeneration: A systematic review
The Saudi dental journal. 2021;33(2):55-62
OBJECTIVES Platelet concentrates have been shown to enhance periodontal regeneration when used as a treatment on their own or in conjunction with bone grafting materials. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), both alone and in combination with other conventionally used materials, on periodontal regeneration in clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic electronic search was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science. Specifically, we searched for English language articles published between 2009 and 2019 that conducted in-human studies and included a summary of the results. Our primary search yielded 220 articles, and of these, 110 were clinical studies. Forty-four articles were then selected for a full reading. RESULTS Twenty-six randomized control trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Despite the differences between the reviewed studies, most revealed the ability of PRF to promote periodontal wound healing. The positive effects of PRF were observed in clinical criteria, such as reductions in pocket probing depth (PD) and increases in clinical attachment level (CAL), as well as in the degree of defect bone fill, which was determined either radiographically or by surgical re-entry. CONCLUSIONS Additional studies are needed to compare the clinical outcomes of various PRF application procedures and establish standardized protocols for treating periodontal disease with PRF.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.
Potential of Lyophilized Platelet Concentrates for Craniofacial Tissue Regenerative Therapies
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;26(3)
OBJECTIVE The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low elastic modulus and strength, and limited storage capability. These issues restrict their broader application. This review focuses on the lyophilization of PCs (LPCs) and how this processing approach affects their biological and mechanical properties for application as a bioactive scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted from 1946 until 2019 using a combination of search terms relating to this topic. RESULTS Ten manuscripts were identified as being relevant. The use of LPCs was mostly studied in in vitro and in vivo craniofacial bone regeneration models. Notably, one clinical study reported the utility of LPCs for guided bone regeneration prior to dental implant placement. CONCLUSIONS Lyophilization can enhance the inherent characteristics of PCs and extends shelf-life, enable their use in emergency surgery, and improve storage and transportation capabilities. In light of this, further preclinical studies and clinical trials are required, as LPCs offer a potential approach for clinical application in craniofacial tissue regeneration.
Platelet-rich fibrin for wound healing of palatal donor sites of free gingival grafts: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry. 2021;13(2):e190-e200
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, associated with improvements on the healing of palatal wounds followed by FGG harvesting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the complete wound epithelialization and postoperative pain when PRF was used in palatal wounds following free gingival graft (FGG) harvesting. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Scopus were searched by two independent individuals up to and including March 2020 in order to identify controlled and randomized controlled clinical trials on the use of PRF at palatal donor sites of FGG. The outcomes assessed were epithelialization and postoperative pain. The risk of bias of the included studies was evaluated using Cochrane Collaboration's domain-based two-part tool. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS The search strategy identified 555 potentially eligible articles, of which 6 randomized controlled clinical trials were included. In the qualitative analysis, most studies (83.3%) reported lower postoperative pain in treatment groups, while all studies accessing epithelialization demonstrated earlier complete wound closure in groups treated with PRF. The discomfort and complete re-epithelialization were more favorable in groups PRF when compared to control groups (P<0.00001). CONCLUSIONS Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that the use of PRF for wound healing of palatal donor sites of FGG may decrease postoperative pain and induce earlier complete wound epithelialization. Key words:Wound healing, oral surgery procedures, pain, postoperative.
Effect of Platelet Concentrates on Marginal Bone Loss of Immediate Implant Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;14(16)
BACKGROUND To evaluate marginal bone loss (MBL) in immediate implant procedures (IIP) placed in conjunction with platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to IIP without PCs. METHODS A search was performed in four databases. Clinical trials evaluating MBL of IIP placed with and without PCs were included. The random effects model was conducted for meta-analysis. RESULTS Eight clinical trials that evaluated MBL in millimeters were included. A total of 148 patients and 232 immediate implants were evaluated. The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction on MBL of IIP placed with PCs when compared to the non-PCs group at 6 months (p < 0.00001) and 12 months (p < 0.00001) follow-ups. No statistically significant differences were observed on MBL of IIP when compared PCs + bone graft group vs. only bone grafting at 6 months (p = 0.51), and a significant higher MBL of IIP placed with PCs + bone graft when compared to only bone grafting at 12 months was found (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS MBL of IIP at 6 and 12 months follow-ups is lower when PCs are applied in comparison to not placing PCs, which may lead to more predictable implant treatments in the medium term. However, MBL seems not to diminish when PCs + bone graft are applied when compared to only bone grafting.
Clinical Success of Platelet-rich Fibrin and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) or MTA-like Agents in Healing of Periapical Lesion in Nonsurgically Treated Pulpless Immature Permanent Teeth: A Systematic Review
Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry. 2020;10(4):379-383
BACKGROUND The chances of extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) are quite high if apical barrier is not present in immature pulpless permanent teeth. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) enriched with platelets and growth factors serves to accelerate the wound healing of periapical lesion in immature pulpless permanent teeth and also serves as internal matrix to condense MTA. AIM: The aim of the present study was to comprehensively review the clinical success of MTA+PRF in healing of periapical lesions in immature pulpless permanent teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic search for systematic review was conducted in Pubmed/Medline (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), Cochrane (www.cochrane.org), Scopus (www.scopus.com) databases upto 15th January 2020 related to the healing of periapical lesions in permanent teeth with immature apices when combination of MTA+PRF was used. A sample of 10 relevant studies and case reports were identified in our search out of 65. The sampling method was simple random technique. The studies and case reports with Randomised Controlled Trials(RCTs), Invitro studies, Case reports and animal studies in healing of periapical lesion were included in our comprehensive systematic review. RESULTS The search showed that the combination of MTA+PRF showed faster and definite periapical lesion healing in immature permanent teeth. The follow-up period was also recorded in all the relevant studies and case reports. CONCLUSION Acclerated bone filling was seen in healing of periapical leions when MTA+PRF was used.