Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Clinical Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2022;10(1):23259671211061535
BACKGROUND Many studies have documented the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) alongside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in the management of ACL injury, but evidence on the benefits of PRP in improving the clinical outcomes of ACLR is inconsistent. PURPOSE To help in our understanding, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of PRP on patient-reported functional scores, the clinical assessments of knee function and structure, and complications. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS We searched 9 online databases for RCTs published in English or Chinese that examined the effects of PRP on ACLR. The primary outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. The secondary outcomes included KT-1000 arthrometer, pivot-shift test, Lysholm and Tegner scores, tunnel widening, graft characterization, and complications. Subgroup analyses were performed according to time of assessments. Fixed- and random-effects models were selected for data analysis. RESULTS A total of 14 studies were included. When PRP was injected to graft tunnels, the pooled VAS scores of the 2 groups were similar (P = .31), and the subgroup analysis found that VAS and IKDC only improved at 3 months postoperatively (P = .0003 and P < .00001, respectively). When PRP was used at the bone-patellar tendon-bone harvest sites, VAS was decreased in the first 6 months postoperatively (P < .00001), whereas IKDC score was not remarkably different (P = .07). After PRP injection, Lysholm scores at 3 months postoperatively was different between the 2 groups (P < .00001), but the Tegner scores (P = .86), KT-1000 measurements (P = .12), the positive rate of pivot-shift test (P = .64), the enlargement of tunnels (femoral, P = .91; tibial, P = .80), and the characterization of grafts (P = .05) were not different. No difference in complications was found in either group. CONCLUSION PRP applied alongside ACLR could reduce postoperative pain and improve knee function in the short and medium terms but is ineffective in the long term. PRP does not improve knee stability and the enlargement of tunnels and does not accelerate the healing of grafts. Further studies would be required.
Scaling up Quality Improvement for Surgical Teams (QIST)-avoiding surgical site infection and anaemia at the time of surgery: a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives to introduce change in the NHS
Implementation science : IS. 2022;17(1):22
BACKGROUND The aim of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives to implement large-scale change in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, specifically for improving outcomes in patients undergoing primary, elective total hip or knee replacement. METHODS We undertook a two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the roll-out of two preoperative pathways: methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) decolonisation (infection arm) and anaemia screening and treatment (anaemia arm). NHS Trusts are public sector organisations that provide healthcare within a geographical area. NHS Trusts (n = 41) in England providing primary, elective total hip and knee replacements, but that did not have a preoperative anaemia screening or MSSA decolonisation pathway in place, were randomised to one of the two parallel collaboratives. Collaboratives took place from May 2018 to November 2019. Twenty-seven Trusts completed the trial (11 anaemia, 16 infection). Outcome data were collected for procedures performed between November 2018 and November 2019. Co-primary outcomes were perioperative blood transfusion (within 7 days of surgery) and deep surgical site infection (SSI) caused by MSSA (within 90 days post-surgery) for the anaemia and infection trial arms, respectively. Secondary outcomes were deep and superficial SSIs (any organism), length of hospital stay, critical care admissions and unplanned readmissions. Process measures included the proportion of eligible patients receiving each preoperative initiative. RESULTS There were 19,254 procedures from 27 NHS Trusts included in the results (6324 from 11 Trusts in the anaemia arm, 12,930 from 16 Trusts in the infection arm). There were no improvements observed for blood transfusion (anaemia arm 183 (2.9%); infection arm 302 (2.3%) transfusions; adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 0.52-2.75, p = 0.67) or MSSA deep SSI (anaemia arm 8 (0.13%); infection arm 18 (0.14%); adjusted odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.42-2.46, p = 0.98). There were no significant improvements in any secondary outcome. This is despite process measures showing the preoperative pathways were implemented for 73.7% and 61.1% of eligible procedures in the infection and anaemia arms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Quality improvement collaboratives did not result in improved patient outcomes in this trial; however, there was some evidence they may support successful implementation of new preoperative pathways in the NHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION Prospectively registered on 15 February 2018, ISRCTN11085475.
