A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Single-Agent Hydroxyurea Versus Thalidomide Among Adult Transfusion Dependent β Thalassemia Patients
Bhattacharjee U, Khadwal A, Shafiq N, Lad D, Sharma P, Das R, Shukla P, Jain A, Prakash G, Malhotra P
Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2023;:1-10
Hydroxyurea and low dose thalidomide are low-cost, easily accessible Hb F inducing agents that have been found to decrease transfusion dependency among transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. However, these drugs have not much been explored in a randomized controlled setting. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of hydroxyurea and low dose thalidomide in adult transfusion dependent β thalassemia. A total of 39 transfusion dependent β thalassemia patients were randomized into three arms: Arm A (Hydroxyurea 500 mg/day), Arm B (thalidomide 50 mg/day), and Control Arm. The primary outcome was rise in haemoglobin at 24-weeks from the baseline levels. The mean age of the cohort was 26.9 ± 4.7 years. Total 13 patients (33.3%) were splenectomised. The mean rise of haemoglobin at the end of 24 weeks was 0.18 ± 0.645 g/dl, 0.56 ± 1.343 g/dl, and - 0.31 ± 0.942 g/dl in Arm A, Arm B and control arm, respectively, p = 0.127. The mean volume of blood transfused per unit body weight in 24 weeks was significantly less in the thalidomide arm compared with the control arm (p = 0.035). Abdominal pain (Grade 1-2, 23.1%) and pruritus (Grade 1, 15.4%) were the main adverse events in hydroxyurea arm, whereas somnolence was the main side effect noted in the thalidomide arm (Grade 1-2, 78.3%). Single agent hydroxyurea or thalidomide is ineffective in increasing haemoglobin and decreasing transfusion burden among majority of the adult transfusion dependent thalassemia patients. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-022-01620-3.
Foetal haemoglobin inducers for reducing blood transfusion in non-transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemias
Foong WC, Loh CK, Ho JJ, Lau DS
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;1(1):Cd013767
BACKGROUND Non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia (NTDβT) is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the β-globin chain of haemoglobin leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it may be required to prevent complications of chronic anaemia, such as impaired growth and hypercoagulability. People with NTDβT also experience iron overload due to increased iron absorption from food sources which becomes more pronounced in those requiring blood transfusion. People with a higher foetal haemoglobin (HbF) level have been found to require fewer blood transfusions, thus leading to the emergence of treatments that could increase its level. HbF inducers stimulate HbF production without altering any gene structures. Evidence for the possible benefits and harms of these inducers is important for making an informed decision on their use. OBJECTIVES To compare the effectiveness and safety of the following for reducing blood transfusion for people with NTDβT: 1. HbF inducers versus usual care or placebo; 2. single HbF inducer with another HbF inducer, and single dose with another dose; and 3. combination of HbF inducers versus usual care or placebo, or single HbF inducer. SEARCH METHODS We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search date was 21 August 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing single HbF inducer with placebo or usual care, with another single HbF inducer or with a combination of HbF inducers; or comparing different doses of the same HbF inducer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were blood transfusion and haemoglobin levels. Our secondary outcomes were HbF levels, the long-term sequelae of NTDβT, quality of life and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included seven RCTs involving 291 people with NTDβT, aged two to 49 years, from five countries. We reported 10 comparisons using eight different HbF inducers (four pharmacological and four natural): three RCTs compared a single HbF inducer to placebo and seven to another HbF inducer. The duration of the intervention lasted from 56 days to six months. Most studies did not adequately report the randomisation procedures or whether and how blinding was achieved. HbF inducer against placebo or usual care Three HbF inducers, HQK-1001, Radix Astragali or a 3-in-1 combined natural preparation (CNP), were compared with a placebo. None of the comparisons reported the frequency of blood transfusion. We are uncertain whether Radix