Point-of-care platelet function testing for guided transfusion in neurosurgical management of intracranial hemorrhage: a systematic review
European journal of medical research. 2022;27(1):191
Given the rising prevalence of antiplatelet therapy, rapid preoperative identification of patients with bleeding diathesis is necessary for the guidance of blood product administration. This is especially relevant in neurosurgery for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), where indiscriminate transfusions may lead to further hemorrhagic or thromboembolic injury. Point-of-care (POC) testing of platelet function is a promising solution to this dilemma, as it has been proven effective in cardiac surgery. However, to date, POC platelet function testing in neurosurgery has not been extensively evaluated. This systematic review appraises the use of POC platelet function test (PFT) in emergency neurosurgery in terms of its impact on patient outcomes.A comprehensive search was conducted on four electronic databases (Pubmed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane) for relevant English language articles from their respective inceptions until 1 June 2022. We included all randomized controlled trials and cohort studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (i) involved adult patients undergoing neurosurgery for ICH; (ii) evaluated platelet function via POC PFT; (iii) reported a change in perioperative blood loss; and/or (iv) reported data on treatment-related adverse events and mortality. Assessment of study quality was conducted using the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort Studies and Case-Control Studies, and the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Series.The search yielded 2,835 studies, of which seven observational studies comprising 849 patients met the inclusion criteria for this review. Overall, there is evidence that the use of POC PFT to assess bleeding risk reduced bleeding events, thromboembolic adverse outcomes, and the length of hospitalization. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that using POC PFT improves blood product use, functional outcomes or mortality.