Prophylactic transcatheter arterial embolization reduces rebleeding in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A meta-analysis
World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2021;27(40):6985-6999
BACKGROUND Despite the improvement in the endoscopic hemostasis of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB), rebleeding remains a major concern. AIM: To assess the role of prophylactic transcatheter arterial embolization (PTAE) added to successful hemostatic treatment among NVUGIB patients. METHODS We searched three databases from inception through October 19(th), 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies were eligible. Studies compared patients with NVUGIB receiving PTAE to those who did not get PTAE. Investigated outcomes were rebleeding, mortality, reintervention, need for surgery and transfusion, length of hospital (LOH), and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In the quantitative synthesis, odds ratios (ORs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) were calculated with the random-effects model and interpreted with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS We included a total of 3 RCTs and 9 observational studies with a total of 1329 patients, with 486 in the intervention group. PTAE was associated with lower odds of rebleeding (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.29-0.78). There was no difference in the 30-d mortality rates (OR = 0.82, 95%CI: 0.39-1.72) between the PTAE and control groups. Patients who underwent PTAE treatment had a lower chance for reintervention (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.31-0.76) or rescue surgery (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.14-0.92). The LOH and ICU stay was shorter in the PTAE group, but the difference was non-significant [WMD = -3.77, 95%CI: (-8.00)-0.45; WMD = -1.33, 95%CI: (-2.84)-0.18, respectively]. CONCLUSION PTAE is associated with lower odds of rebleeding and any reintervention in NVUGIB. However, further RCTs are needed to have a higher level of evidence.
Effectiveness of hemostatic powders in lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Endoscopy international open. 2021;9(8):E1283-e1290
Background and study aims There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of hemostatic powders in the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB). We aimed to provide a pooled estimate of their effectiveness and safety based on the current literature. Patients and methods Literature review was based on computerized bibliographic search of the main databases through to December 2020. Immediate hemostasis, rebleeding rate, adverse events, and mortality were the outcomes of the analysis. Pooled effects were calculated using a random-effects model. Results A total of 9 studies with 194 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 95 % of patients (95 % confidence interval [CI] 91.6 %-98.5 %), with no difference based on treatment strategy or bleeding etiology. Pooled 7- and 30-day rebleeding rates were 10.9 % (95 %CI 4.2 %-17.6 %) and 14.3 % (95 %CI 7.3 %-21.2 %), respectively. Need for embolization and surgery were 1.7 % (95 %CI 0 %-3.5 %) and 2.4 % (95 %CI 0.3 %-4.6 %), respectively. Overall, two patients (1.9 %, 95 %CI 0 %-3.8 %) experienced mild abdominal pain after powder application, and three bleeding-related deaths (2.3 %, 95 %CI 0.2 %-4.3 %) were registered in the included studies. Conclusion Novel hemostatic powders represent a user-friendly and effective tool in the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Treatments for Non-Variceal Upper GI Bleeding: A Review of the Literature
J Clin Med. 2020;9(3)
Endoscopic injection of glues, clotting factors, or sclerosing agents is a well-known therapy for the treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB), but less is known about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided treatments. In this setting, literature data are scarce, and no randomized controlled trials are available. We performed a review of the existing literature in order to evaluate the role of EUS-guided therapies in the management of NVUGIB. The most common treated lesions were Dieulafoy's lesions, pancreatic pseudoaneurysms, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Mostly, the treatments were performed as a salvage option after failure of conventional endoscopic hemostatic attempts, showing good efficacy and a good safety profile, also documented by Doppler monitoring of treated lesions. EUS-guided therapies may be an effective option in the treatment of refractory NVUGIB, thus avoiding radiological or surgical management. Nevertheless, available literature still lacks robust data.