Astragali and CNP increase haemoglobin at three months (mean difference (MD) 1.33 g/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 2.11; 1 study, 2 interventions, 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether Radix Astragali and CNP have any effect on HbF (MD 12%, 95% CI -0.74% to 24.75%; 1 study, 2 interventions, 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Only medians on haemoglobin and HbF levels were reported for HQK-1001. Adverse effects reported for HQK-1001 were nausea, vomiting, dizziness and suprapubic pain. There were no prespecified adverse effects for Radix Astragali and CNP. HbF inducer versus another HbF inducer Four studies compared a single inducer with another over three to six months. Comparisons included hydroxyurea versus resveratrol, hydroxyurea versus thalidomide, hydroxyurea versus decitabine and Radix Astragali versus CNP. No study reported our prespecified outcomes on blood transfusion. Haemoglobin and HbF were reported for the comparison Radix Astragali versus CNP, but we are uncertain whether there were any differences (1 study, 24 participants; low-certainty evidence). Different doses of the same HbF inducer Two studies compared two different types of HbF inducers at different doses over two to six months. Comparisons included hydroxyurea 20 mg/kg/day versus 10 mg/kg/day and HQK-1001 10 mg/kg/day, 20 mg/kg/day, 30 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day. Blood transfusion, as prespecified, was not reported. In one study (61 participants) we are uncertain whether the lower levels of both haemoglobin and HbF at 24 weeks were due to the higher dose of hydroxyurea (haemoglobin: MD -2.39 g/dL, 95% CI -2.80 to -1.98; very low-certainty evidence; HbF: MD -10.20%, 95% CI -16.28% to -4.12%; very low-certainty evidence). The study of the four different doses of HQK-1001 did not report results for either haemoglobin or HbF. We are not certain if major adverse effects may be more common with higher hydroxyurea doses (neutropenia: risk ratio (RR) 9.93, 95% CI 1.34 to 73.97; thrombocytopenia: RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.12 to 12.07; very low-certainty evidence). Taking HQK-1001 20 mg/kg/day may result in the fewest adverse effects. A combination of HbF inducers versus a single HbF inducer Two studies compared three combinations of two inducers with a single inducer over six months: hydroxyurea plus resveratrol versus resveratrol or hydroxyurea alone, and hydroxyurea plus l-carnitine versus hydroxyurea alone. Blood transfusion was not reported. Hydroxyurea plus resveratrol may reduce haemoglobin compared with either resveratrol or hydroxyurea alone (MD -0.74 g/dL, 95% CI -1.45 to -0.03; 1 study, 54 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are not certain whether the gastrointestinal disturbances, headache and malaise more commonly reported with hydroxyurea plus resveratrol than resveratrol alone were due to the interventions. We are uncertain whether hydroxyurea plus l-carnitine compared with hydroxyurea alone may increase mean haemoglobin, and reduce pulmonary hypertension (1 study, 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Adverse events were reported but not in the intervention group. None of the comparisons reported the outcome of HbF. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are uncertain whether any of the eight HbF inducers in this review have a beneficial effect on people with NTDβT. For each of these HbF inducers, we found only one or at the most two small studies. There is no information on whether any of these HbF inducers have an effect on our primary outcome, blood transfusion. For the second primary outcome, haemoglobin, there may be small differences between intervention groups, but these may not be clinically meaningful and are of low- to very low-certainty evidence. Data on adverse effects and optimal doses are limited. Five studies are awaiting classification, but none are ongoing.
People of any age with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia (7 randomised controlled trials, n= 291).
Single foetal haemoglobin (HbF) inducer.
Various comparators, including: usual care or placebo; another HbF inducer; a combination of HbF inducers; or different doses of the same HbF inducer.
The included studies varied widely in the type of HbF inducers investigated and their comparison, the doses and how outcomes were reported. The duration of the trials ranged from two to six months. The inducers used include hydroxyurea, decitabine, HQK‐1001, thalidomide, Radix Astragali, resveratrol, l‐carnitine and combined natural preparation.