Sinus Lift Associated with Leucocyte-Platelet-Rich Fibrin (Second Generation) for Bone Gain: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze sinus lifting procedures and to compare the efficiency of this treatment associated with the second generation of platelet-rich fibrin related to its effects on bone gain and to clarify the regenerative efficacy in sinus lift procedure, whether alone or as a coadjutant to other bone graft materials. The PICOT question was, "In clinical studies with patients needing a maxillary sinus lift (P), does the use of PRF either alone (I) or in conjunction with other biomaterials (C) improve the clinical outcome associated with bone gain and density (O), with at least three months of follow-up (T)?" An electronic search was conducted in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, and Scopus databases through a search strategy. A total of 443 articles were obtained from the electronic database search. Sixteen articles met all criteria and were included in this review. Within the limitation of this study and interpreting the results carefully, it was suggested that a higher risk for implant failure after a sinus elevation might be seen in patients with residual bone ≤4 mm, and PRF application was effective, suggesting reducing the time needed for new bone formation.
Local administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid reduces post-operative blood loss from surgery for closed, Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures
International orthopaedics. 2022
PURPOSE To investigate whether local administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is effective and safe in reducing the post-operative blood loss in surgery for Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures. METHODS Patients with Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 2016 to February 2021 and underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) via lateral approach with an L-shaped incision were included in the current study. Eighty five patients were randomly divided into two groups, EACA group (43) and control group (42). Twenty milliliters of 5% EACA solution or normal saline was perfused into the incision of patients in EACA group and control group, respectively. The volume of post-operative drainage was investigated as the primary outcome. Post-operative blood test, coagulation test, and wound complications were analyzed as the secondary outcomes. RESULTS The volume of post-operative drainage at 24 and 48 h was 164.8 ± 51.4 ml, 18.9 ± 3.8 ml for patients in EACA group, and 373.0 ± 88.1 ml, 21.2 ± 4.4 ml for patients in the control group, respectively. EACA greatly reduced the post-operative blood loss compared to the control (normal saline). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was found between EACA group and control group with regard to the pre-operative, baseline characteristics. Post-operative blood test results demonstrated that haemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in EACA compared to those of control group. No significant difference was found between EACA group and control group in terms of the platelet counts, prothrombin time (P.T.), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), and wound complications. CONCLUSION Local administration of EACA is effective in post-operative blood loss reduction in ORIF surgeries for Sanders III-IV types of calcaneal fractures without increasing the incidence of periwound complication.
Intravenous iron supplementation treats anemia and reduces blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting-A prospective randomized trial
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2022;25(2):141-147
STUDY OBJECTIVE Preoperative anemia results in two- to sixfold increased incidence of perioperative blood transfusion requirements and reduced postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level. This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of preoperative intravenous infusion of iron on Hb levels, blood transfusion requirements, and incidence of postoperative adverse events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DESIGN Prospective randomized trial. SETTING Academic university hospital. PATIENTS Eighty patients (52-67 years old) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and received either iron therapy or saline infusion preoperatively. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomly allocated to iron or placebo groups. In the iron group, patients received a single intravenous dose of ferric carboxymaltose (1000 mg in 100 mL saline) infused slowly over 15 min 7 days before surgery. In placebo group, patients received a single intravenous dose of saline (100 mL saline) infused slowly over 15 min 7 days before surgery. MEASUREMENTS Patients were followed up with regards to incidence of anemia, Hb level on admission, preoperatively, postoperatively, 1 week and 4 weeks after discharge, aortic cross-clamp time, the number of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) units, the percentage of reticulocytes pre-postoperatively and 1 week later, hospital stay and intensive care unit (ICU) stay length, and the incidence of postoperative complications. MAIN RESULTS Iron therapy was associated with lower incidence of anemia 4 weeks after discharge (P < 0.001). Hb level was significantly higher in the iron group compared to the placebo group preoperatively and postoperatively, and 4 weeks after discharge (P < 0.001). Iron therapy resulted in shorter hospital and ICU stay (P < 0.001) and shorter aortic cross-clamp time, reduced pRBCs requirements postoperatively. Percentage of reticulocytes was significantly higher in placebo group than in iron group postoperatively and 1 week after discharge and the incidence of postoperative complications was similar to the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative IV iron infusion is a safe and feasible way to manage preoperative anemia. Preoperative administration of IV iron is associated with a higher postoperative Hb level, shorter hospital and ICU stay, and reduced perioperative red blood cell transfusion requirements with insignificant difference in incidence of postoperative complications.