Optimal endoscopy timing in patients with acute variceal bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Scientific reports. 2020;10(1):4046
Although current guidelines recommend performing endoscopy within 12 hours for acute variceal bleeding (AVB), the optimal timing remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of endoscopy timing on the mortality and rebleeding rates in AVB through a systematic review and meta-analysis of all eligible studies. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched for relevant publications up to January 2019. Overall mortality, rebleeding rate, and other clinical outcomes were determined. For the non-randomized studies, the risk of bias assessment tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included publications. The Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model of the RevMan software (Cochrane) and the inverse variance method were used to analyse binary end points and continuous outcomes, respectively. This meta-analysis included five studies with 854 and 453 participants who underwent urgent (≤12 hours) and non-urgent endoscopies (>12 hours), respectively. All the included studies were retrospective in nature, because of obvious ethical issues. No significant differences in the severity indexes were found between the urgent and non-urgent groups. Three studies showed 6-week mortality and the others in-hospital mortality as main outcomes. No significant difference in overall mortality rate was found between the groups (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-1.45, p = 0.36). The rebleeding rate was similar between the two groups (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.76-1.93, p = 0.41). Other outcomes such as successful haemostasis, need for salvage therapy, length of hospital stay, and number of blood transfusions were also similar between the groups. We demonstrated that endoscopy timing does not affect the mortality or rebleeding rate of patients with AVB. Therefore, an appropriate timing of endoscopy would be more important than an urgent endoscopy depending on each patient's condition.
Efficacy of Hemospray in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review with meta-analysis
Annals of gastroenterology. 2020;33(2):145-154
Background: Recently, amongst other hemostatic modalities, Hemospray (TC-325) has emerged as an effective method for managing patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of Hemospray in patients with non-variceal upper GIB. Methods: Our primary outcomes were clinical and technical success; secondary outcomes were aggregate rebleeding, early rebleeding, delayed rebleeding, refractory bleeding, mortality, and treatment failure. A meta-analysis of proportions was conducted for all reported primary and secondary outcomes. A relative risk meta-analysis was conducted for studies reporting direct comparisons between Hemospray and other hemostatic measures. Results: A total of 20 studies with 1280 patients were included in the final analysis. Technical success of Hemospray was seen in 97% of cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 94-98%, I (2)=52.89%) and a significant trend towards increasing technical success was seen during publication years 2011-2019. Clinical success of Hemospray was seen in 91% of cases (95%CI 88-94%, I (2)=47.72%), compared to 87% (95%CI 75-94%, I (2)=0.00%) for other hemostatic measures. The secondary outcomes of aggregate rebleeding, early rebleeding, delayed rebleeding, refractory rebleeding, mortality and treatment failure following the use of Hemospray were seen in 27%, 20%, 9%, 8%, 8%, and 31% of cases, respectively. Conclusion: Hemospray is safe, effective and non-inferior to traditional hemostatic measures for the management of non-variceal upper GIB, and can thus be used as an alternative option.
Effects of Burdock tea on recurrence of colonic diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding: An open-labelled randomized clinical trial
Scientific reports. 2019;9(1):6793
Colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) and acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) show high recurrence rates. The establishment of optimal strategies that prevent the recurrence of CDB and ACD is a major concern among gastroenterologists. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of burdock tea for preventing CDB and ACD recurrences. Newly diagnosed patients with CDB (n = 91) or ACD (n = 70) were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group received 1.5 g of burdock tea three times a day, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. The median (interquartile range) of observation for recurrence of CDB or ACD was 22.0 (14.1) months and 30.3 (18.6), respectively. The burdock tea treatment showed significant preventive effects on recurrence of ACD. A lower ACD recurrence rate (5/47 [10.6%] vs. 14/44 [31.8%]) and longer recurrence-free duration was observed in the burdock tea group (59.3 months [95% CI: 54.0-64.7] vs. 45.1 months [95% CI: 37.1-53.0] by the Kaplan-Meier analysis; p = 0.012 by log rank test) than in the control group, although there was no significant preventive effects on the CDB recurrence. This randomized clinical trial demonstrated that daily intake of burdock tea could be an effective strategy for prevention of ACD recurrence, but not for CDB recurrence.
