Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS DCLHb or saline was administered to 85 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, within 18 hours of onset of symptoms, in a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, dose-finding, controlled safety trial, consisting of 3 parts: 12 doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg DCLHb over 72 hours. RESULTS DCLHb caused a rapid rise in mean arterial blood pressure. The pressor effect was not accompanied by complications or excessive need for antihypertensive treatment. Two patients in the 100 mg/kg group had adverse events that were possibly drug related: one suffered fatal brain and pulmonary edema, the other transient renal and pancreatic insufficiency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a severe stroke at baseline and treatment with DCLHb (OR, 4.0; CI, 1.4 to 12.0) were independent predictors of a worse outcome (Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6) at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS Outcome scale scores were worse in the DCLHb group, and more serious adverse events and deaths occurred in DCLHb-treated patients than in control patients. We recommend that additional safety studies be performed, preferably with a second generation, genetically engineered hemoglobin.
Effect of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin on endothelin-1 and blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke in man
Journal of Hypertension. 1998;16((10):):1459-65.
OBJECTIVE For almost 50 years it has been known that hemolysed blood can increase blood pressure. Although preclinical studies suggest that this pressor response is due to an interaction of hemoglobin with endothelium-derived vasoactive substances, its mechanism in humans is unknown. We investigated the involvement of endothelin-1 in the blood pressure response to the oxygen carrier diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) in stroke patients. DESIGN In a randomized phase II study, increasing doses of DCLHb (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, n=8, 8 and 11, respectively) or placebo (n=26) were infused intravenously every 6 h for 72 h to patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 min and plasma concentrations of endothelin-1, catecholamines, renin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured before and 24 and 66 h after the start of the infusions. RESULTS In the placebo group, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 112 (109-115) mmHg (mean and 95% confidence interval) at baseline and decreased spontaneously by 11.4 (5.4-17.5) and 12.5 (5.4-19.5) mmHg after 24 and 66 h, respectively. This decrease in MAP was attenuated in patients treated with DCLHb, reaching statistical significance in the highest dose group. The plasma endothelin-1 concentration decreased slightly in the placebo group, from 4.2 (3.1-5.3) pg/ml (median and range) at baseline to 2.4 (1.9-3.7) pg/ml after 24 h (P=0.0044) and 2.8 (1.9-3.7) pg/ml after 66 h (P=0.0042), but increased dose-dependently in response to DCLHb infusion. With the highest dose of DCLHb, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration rose from 4.8 (0.1-7.8) pg/ml at baseline to 21.2 (13.4-53.2) pg/ml after 24 h (P< 0.001) and to 27.6 (11.9-47.8) pg/ml after 66 h (P< 0.001). The increases in the plasma endothelin-1 concentration and in MAP were correlated (r=0.30, P=0.02). Other vasoactive hormones were not affected by the DCLHb infusion. CONCLUSIONS Infusion of DCLHb in patients with acute ischemic stroke was associated with a dose-dependent increase in plasma endothelin-1 concentration. This may underlie the attenuation by DCLHb of the natural decrease in blood pressure that we observed in these patients.