Red Blood Cell Alloimmunizations in Thalassaemia Patients With Regular Transfusion in China: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Zhang X, Li Y, Yan B, Li X, Gui S, Sun A
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2023
OBJECTIVE The development of red blood cell alloimmunization intensifies transfusion complication in thalassaemia patients. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the existing evidence on the prevalence of erythrocyte alloimmunization in China by meta-analysis. We systematically searched cross-sectional studies regarding the alloimmunization of thalassaemia patients with regular blood transfusion in China from year 2000 to May 2021 in the Cochrane library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Chinese databases including CNKI, Wanfang Data, Vip and CBM. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the included studies were performed. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models with inverse variance weighting. The presence of publication bias was tested by Egger's test, and the methodological quality of each included article was evaluated by the criteria specific to prevalence studies. RESULTS A total of 1874 patients and 263 alloantibodies from 11 studies were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The proportion of alloantibodies against antigens belonging to the Rh, MNSs and Kidd systems were as high as 70.3%, 17.9%, and 6.5%, respectively. Meta-analysis showed that the overall prevalence of alloimmunization among transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients in China is 11.4% (95%CI: 7.2%∼16.3%). CONCLUSIONS The characteristics of red blood cell alloimmunization among thalassaemia patients with regular transfusion in China differ greatly from those in other countries. Therefore, transfusion strategies shall be actively adapted in line with thalassaemia patients in China to minimize the risk of alloimmunization.
Efficacy and safety of treatments in newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Wang Y, Sheng L, Han F, Guo Q, Zhang Z, Hou Y, Feng Q, Zhou H, Ji X, Peng J, et al
BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease characterised by decreased platelet count. In recent years, novel therapeutic regimens have been investigated in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of different treatments in newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs involving treatments for newly diagnosed primary immune thrombocytopenia. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to April 31, 2022. The primary outcomes were 6-month sustained response and early response. Secondary outcome was grade 3 or higher adverse events. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022296179). FINDINGS Eighteen RCTs (n = 1944) were included in this study. Pairwise meta-analysis showed that the percentage of patients achieving early response was higher in the dexamethasone-containing doublet group than in the dexamethasone group (79.7% vs 68.7%, odds ratio [OR] 1.82, 95% CI 1.10-3.02). The difference was more profound for sustained response (60.5% vs 37.4%, OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.95-3.40). Network meta-analysis showed that dexamethasone plus recombinant human thrombopoietin ranked first for early response, followed by dexamethasone plus oseltamivir or tacrolimus. Rituximab plus prednisolone achieved highest sustained response, followed by dexamethasone plus all-trans retinoic acid or rituximab. Rituximab plus dexamethasone showed 15.3% of grade 3 or higher adverse events, followed by prednis(ol)one (4.8%) and all-trans retinoic acid plus dexamethasone (4.7%). INTERPRETATION Our findings suggested that compared with monotherapy dexamethasone or prednis(ol)one, the combined regimens had better early and sustained responses. rhTPO plus dexamethasone ranked top in early response, while rituximab plus corticosteroids obtained the best sustained response, but with more adverse events. Adding oseltamivir, all-trans retinoic acid or tacrolimus to dexamethasone reached equally encouraging sustained response, without compromising safety profile. Although this network meta-analysis compared all the therapeutic regimens up to date, more head-to-head RCTs with larger sample size are warranted to make direct comparison among these strategies. FUNDING National Natural Science Foundation of China, Major Research Plan of National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation and Young Taishan Scholar Foundation of Shandong Province.