Peroperative Intra-Articular Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid and Ropivacaine Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a procedure that has improved the quality of life of patients with knee arthritis. Postoperative pain and blood loss are the two major drawbacks of TKA which affect patient satisfaction and delay recovery and rehabilitation. Local infiltration analgesia has shown better results in controlling immediate postoperative pain, thus enabling early rehabilitation and mobilization, while local infiltration of antifibrinolytic agents has shown impressive results in controlling blood loss. In this study, we evaluate the effect of a combination of intra-articular infiltration of ropivacaine cocktail along with intra-articular instillation of tranexamic acid in reducing patient-reported postoperative pain and the level of blood loss control after TKA. Methodology Patients presenting with high-grade osteoarthritis and undergoing TKA were included and randomly allocated to two groups: one receiving the intra-articular infiltration (group A), and the other not receiving any infiltration (group B). Postoperative pain was measured through the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) every three hours for the first 24 hours, and then at 48 hours and 72 hours postoperatively. The need for additional analgesia, in the form of a slow epidural infusion, in patients experiencing severe postoperative pain was evaluated in both groups. Postoperative blood loss was assessed by measuring total drain output (in mL) and by comparing preoperative and postoperative (at 24 hours) hemoglobin, hematocrit drift, and blood transfusion rates. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay and the time taken to start postoperative knee mobilization exercises and weight-bearing were noted to assess the recovery and rehabilitation of the patients in the two groups. Results The study included 42 patients (group A, 22 patients; group B, 20 patients) with 28 knees in each group. Patients with intra-articular infiltration using ropivacaine cocktail with tranexamic acid showed excellent pain control compared to the non-infiltrated patients in the early 48 hours postoperatively. There was a significant drop in postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit values in the non-infiltrated patients compared to the other group. Further, the intra-articular infiltration-instillation significantly reduced blood loss through the drain, the requirement of postoperative blood transfusions, and the duration of hospital stay. Conclusions It can be safely concluded that ropivacaine cocktail and tranexamic acid instillation postoperatively in knee arthroplasty patients is a very useful and effective technique to reduce postoperative pain and blood loss.
Hemostatic Efficacy of Absorbable Gelatin Sponges for Surgical Nail Matrixectomy after Phenolization-A Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(9)
BACKGROUND Some studies have recommended combining germinal matrix excision with phenol ablation in the treatment of onychocryptosis. Matrixectomy after phenolization has been shown to be an effective modification to reduce the drawbacks associated with phenolization alone, although it increases the risk of minor postoperative bleeding. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of gelatin sponges as hemostatic agents in partial matrixectomy after phenolization. METHODS A comparative clinical trial in parallel groups was designed in 74 halluces (44 patients) with stage I, II, and III onychocryptosis. All participants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Group A (control group), Group B (conventional gelatin sponge), and Group C (high porosity gelatin sponge). RESULTS The quantified mean blood loss in the first 48 h after surgery in patients in both experimental groups was significantly lower compared to the control group. The lowest mean blood loss was recorded in Group C (p < 0.001) and followed by Group B (p = 0.005). No adverse effects were recorded in any of the patients included in the experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS Hemostatic gelatin sponges were demonstrated to be effective and safe devices for the control of minor postoperative bleeding associated with matrixectomy after segmental phenolization.
Efficacy of intralesional injections of platelet-rich plasma in patients with oral lichen planus: A pilot randomized clinical trial
Clinical and experimental dental research. 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections compared to intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injections in the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty patients with EOLP were assigned randomly to either PRP or TA group. Patients received weekly intralesional injections for 4 weeks, and then followed up for 3 months on regular visits every 2 weeks. Pain scores using numerical pain score and clinical score were recorded by a blinded assessor each visit for all patients and remission score at the end of the trial was recorded. RESULTS Both groups showed significant improvement in the clinical parameters (pain and clinical score) "p = .001." Regarding remission of the lesions, 80% of patients in the PRP group showed complete remission compared to 70% in the TA group. However, there is no statistical significance when comparing the two groups in pain score, clinical score, or remission. CONCLUSIONS PRP injections could be considered as an effective alternative single treatment modality for EOLP. The protocol for this study registered in Clinicaltrials.gov registry under the identifier number: NCT03293368.
Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of female patients with chronic telogen effluvium: A randomised, controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2022;:1-9
BACKGROUND Chronic telogen effluvium is characterised by diffuse loss of hair of the scalp. One of the emerging lines of treatment is platelet-rich plasma. However, not much of published data exist. AIMS A pilot study was conducted on chronic telogen effluvium patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma, and to compare two different methods of platelet-rich plasma preparation. METHODS The study included 30 female patients with chronic telogen effluvium. Patients were randomised into three groups: Group (1): Special platelet-rich plasma tubes centrifuged at 3500 rpm; Group (2): Ordinary laboratory tubes centrifuged at 1000 rpm; Group (3): Normal saline as a placebo. Patients' evaluation was done with visual analog scale, hair pull test, trichoscopy, photos, satisfaction questionnaire, and safety. All patients received four monthly sessions. Patients were evaluated one month and three months after the last session. RESULTS The hair pull test,visual analogue scale, and patient satisfaction results showed a statistically significant difference between group 1 vs. group 3 and group 2 vs.group 3 at one and three months after the sessions, while there was no difference between group1 vs. group 2. Trichoscopy results (baseline, one and three months after treatment) showed a significant increase in hair density and thickness in the frontal area, temporal area, and the vertex in groups 1 and 2 only. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups with regards to side effects. LIMITATIONS The sample size was small with ten patients in each group. Furthermore, the follow-up of patients was for only three months. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma could be considered as a promising therapy for patients with chronic telogen effluvium with an excellent safety profile. The ordinary laboratory low-cost tubes might be a reliable alternative to the expensive special platelet-rich plasma kits tubes. The trial registry number is PACTR202006539654415.
Effectiveness of Enhanced Performance Feedback on Appropriate Use of Blood Transfusions: A Comparison of 2 Cluster Randomized Trials
JAMA network open. 2022;5(2):e220364
IMPORTANCE Auditing and feedback are frequently used to improve patient care. However, it remains unclear how to optimize feedback effectiveness for the appropriate use of treatments such as blood transfusion, a common but costly procedure that is more often overused than underused. OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 theoretically informed feedback interventions to improve the appropriate use of blood transfusions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Two sequential, linked 2 × 2 cluster randomized trials were performed in hospitals in the UK participating in national audits of transfusion for perioperative anemia and management of hematological disorders. Data were collected for a surgical trial from October 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, with follow-up completed on October 31, 2016. Data were collected for a hematological trial through follow-up from July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2017. Trial data were analyzed from November 1, 2016, to June 1, 2019. INTERVENTIONS Hospitals were randomized to standard content or enhanced content to improve feedback clarity and usability and to standard support or enhanced support for staff to act on feedback. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was appropriateness of transfusions audited at 12 months. Secondary end points included volume of transfusions (aiming for reductions at patient and cluster levels) and transfusion-related adverse events and reactions. RESULTS One hundred thirty-five of 152 eligible clusters participated in the surgical audit (2714 patients; mean [SD] age, 74.9 [14.0] years; 1809 women [66.7%]), and 134 of 141 participated in the hematological audit (4439 patients; median age, 72.0 [IQR, 64.0-80.0] years; 2641 men [59.5%]). Fifty-seven of 69 clusters (82.6%) in the surgical audit randomized to enhanced content downloaded reports compared with 52 of 66 clusters (78.8%) randomized to standard reports. Fifty-nine of 68 clusters (86.8%) randomized to enhanced support logged onto the toolkit. The proportion of patients with appropriate transfusions was 0.184 for standard content and 0.176 for enhanced content (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [97.5% CI, 0.61-1.36]) and 0.181 for standard support and 0.180 for enhanced support (adjusted OR, 1.05 [97.5% CI, 0.68-1.61]). For the hematological audit, 53 of 66 clusters (80.3%) randomized to enhanced content downloaded the reports compared with 53 of 68 clusters (77.9%) randomized to standard content. Forty-nine of 67 clusters sites (73.1%) assigned to enhanced support logged into the toolkit at least once. The proportion of patients with appropriate transfusions was 0.744 for standard content and 0.714 for enhanced content (adjusted OR, 0.81 [97.5% CI, 0.56-1.12]), and 0.739 for standard support and 0.721 for enhanced support (adjusted OR, 0.96 [97.5% CI, 0.67-1.38]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This comparison of cluster randomized trials found that interventions to improve feedback usability and guide local action were no more effective than standard feedback in increasing the appropriate use of blood transfusions. Auditing and feedback delivered at scale is a complex and costly program; therefore, effective responses may depend on developing robust local quality improvement arrangements, which can be evaluated using rigorous experimental designs embedded within national programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN15490813.