Early Colonoscopy Does Not Improve Outcomes of Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Systematic Review of Randomized Trials
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2019
BACKGROUND & AIMS Guidelines recommend colonoscopy evaluation within 24 hours of presentation or admission in patients with high-risk or severe acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB). Meta-analyses of the timing of colonoscopy have relied primarily on observational studies that had major potential for bias. We performed a systematic review of randomized trials to determine optimal timing of colonoscopy for patients hospitalized with acute LGIB. METHODS We searched publication databases through July 2019 and abstracts from gastroenterology meetings through November 2019 for randomized trials of patients with acute LGIB or hematochezia. We searched for studies that compared early colonoscopy (within 24 hours) with elective colonoscopy beyond 24 hours and/or other diagnostic tests. Our primary outcome was further bleeding, defined as persistent or recurrent bleeding after index examination. Secondary outcomes included mortality, diagnostic yield (identifying source of bleeding), endoscopic intervention, and any primary hemostatic intervention (endoscopic, surgical, or interventional radiologic). We performed dual independent review, data extraction, and risk of bias assessments. We performed the meta-analysis using a random-effects model. RESULTS Our final analysis included data from 4 randomized trials. Further bleeding was not decreased among patients who received early vs later, elective colonoscopy (relative risk [RR] for further bleeding with early colonoscopy, 1.57; 95% CI. 0.74-3.31). We did not find significant differences in the secondary outcomes of mortality (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.05-17.21), diagnostic yield (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.21), endoscopic intervention (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.67-3.48), or any primary hemostatic intervention (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.92-1.92). CONCLUSIONS In a meta-analysis of randomized trials, we found that colonoscopy within 24 hours does not reduce further bleeding or mortality in patients hospitalized with acute LGIB. Based on these findings, patients hospitalized with acute LGIB do not generally require early colonoscopy.
Use of hemostatic powder in treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Endoscopy international open. 2019;7(12):E1704-e1713
Carvedilol vs endoscopic variceal ligation for primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding: Systematic review and meta-analysis
World journal of hepatology. 2019;11(5):464-476
BACKGROUND Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high mortality and is the cause of death for 20-30% of patients with cirrhosis. Nonselective beta blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) are recommended for primary prevention of variceal bleeding in patients with medium to large esophageal varices. Meanwhile, combination of EVL and NSBBs is the recommended approach for the secondary prevention. Carvedilol has greater efficacy than other NSBBs as it decreases intrahepatic resistance. We hypothesized that there was no difference between carvedilol and EVL intervention for primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis patients. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of carvedilol compared to EVL for primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. METHODS We searched relevant literatures in major journal databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) from March to August 2018. Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, regardless of aetiology and severity, with or without a history of variceal bleeding, and aged ≥ 18 years old were included in this review. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy of carvedilol and that of EVL for primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension were considered, irrespective of publication status, year of publication, and language. RESULTS Seven RCTs were included. In four trials assessing the primary prevention, no significant difference was found on the events of variceal bleeding (RR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.37-1.49), all-cause mortality (RR: 1.10, 95%CI: 0.76-1.58), and bleeding-related mortality (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.34-3.10) in patients who were treated with carvedilol compared to EVL. In three trials assessing secondary prevention, there was no difference between two interventions for the incidence of rebleeding (RR: 1.10, 95%CI: 0.75-1.61). The fixed-effect model showed that, compared to EVL, carvedilol decreased all-cause mortality by 49% (RR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.33-0.79), with little or no evidence of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION Carvedilol had similar efficacy to EVL in preventing the first variceal bleeding in cirrhosis patients with esophageal varices. It was superior to EVL alone for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding in regard to all-cause mortality reduction.
Use of a Transparent Cap Increases the Diagnostic Yield in Antegrade Single-Balloon Enteroscopy for Obscure GI Bleed
Digestive diseases and sciences. 2019
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) is utilized in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but 40-50% of these patients experience continued GI blood loss, in part due to missed lesions. The utilization of a transparent cap attached to the end of the endoscope can improve mucosal visualization in other endoscopic applications, but has not yet been evaluated in SBE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a cap on the diagnostic yield of SBE. METHODS Consecutive adult patients scheduled for anterograde SBE for the evaluation of obscure GI bleeding were screened for inclusion from 2014 to 2017. Patients were randomized to SBE with or without a transparent cap. The primary outcome was the proportion of enteroscopies in which a P2 lesion (high potential for bleeding) was identified. RESULTS A total of 90 patients (65.7 +/- 12.7 years old, 47.7% female) were analyzed. There were significantly more P2 arteriovenous malformations identified in the cap group (14.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.02). Additionally, the use of a cap was associated with a significantly greater depth of small bowel insertion (191.9 cm vs. 156.2 cm, p = 0.01). There was one perforation in the group without a cap, successfully treated with clip placement, and no adverse events in the cap group. CONCLUSIONS The use of a transparent cap during SBE performed for the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding may be an important, safe augmentation to standard SBE techniques.