Safety and Efficacy of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Ali MA, Anwar MY, Aiman W, Dhanesar G, Omar Z, Hamza M, Zafar M, Rengarajan HK, Maroules M
Journal of xenobiotics. 2023;13(1):29-41
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired antibody or cell-mediated platelet damage or decreased platelet production. Steroids, IV immunoglobulins (IVIG), and Rho-anti-D antibodies are the commonly used initial treatments for ITP. However, many ITP patients either do not respond or do not maintain a response to initial therapy. Splenectomy, rituximab, and thrombomimetics are the commonly used second-line treatment. More treatment options include tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKI), including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors. This review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of TKIs. Methods: Literature was searched on PubMed, Embase, WOS, and clinicaltrials.gov using keywords, "tyrosine kinase" and "idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura". PRISMA guidelines were followed. Results: In total, 4 clinical trials were included with 255 adult patients with relapsed/refractory ITP. In all, 101 (39.6%) patients were treated with fostamatinib, 60 (23%) patients with rilzabrutinib, and 34 (13%) with HMPL-523. Patients treated with fostamatinib achieved a stable response (SR) and overall response (OR) in 18/101 (17.8%) and 43/101 (42.5%) of the patients, respectively, while SR and OR were achieved in 1/49 (2%) and 7/49 (14%) of the patients, respectively, in the placebo group. Patients treated with HMPL-523 (300 mg dose expansion) achieved an SR and OR in 5/20 (25%) and 11/20 (55%) of the patients, respectively, while SR and OR were achieved in 1/11 (9%) of the patients treated with the placebo. Patients treated with rilzabrutinib achieved an SR in 17/60 (28%) patients. Dizziness (1%), hypertension (2%), diarrhea (1%), and neutropenia (1%) were serious adverse events in fostamatinib patients. Rilzabrutinib or HMPL-523 patients did not require a dose reduction due to drug-related adverse effects. Conclusions: Rilzabrutinib, fostamatinib, and HMPL-523 were safe and effective in the treatment of relapsed/refractory ITP.
Comparative evaluation of efficacy and safety of automated versus manual red cell exchange in sickle cell disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Mukherjee S, Sahu A, Ray GK, Maiti R, Prakash S
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Exchange transfusion is a valuable treatment option in sickle cell disease (SCD) and is preferred over simple transfusion as it removes abnormal haemoglobin S (HbS) levels and reduces complications. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of automated red cell exchange (aRBX) procedure over manual red cell exchange transfusion (MET) in SCD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A standard meta-analysis protocol was developed, and after performing a comprehensive literature search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane and International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), reviewers assessed eligibility and extracted data from nine relevant studies. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled effect size calculated from the mean difference in HbS percentage, serum ferritin level and risk ratio for the adverse events. Quality assessment was done using the risk-of-bias assessment tool, and a summary of observations was prepared using standard Cochrane methodology with GradePro GDT. RESULTS The random-model analysis revealed a mean difference of 4.10 (95% CI: -3.29-11.49; Z = 1.09; p = 0.28) for HbS percentage, mean difference of 435.29 (95% CI: -73.74-944.32; Z = 1.68; p = 0.09) for serum ferritin and pooled risk ratio of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.63-2.87; Z = 0.77; p = 0.44) for adverse events. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis did not reveal any significant benefit of aRBX in reducing HbS percentage and attenuating the serum ferritin level when compared with MET. There was also no significant increased risk of adverse events detected in association with aRBX.
Comparative Efficacy of Rivaroxaban and Immunoglobulin Therapy in the Treatment of Livedoid Vasculopathy: A Systematic Review
Ramphall S, Rijal S, Prakash V, Ekladios H, Mulayamkuzhiyil Saju J, Mandal N, Kham NI, Shahid R, Naik SS, Venugopal S
Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is an uncommon chronic coagulation disorder whose underlying etiology is not yet fully understood. It predominantly affects females, especially those in late adolescence. There is currently limited research on treatment options for those with this diagnosis. The present systematic review aims to compare the efficacy of rivaroxaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in the treatment of livedoid vasculopathy. A detailed search was conducted from April 20, 2022, to May 1, 2022, using four databases: Elsevier, Medline Complete, Medline Ovid, and PubMed. Out of these, 20 relevant articles were used, and the data was extracted and analyzed. Both rivaroxaban and IVIG were shown to be effective treatment options with similar treatment response times. However, future large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine an established treatment regimen for these patients.
Eptacog beta efficacy and safety in the treatment and control of bleeding in paediatric subjects (<12 years) with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors
Pipe SW, Hermans C, Chitlur M, Carcao M, Castaman G, Davis JA, Ducore J, Dunn AL, Escobar M, Journeycake J, et al
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
Free full text
INTRODUCTION Eptacog beta is a new recombinant activated human factor VII bypassing agent approved in the United States for the treatment and control of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors 12 years of age or older. AIM: To prospectively assess in a phase 3 clinical trial (PERSEPT 2) eptacog beta efficacy and safety for treatment of bleeding in children <12 years of age with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors. METHODS Using a randomised crossover design, subjects received initial doses of 75 or 225 μg/kg eptacog beta followed by 75 μg/kg dosing at predefined intervals (as determined by clinical response) to treat bleeding episodes (BEs). Treatment success criteria included a haemostasis evaluation of 'excellent' or 'good' without use of additional eptacog beta, alternative haemostatic agent or blood product, and no increase in pain following the first 'excellent' or 'good' assessment. RESULTS Treatment success proportions in 25 subjects (1-11 years) who experienced 546 mild or moderate BEs were 65% in the 75 μg/kg initial dose regimen (IDR) and 60% in the 225 μg/kg IDR 12 h following initial eptacog beta infusion. By 24 h, the treatment success proportions were 97% for the 75 μg/kg IDR and 98% for the 225 μg/kg IDR. No thrombotic events, allergic reactions, neutralising antibodies or treatment-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Both 75 and 225 μg/kg eptacog beta IDRs provided safe and effective treatment and control of bleeding in children <12 years of age.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron with different frequencies for renal anaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Chen T, Deng Y, Gong R
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with renal anaemia. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from their inception until 17 September 2021, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron at different frequencies. The observed efficacy indicators included transfer saturation (TSAT), serum ferritin (SF) and haemoglobin (HGB). Outcomes of interest included allergies, infections, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Of the 751 eligible studies, 7 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The RCTs showed that there were no significant differences between the low-frequency high-dose group (1-2 doses, >200 mg/dose) and the high-frequency low-dose group (4-5 doses, ≤200 mg/dose) in the increase in TSAT (WMD = 1.90; 95% CI = -2.04 to 5.84; I(2) = 0%), SF (WMD = 15.70; 95% CI = -32.20 to 70.61; I(2) = 0%) and HGB (WMD = -0.00; 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.42; I(2) = 0%). There was also no significant difference in the occurrence of outcome events, including allergies (RR = 1.84; 95% CI = 0.95 to 3.57; I(2) = 45%), infections (RR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.20-1.86; I(2) = 0%), cardiovascular events (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.67-1.15; I(2) = 48%) and all-cause mortality (RR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40-1.35; I(2) = 0%). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Frequencies of intravenous iron supplementation with similar doses share similar safety and efficacy in patients with renal anaemia. However, a single dose or two doses of intravenous iron are more cost-effective and patient friendly. These findings may provide evidence for the clinical application of intravenous iron supplementation for patients with renal anaemia.
Deferasirox versus deferoxamine in managing iron overload in patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Journal of international medical research. 2022;50(12):3000605221143290
OBJECTIVES To examine the efficacy of deferasirox (DFX) by comparison with deferoxamine (DFO) in managing iron overload in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). METHODS Online databases were systematically searched for studies published from January 2007 to July 2022 that had investigated the efficacy of DFX compared with DFO in managing iron overload in patients with SCA. RESULTS Of the 316 articles identified, three randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of liver tissue iron concentration (LIC) showed that iron overload was not significantly higher in the DFX group compared with DFO group (WMD, -1.61 mg Fe/g dw (95% CI -4.42 to 1.21). However, iron overload as measured by serum ferritin was significantly lower in DFO compared with DFX group (WMD, 278.13 µg/l (95% CI 36.69 to 519.57). Although meta-analysis was not performed on myocardial iron concentration due to incomplete data, the original report found no significant difference between DFX and DFO. CONCLUSION While limited by the number of studies included in this meta-analysis, overall, the results tend to show that DFX was as effective as DFO in managing iron overload in patients with SCA.